Picture of William Camden

William Camden

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NOW am I come to Kent, which Countrey although master William Lambard, a man right well endued with excellent learning and as godly vertues, hath so lively depainted out in a full volume, that his painfull felicitie in that kind hath left litle or nothing for others, yet according to the project of his worke which I have taken in hand, I will runne it over also: and least any man should thinke that, as the comicall Poet saith, I deale by way of close pilfering , I willingly acknowledge him (and deserve he doth no lesse); to have been the foundation and fountaine both of all (well-neere) that I shall say.

2. Time as yet hath not bereft this Region of the antient name, but as it was called Cantium; by Caesar, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Ptolomee and others, so the Saxons named it, as Ninnius witnesseth, Cant-guar-landt , that is, The countrey of the people inhabiting Cantium , and wee Kent. This name maister Lambard deriveth from caine , which among the Britains [soundeth as much as] a greene Bough , because in old time it was shadowed with woods. But if it may Bee lawfull for mee to put in my conjecture, whereas Britaine heere runneth out with a mighty nooke or corner into the East, and I have observed that such a kind of nook in Scotland is called cantir ; again, that the inhabitants of another Angle in that part of the Iland are by Ptolomee termed Cantae, as also that the Cangani in Wales were possessed of another corner (to say nothing of the Cantabri, who likewise dwelt in an angle among the Celtiberians, who as they came from one originall, so likewise they were of the same language with our Britans), I would guesse that the name was given by reason of the forme and situation, and so much the rather both for that our Frenchmen have used canton for a Corner, and that (as it is probable) from the old Language of the Gauls, for it comes not from the Germane or Latine toungue, which together with that old tongue be the mothers of this latter French tongue; and also because this Country by all the old Geographers is called angulus. For it looketh full upon France with a large Angle, compassed with the aestuarie of Tamis and with the Ocean sea, saving that Westward it hath Surrey, and southward Sussex to confine upon it.


THE region which we call Kent extendeth it selfe in length from West to East fifty miles, and from South to North 26. For situation it is not uniforme, as being more plaine toward the West and full of shady woods, but higher Eastward by reason of hils mounting up with easie ascents. The Inhabitants distinguish it as it lieth South-east-ward from Tamis, into three plots or portions, they call them steps or degrees; the upper whereof, lying upon Tamis, they say is healthfull, but not so wealthy; the middle they account both healthfull and plentifull; the lower they hold to be wealthy, but not healthy, as which for a great part thereof is verie moist, yet it bringeth forth ranke grasse in great plentie. Howbeit everie where almost it is full of meadowes, pastures, and cornfields, abounding wonderfully in apple-trees and cherrie-trees also, which being brought out of Pontus into Italie in the 608 yeere after the foundation of Rome, and in the 120 yeere after translated from thence into Britaine, prosper heere exceeding well, and take up many plots of land, the trees being planted after a direct maner one against another by square, most pleasant to behold. It hath villages and townes standing exceeding thicke and well peopled, safe rodes and sure harbours for ships, with some veines of iron and marle, but the aire is somewhat thicke and somewhere foggie, by reason of vapours arising out of the waters. At a word, the revenues of the inhabitants are greater both by the fertilitie of the soile and also by the neighbourhood of a great citie, of a great river, and the maine sea. The same commendation of civilitie and courtesie which Caesar in old time gave the inhabitants is yet of right due unto them, that I may not speake of their warlike prowesse, whereas a certaine Monke hath written how the Kentishmen so farre excelled that when our armies are readie to joyne battaile, they of all Englishmen are worthily placed in the Front, as being reputed the most valiant and resolute souldiours. Which John of Salisburie verifieth also in his Polycraticon. For good desert (saieth hee) of that notable valour which Kent shewed so puissantly and patiently against the Danes, it retaineth still unto these daies in all battailes the honour of the first and forward, aye, and of the first conflict with the enemie. In praise of whom William of Malmesbury hath likewise written thus: The country people and towne-dwellers of Kent above all other Englishmen retaine still the resent [trace] of their ancient worthinesse. And as they are more forward and readier to give honour and entertainment to others, so they be more slow to take revenge upon others.

2. Caesar (to speake briefly by way of Preface, before I come to describe the particular places) when he first attempted the conquest of our Island, arrived at this countrey; but being by the Kentish Britans kept from landing, obtained the shore not without a fierce encounter. When he made afterward his second voiage hither, here likewise hee landed his armie, and the Britans with their horsemen and wagons encountred them couragiously. But being soone by the Romanes repulsed, they withdrew themselves into the woods. After this they skirmished sharply with the Romane Cavallery in their march, yet so as the Romans had every way the upper hand. Also, within a while after they charged the Romans againe, and most resolutely brake through the mids of them, and having slaine Laberius Durus, Marshall of the field, retired safe, and the morow after set upon the Foragers and victualers of the campe, &., which I have briefly related before out of Caesars owne Commentaries . At which time, Cyngetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax were great commanders of Kent (whom he, because he would be thought to have vanquished Kings, termeth Kings, whereas indeed they were but Lords of the country, or Noble men of the better marke). After the Romane Empire was heere established, it was counted under the jurisdiction of the President of Britannia Prima. But the Sea coast which they termed littus Saxonicum , that is, The Saxon shore , like as the opposite shore unto it, from the river Rhene to Xantoigne in France, had a ruler over it from Dioclesians time, whom Marcellinus calleth tractus maritimi comitem , that is, The Count or Lieftenant of the Maritime tract , the Booke of Notices stileth him The honorable Earle or Leftenant of the Saxon shore along Britaine , whose office was with garisons set upon the shore in places convenient, to represse the depredations and robberies of Barbarians, but of Saxons especially, who grievously infested Britaine. And he was under the dispose of the Right Honorable Generall of the Footemen, whom they called praesentalis , who besides the garisons lying at the Havens, assigned unto him for the defense thereof at all assaies, victores iuniores Britannicianos, primanos iuniores , and secundanos iuniores (these are the names of certaine bands or Companies); these he had for his under officers to it, principem ex officio magistri praesentalium a parte peditum, numerarios duos, commentariensem, cornicularium, adiutorem, subadiuvam, regerendarium, exceptores singulares &. Neither doubt I but that our Ancestors imitated this custome of the Romanes, when they placed over this coast a Governour or Portreve, whom now they use to call Warden of the Cinque Ports, because as the comes or Earle of the Saxon shore aforesaid was governour of nine ports, so he is of five.

3. But when the Romanes were departed quite out of Britaine, Vortigern, who bare soveraine rule in the greatest part of Britaine, placed over Kent a guorong , that is to say, a Vice Roy or Freed man under him, and unwitting to him, he forthwith freely graunted this region, as Ninnius and William of Malmesburie write, unto Hengist the Saxon for his daughter Rowens sake, upon whom he was exceedingly enamoured. Hence it came that the first Saxon Kingdome erected in Britaine in the yeere of our Lord 456 was called by them Cant-warric , that is, The Kingdom of the Kentish men , which after three hundred and twenty yeeres, when Baldred their last King was subdued, fell to be under the Dominion of the West Saxons, to whom it continued subject untill the Norman Conquest. For then, if we may beleeve Thomas Spot the Monke (for none of the more antient Writers have recorded it), the Yeomanrie of Kent at Suanes-comb (a village this where, they say, Suene the Dane sometime pitched his campe) carrying before them in their hands every one a great greene bough representing a farre of a moving wood, yeelded themselves unto William the Conquerour upon this condition, that they might retaine their antient customes unviolated, and especially that which they called Gavelkind, that is, Give all kinne , by which they are not so bound by Copyhold, customarie tenures, or Tenant-right, as in other parts of England, but in maner every man is a free-holder and hath some part of his owne to live upon. For lands of this nature are equally divided among the male children or, if there be no sonnes, among the daughters. By vertue of this also, they are at full age and tener upon their inheritance when they come to be fifteene yeres old, and lawfull it is for them to alienate and make it over to any one, either by gift or by sale, without the Lords consent. By this likewise, the sonne, though their parents were condemned for felony or murther, succeede them neverthelesse in such kind of Lands &. which I leave to Lawyers. So that it is truly though not purely written in Latine in an old book thus: The County of Kent avoucheth that this County ought by right to be free from such kind of grievance: for it saith that this County was never conquered, as the residue of England was, but by concluding of a peace subjected themselves to the dominion of the Conquerour, retaining to themselves all their liberties, immunities, and customs which they had and used before time. After this, William the Conquerer, that hee might more finely assure to himselfe Kent, which is the very key of England, placed a Constable over Dover Castle, and according to the ancient order of the Romanes made him also Lord Warden of the Cinque ports. And these be they, Hastings, Dover, Hith, Rumney, and Sandwich, unto which Winchelsey and Rie are joined as principall ports, and other small townes as Members. Which because they are bound to serve in the warres by sea, enjoy many great immunities: as who are free from payment of Subsidies and from Wardship of their children as touching the bodie; neither are they sued in any court but within their owne townes; and of the inhabitants therein, such as they call Barons at the Coronation of Kings and Queenes support the Canapies over them, yea and have a table by themselves that day spred and furnished on the Kings right hand &. And the Lord Warden himselfe, who is alwaies one of the nobilitie of most approved trust, hath within his Jurisdiction the authority of a Chauncellour and Admirall in very many cases, and enjoieth other rights besides. But now returne we to the places.

4. The Northside of this Country Tamis, the soveraigne of all Rivers in Britaine, runneth hard by, as I have said before, ‡which having held on his course past Burrey, forthwith being with a winding reach almost retired into himselfe, doth there admit into his chanell into the first limit of this shire Ravensburn, a small water and of short course, which riseth into Keston Heath hard under the pitching of an ancient campe, strange for the height of double rampiers and depth of double ditches, of all that I have seene, doubteless the worke of many Labouring hands. Of what capacitie it was I could not discover for that the greatest part thereof is now severall and overgrowen with a thicket, but verily great it was, as may be gathered by that which is apparent. We may probably conjecture that it was a Romane Campe, but I might seeme to rove if I should thinke it that Campe which Julius Caesar pitched when the Britans gave him the last battaile with their whole forces, and them having bad successe retired themselves and gave him leave to march to the Tamis side. And yet certes Keston the name of the place seemeth to retaine a parcell of Caesars name, for so the Britans called him, and not Caesar as we doe. As for the other small intrenchment not farre of by West Wickham, it was cast in fresh memorie when old Sir Christopher Heydon, a man then of great command in these parts, trained the country people. This water, having passed by Bromeley, a mansion house of the Bishops of Rochester, when it hath gathered strength, the depth of his ford giveth name to‡ Depe-ford, a most famous Ship-docke where the Kings ships are built, and such as be decaied repaired. There is also a goodly Store-house and a Colledge (as it were) or incorporation ordained for the use of the navie. The place was sometime called West-Greenwich, and at the conquest of England fell to Gislebert Mamignot for his share, whose Grand-child Walkelin defended Dover Castle against King Stephen and left behind him one onely daughter living, who when her brother was dead, by her marriage brought a rich inheritance called the Honor of Mamignot into the familie of the Saies.

5.From hence the Tamis goeth to Green-wich, that is, the Green Creeke , for the creeke of a river in the old English tongue was called wic , a place in times past famous for the Danish Fleet that lay there often at Rode, and for the Danes crueltie shewed unto Ealpheg Archbishop of Canterbury, whom in the yeere of our Lord a thousand and twelve they cruelly executed with most exquisite torments. Whose death together with the cause thereof Ditmarus Mersepurgius, who about the same time lived, hath thus in the eight booke of his Chronicles described. I understand (saith he), by the relation of Sweald, a pitifull deede, and therefore memorable: namely, that the perfidious crew of Northman souldiours under Thurkil as yet their Captaine, tooke that excellent prelate Archbishop of the Citie of Canterburie named Ealpheg with the rest, and them after their wicked maner emprisoned and bound, yea and put him to endure famine and unspeakeable paines. This good man, mooved with humane frailty, promiseth unto them a summe of money, and for the obtaning therof did set downe a time betweene, that if in this space he could not by some acceptable ransome escape this momentary death, he might yet in the meane while purge himselfe with many a grone, to be offered as a lively sacrifice unto the Lord. But when all the time and space appointed were come and gone, this greedy gulfe [gang] of Pirats called for the servant of the Lord, and in threatning wise demands this tribute promised unto them to be speedily and out of hand paid. Then he, "As a meeke Lambe, heere am I (quoth he), ready to undergoe even for the love of Christ whatsoever yee presume now to doe against me, that I may deserve to become an example of his servants. And nothing am I troubled at this day. And whereas I seeme unto you a lier, it is not mine owne will but great neede and poverty that hath done it. This body of mine, which in this exile I have loved overmuch, I present as culpable unto you, and I know it is in your power to doe with it what yee intend. But my sinful soule that regardeth not you, I humbly commend to the Creatour of all things." As he was thus speaking, the whole rable of these prophane wretches hemmed him round about and getteth together divers and sundry weapons to kill him. Which when their leader Thurkill saw a-farre off, he came quickly running and crying, "Do not so in any wise, I beseach you. And heere with my whole heart I deliver unto you all my gold and silver and whatsoever I have here or can by any meanes come by, save my ship onely, that yee would not sinne against the Lords annointed." But this unbridled anger of his mates, harder than yron and flint, was nothing mollified with so gentle words and faire language of his, but became pacified by shedding his innocent bloud, which presently they altogether and confounded with ox-heads, stones as thicke as haile and billets hurled at him. And to the memorie of this Saint Ealpheg is the Parish Church heere consecrated. But now is this place of very great name by reason of the Kings house which Humfrey Duke of Glocester built and named Placence, which also King Henry the Seventh most sumptuously enlarged: who adjoined thereto a little house of observant Friers, and finished that towre famous in Spanish fables, which the said Duke of Glocester begun, on an high hill, from whence there is a most faire and pleasant prospect open to the river winding in and out, and almost redoubling it selfe, the greene meddowes and marshes underlying, the Citie of London, and the Countrie round about. Which being now enlarged and beautified by the Lord Henrie Howard Earle of Northampton, Lord Privie Seale &., cannot but acknowledge him a well deserving benefactor. But the greatest ornament by farre that graced this Green-wich was our late Queene Elizabeth, who heere, most happily borne to see the light by the resplendent brightnesse of her roiall vertue, enlightned all England. But as touching Green-wich, have heere these verses of Leland the Antiquarian Poet:

How glittereth now this place of great request,
Like to the seat of heavenly welkin hie,
With gallant tops, with windowes of the best!
What towres that reach even to the starry skie!
What Orchards greene, what springs ay-running by!
Faire Flora heere, that in this creeke doth dwell,
Bestowes on it the flowres of garden gay.
To judge, no doubt, of things he knew ful well,
Who gave this banke, thus pleasant every way,
So fit a name, as did the thing bewray.

6. Nothing els have I heere to note, but that (for I would not have the remembrance of well deserving benefactors to miscarrie) William Lambard, a godly good Gentleman, built an Almeshouse here for the sustentation of poore persons which hee named The Colledge of Queene Elizabeths poore people, ‡and, as the prieng adversaries of our religion then observed, was the first Protestant that built an Hospitall.‡ At the back of this, as ye turne out scarce three miles off, standeth Eltham, a retyring place likewise of the kings, but unholsomly by reason of the moote. Antony Becke Bishop of Durrham and Patriarch of Jerusalem built this in a manner new, and gave unto Queen Aelonor wife to King Edward the First, after hee had craftily conveied unto him selfe the inheritance of the Vescyes, unto whom this place before belonged. For that Bishop whom the last Baron of Vescy had made his feofie for trust [trustee] of all his inheritance to the use of William Vescy his little base sonne, dealt not so faithfully as hee should with this orphane and ward of his, but dispoiled him ‡of Alnwick castle, this, and other faire lands.‡

7. Beneath Greenwich the Tamis, having broken downe his bankes, hath by his irruption surrounded and overwhelmed many acres of land. For the inning [confinement] whereof diverse have as it were strugled with the waters now many yeares, and yet with great workes and charges cannot overmaster the violence of the tides, ‡which the Chanons of Leisnes adjoyning kept sound and sweet land in their times. This Abbay was founded in 1169 by Lord Richard Lucie chiefe Justice of England, and by him dedicated to God and the memorie of Thomas of Canterburie, whom hee so admired for his pietie, while other condemned him for pervicacie against his Prince, as hee became here a devoted Chanon to him.‡ Heere in the marshes groweth plentifully the herb cochlearia , called by our Countrie men Scurvi-grasse, which some Physicians would have to bee the same which Plinie calleth Britannica , by which name I have already made mention thereof. But heare what Plinie saith. In Germanie, when as Germanicus Caesar had remooved his campe forward beyond Rhene, in the maritime tract there was one fountaine and no more of fresh water, whereof it a man dranke, within two yeares his teeth would fall out of his head and the joynts in his knees become loose and feeble. Those diseases the Physicians tearmed stomacace and sceleretyrbe. For remedie hereof there was found an herbe called Britannica, holsome not onely for the sinewes and maladies of the mouth, but also against the Squincie and stinging of serpents &. They of Frisia, what way our camp lay, shewed it unto our souldiours. And I mervaile what should be the cause of that name, unlesse peradventure they that confine upon the Ocean dedicated the name thereof to Britaine, as lying so nere unto it. But that most learned Hadrian Junius in his booke named Nomenclator bringeth another reason of the name, whom you may have recourse unto if you please. For this word Britannica hath here diverted me a-side from my course.

8. From thence the Tamis, beeing conteined within his bankes, meeteth with the river Darent, which falling downe out of Suthrey runneth with a soft streame not farre from Seven-oke (so called, as men say, of seaven exceeding great Okes now cut down), ‡which commendeth Sir William Sevenok an Alderman of London, who beeing a foundling and brought up here, and therefore so named, built here in gratefull remembrance an Hospitall and a School. On the East side of it standeth Knoll, so called for that it is seated upon an hill, which Thomas Bourchier Archbishop of Canturburie purchasing of Sir William Fienes, Lord Say and Zeale, adorned with a fare house, and now lately Thomas Earle of Dorset Lord Treasurer hath fourbished and beautified the old worke with new chargeable additaments.‡ Darent then passeth by Ottanford , now Otford, a place famous in former ages for an overthrow and slaughter of the Danes which happened there in the yeare 1016, and lately by reason of the Kings House, which William Warrham Archbishop of Canturburie built for himselfe and his successours so sumptuouslie that for to avoid envie, Cranmer, who next succeeded him, was constreined to exchange it with King Henrie the Eighth. Somewhat lower, hard by Darent, standeth Lullingston, where there was sometime a Castle, ‡the seat of a family of the same name, but now of Sir Percival Harte, descended from of the coheires of the Lord Bray. Then Darent giveth name unto Darentford, commonly Dortford, a great mercat towne well frequented and well watered, where King Edward the Third built a nunnery which King Henrie the Eighth converted into a house for himselfe and his successours.‡ Here the riverlet Crey, anciently called Crecan , intermingleth it selfe with Darent, ‡ when in his short course he hath imparted his name to five townlets which hee watereth,as Saint Marie Crey, Pauls Crey, Votes-Crey, North Crey,‡ and Crey-ford in former ages Crecanford, where Hengest the Saxon, the eighth yeare after his arrivall, joyned battaile with the Britans, and after hee had slaine their captaines brought them under with so great a slaughter that afterwards hee never stood in feare of them, but established his kingdome quietly in Kent.

9. From the river Darent or Dart unto the mouth of Medweg, the Tamis seeth nothing above him but little townes pleasantly seated, which to pass over in silence were no prejudice either of their fame or anything els. ‡Yet among them is Swans-combe (of which I have heretofore spoken), of honorable memorie among the Kentish men for obteining their the continuance of their auncient franchises, afterward it was well knowne by the Montcheusies, men of great Nobility, the owners thereof who had there Barony here-about. And by it Graves-end, so called (as Maister Lambert is my authour) as the Gereves-end, that is, the limit of the Gereve or Reve.‡ A towne as well knowne as any other in England for the usuall passage by water betweene it and London, ‡since the Abbat of Grace by the tower of London, to which it appertained, obtained of King Richard the Second that the inhabitants of it and Milton onely should transport passengers from thence to London. King Henrie the Eighth when he fortified the sea coast, raised two Platformes or Block-houses here, and two other opposite on Essex side. Beyond Graves-end is Shornheld, held anciently by Sir Roger Northwood by service to carry with other the kings tennants a white ensigne fortie daies at his owne charges when the king warred in Scotland.‡ Somewhat more within the land lieth Cobham, the habitation for a long time of the Barons of Cobham, of whom John Cobham, the last of that name, founded a Colledge here and a castle at Cowling: who left one onely daughter wife to Sir John de la Pole, Knight. shee likewise bare but one daughter, though married in her time to many husbands. But by Sir Reginald Braibrooke onely had shee issue. As for her husband Sir John Old Castle, whiles hee endevoured to bring in innovation in religion, was both hanged and burnt. Joane, her onely daughter by Sir Reginald Braybrooke, was wedded unto Thomas Broke of Somersetshire, from whom six Lord Cobhams have lineally descended, and flourished in honorable reputation untill our time.

10. From Graves-end a little country called Ho, lying as a demy Island between the rivers Tamis and Medway, stretcheth it selfe into the East, and is for situation but unholsome. At the entry hereof is ‡Cowling Castle, built by John Lord Cobham in a moorish ground, and ‡Cliffe, a good bigge towne so called of a cliffe upon which it standeth. But whether it bee that Clives at Ho, so famous in the tender age and infancie of our English church by reason of a Synode there holden, I dare not, as others doe, affirme, considering that in regard of the site it is a place inconvenient for such an assemble; and besides, that Clives at Hoo seemeth to have beene within the Kingdome of the Mercians. As for the river Medweg, now called Medway, and in the British tongue (unlesse I misse of the truth) Vaga , whereunto afterward was added Med , hath his spring head in the wood Anderida, which is tearmed the Weald, that is, a Woodland county, and taketh up the South-part of this region farre and wide. At first, whiles it carrieth but a slender streame it receiveth the Eden by Penshurst, ‡the seat anciently (as it seemeth by the name) of Sir Stephen de Penherst, who also was called de Penchester, a famous Warden of the Cinque ports, but now‡ the house of the Sidneies, who derive their race from William de Sidney Chamberlaine to King Henry the Second, out of which came Sir Henrie Sidney that renowned Lord Deputy of Ireland, who of the daughter of John Dudley Duke of Northumberland and Earle of Warwick, begat Philip and Robert. This Robert James our soveraigne King made right honorable, first by the title of Baron Sidney of Penshurst, and afterwards of Vicount Lisle. But Sir Philip, whom I cannot passe over in silence, beeing the glorious starre of this familie, a lively paterne of vertue, and the lovely joy of all the learned sort, fighting valerouslie with the enemy before Zutphen in Gelderland died manfully. This is that Sidney whom, as Gods will was he should be therefore borne into the world, even to shew unto our age a sample of ancient vertues, so His good pleasure was, before any man looked for it, to call for him againe and take him out of the world, as beeing more worthy of heaven than earth. Thus wee may see Perfect vertue so sodainly vanisheth out of sight, and the best men continue not long. May you rest peacefully, Sidney (if I may address you), we shall adorn you with our admiration rather than our tears. As the best of writers said about that most excellent ruler of Britain, we loved in you, whatever we admired, endures and forever will endure in the minds of men and in history. Oblivion has overwhelmed many inglorious and ignoble men, but Sidney will survive to be told of to our posterities, For, as that Greek sang, virtues are stronger than fate.

11. Then the river Medway, ‡branching it selfe into five streamlets, is joyned with as many stone bridges, and thereof giveth the name of Tunbridge to the towne there situat, as the towne of Bridges. This about King William Rufus his time Richard sonne of Count Gilbert, Grandchild to Godfrey,‡ Earle of Ewe and Lord of Briony, obtained in requitall for Briony in Normandie, when there had bin long debate about Briony. This Richard (as William Gemeticensis writeth) in recompence for the same castle received in England the towne of Tunbridge for it. And the report goeth that the Lowy [a liberty extending about a league outside a town] of Briony was measured round about with a line, and with the same line brought into England he received so much ground measured out at Tunbridge. ‡Shortly after he built here a faire large castle fensed with the river, a deepe ditch and strong walles, and albeit it is now ruinous and the Keepe attired with Ivie, yet it manifestly sheweth what it was. His posteritie, who were Earles of Glocester and surnamed De Clare (for that they were Lords of Clare in Suffolke) built here a priorie for Chanons of Saint Augustines order, founded the parish Church which was impropriated to the Knights of Saint John of Hierusalem, and compounded about the tenure of the Mannour, for which there had beene long suit, to hold it of the Archbishop of Canterburie by Knights fee, and to be their high Stewards at their enthronisations. From these Clares Earles of Glocester it came by an heire generall to Sir Hugh Audley Earle of Glocester, and by his onely daughter to the Earles of Stafford who were afterwards Dukes of Buckingham, and from them by attainder to the Crowne. It hath in latter ages been beholden to Sir Andrew Jude of London for a faire free-Schoole, and to John Wildford for a causey toward London. Three miles directly South from hence in the very limit of Sussex and nere Frant, I saw in a white-sandy ground divers vastie, craggie stones of strange formes, whereof two of the greatest stand so close together, and yet severed with so straight a line, as you would think they had been sawed asunder, and Nature when she reared these might seeme sportingly to have though of a Sea. But to returne to the River. From Tunbridge, Medway passeth by Haudelo, from whence came that John Haudelo, who happily marrying the heire of the Lord Burnell, had issue by her a sonne, who was called Nicholas, summoned to Parliament among the Barons by the name of Burnell. Then Medway, increased by another water called Twist, which twisteth about and insulateth a large plot of good ground,‡ runneth on not farre from Mereworth, where stands a faire Castle-like house, which from the Earls of Arundell came unto the Nevils Lords of Abergevennie and Le Despencer, whose heire in the right line is Marie Ladie Fane, unto whom and her heires King James in the first Parlament that he held, restored, gave and granted &. the name, stile, title, honour,and dignitie of Baronesse le Despencer, and that her heires successively should be Barons Lord Despencer for ever. Now by this time Medway, ‡having received a riveret that looseth it selfe under ground and riseth againe at Loose, serving thirteene fulling-miles,‡ hasteneth to Maidstone, which seeing the Saxons called it Medwegston and Medweageston , I beleeve verily it is the same Vagnicace which Antonine the Emperour mentioneth and Ninnius in his Catalogue of cities calleth corruptly Caer Megwad for Medwag. Neither verily doth the account of distance disagree, from Noviomagus one way and Durobrovis another, whereof I shall treat anone. Under the latter Emperours, as is to be seene in Peutegerius his table lately set out by M. Velserus, it is named Madus. Thus as yeeres by little and little turne about, so names likewise by little and little become changed. A large faire and sweet towne this is, and populous. For the faire stone bridge it hath been beholding to the Archbishops of Canterbury. ‡Among whom, to grace this place at the confluence of waters, Boniface of Savoy built a small College, John Ufford raised a palace for himselfe and his successors, which Simon Islip encreased, and between them, which it standeth in plight, William Courtney erected a faire Collegiat Church in which he, so great a Prelate and so high-borne, lieth lowly entombed.‡ One of the two common Gaoles or prisons of the whole County is here appointed. And it hath been endowed with sundrie priviledges by King Edward the Sixt, incorporated by the name of Major and jurates, all which in short time they lost by favouring rebels But Queene Elizabeth amply restored them and their Major, whereas anciently they had a l' ortreve for their head Magistrate. This I note because this greve is an antient Saxon word, and as yet among the Germans signifieth a Ruler, as Markgrave, Reingrave, Lantgrave, &.

12. Here a little beneath Maidstone Eastward, a prety riveret joineth with Medway, springing forth at Leneham: which towne by probable conjecture is the verie same that Antonine the Emperor calleth Durilenum, written amisse in some copies Durolevum. For Durolenum in the British language is as much to say The water Lenum. And besides the remaines of the name, the distance also from Durovenum and Durobrovis proveth this to be Durolenum, to say nothing of the situation therof, nere unto that high rode way of the Romans which in old time (as Higden of Chester doth write) led from Dover through the mids of Kent.

Hard by at Bocton Malherb hath dwelt a long time the family of the Wottons, out of which in our remembrance flourished both Nicolas Wotton, Doctor of the lawes, who being of the privy counsell to King Henry the Eight, King Edward the sixth, Queene Marie and Queene Elizabeth, sent in embassage nine times to forrain Princes, and thrice chosen a Committee [commissioner] about peace between the English, French, and Scotish, lived a goodly time, and ran a long race in this life with great commendation of piety and wisdome; and also Sir Edward Wotton, whom for his approved wisdome in waightie affaires Queene Elizabeth made Controller of her house and King James created Baron Wotton of Merlay. ‡Hereunder is Ulcomb, anciently a mansion of the family De Sancto Leodegario, corruptly called Sentleger and Sellenger, and Motinden, where Sir Richard Rockesly decended from Kriol and Crevecur built a house, who held lands at Seaton by serjeantie to be vantrarius regis , when the King goeth into Gascoin, donec perusus fuerit pari soluturum pretii 4 d. , which as they that understand Law Latin (for I do not) translate that he should be the Kings fore-foot-man until he had worne out a paire of shooes prized 4 d.‡

13. Neither hath this river any other memorable thing nere too but Leeds Castle, built by the noble Crevequers, who in ancient charters are name De Crevequer and De Crepito Corde. Afterwards it was the unfortunat seat of Bartholomew Lord Badilsmer, who perfidiously fortified it against King Edward the Second, who had freely given it him, and after that payed the due price of his disloialtie upon the gallowes. The whole matter you may read here if you list out of a briefe historie penned by Thomas de la More, a gentle man that lived at the same time, and which of late I did but publish in print. In the yeere 1321 Queene Isabel came to the Castle of Leeds, about the feast of Saint Michael, minding there to lodge all night, but was not permitted to enter in. the King, offended hereat as taking it to be done in contempt of him, called certaine of the neighbor inhabitants out of Essex and London, and commanded them to lay siege unto the Castle, Now, there held the Castle at that time Bartholomew de Badilsmere, who having left therein his wife and sonnes, was gone himselfe with the rest of the Barons to overthrow the Hughs de Spencer Meane while, when they that were enclosed within despaired of their lives, the Barons with their associats came as far as Kingston, and by the mediation of the Bishops of Canterburie and London, together with the Earle of Pembroch, requested that the King would remove his siege, promising to deliver up the Castle into the Kings hand after the next Parliament. But the King, considering well that the besieged could not long hold out nor make resistance, being highly displeased and angred at their contumacy, would not give eare to the Barons petitions. And when they had turned their journey another way, hee afterward forced the Castle with no small trouble and labour about it, and when he had hanged all the rest that he found therein, he sent the wife and sons of Bartholemew aforesaid to the Tower of London.

14. Thus Medway, having received this riveret from Leeds, fetching about through good grounds runneth by Allington, sometime a castle, now lesse than a castellet, where Sir Thomas Wiat the elder, a worthy learned knight, reedified a fair house ‡now decaied whose son Sir Thomas, enriched by an heire of Sir Thomas Haut, proposing to himself great hopes upon fair pretenses, pitifully overthrew himself and his state.‡ Hence commeth Medway to Ailsford, in the old English Saxon Eayelesford , which Henry of Huntington calleth Elstre, Ninnuis Episford; who hat written that it was named in the British tongue Sasseneag habail of the Saxons there vanquished, like as others in the verie same sense termed it Anglesford. For Gortimere the Britan, Guiortigerns sonne, did heere set upon Hingist and the English Saxons, whom being disraied [thrown into disarray] and not able to abide a second charge, he put all to flight, so as, they had been utterly defaited and not able to abide a second charge, he put all to flight, so as they had beene utterly defaited for ever but that Hingist, skill-full and provident to prevent and divert danger, withdrew him selfe into the Isle of Tenet until that invincible vigour and heat of the Britans was allied, and fresh supplies came to his succour out of Germanie. In this battaile were slaine the generalls of both sides, Catigern the Britane and Horsa the Saxon, of whom the one, buried at Horsted not farre from hence, gave name to the place, and Catigern honored with a stately and solemne funerall, is thought to have been enterred neere unto Ailesford, where under the side of a hill I saw foure huge, rude, hard stones erected, two for the sides, one transversall in the midest betweene them, and the hugest of all piled and laid over them in manner of the British monument which is called Stone-heng, ‡but not so artificially with mortis and tenents.‡ Verily the unskillfull common people terme it as this day of the same Catigern, Keiths or Kits Coty House. ‡In Ailesford it selfe, for the religious house of the Carmelites founded by Richard Lord Grey of Codnor in the time of King Henrie the Third, is now seene a faire habitation of Sir William Siddey, a learned knight, painefully and expensfully studious of the common good of his countrie as both his endowed house for the poore and the bridge heere with the common voice doe plentifully testifie.‡ Neither is Boxley neere adjoyning to bee passed over in silence, where William de Ipres in Flaunders, Earle of Kent, founded an Abbay in the yeare of our Lord 1145 and translated thither the Monkes from Clarevalle in Burgundie. ‡Medway, having wound himselfe higher, from the East receiveth a brooke springing near Wrotham or Wirtham, so named for plentie of wortes, where the Archbishops had a place until Simon Isley pulled it towne, leaving Malling, which grew to bee a towne after Gundulph Bishop of Rochester had there founded an Abbay of Nunnes, and watereth Leibourn, which hath a Castle sometime the seate of a family thereof surnamed, out of which Sir Roger Leibourn was a great agent in the Barons warres, and William was a Parlamentary Baron in the time of King Edward the First.?? Neare neighbour to Leiburne is Birling, now the habitation of the Lord Abergeveny, in times past parcell of the Baronie of and from the Maminots, then of the Saies, whose inheritance at length by heires generall came to the families of Clinton, Fienes, and Aulton.

15. Upon the banke of Medway Eastward somewhat higher, after it hath passed by Halling, where Hamo Heath Bishop of Rochester built an house for his successors, there standeth an ancient Citie, which Antonine calleth Duri-brus, Duro-brivae and in another place more truely Duro-Provae and Duro-Brovae, Bede Duro-Brevis, and in the declining state of the Romane Empire processe of time contracted his name so that it came to be named Roibis , and so by a addition of ceaster , which comming of the Latin word castrum , betokend among our ancestors a city or Castle, was called Hroueceaster , and now with us more shortly Rochester, and in Latin Roffa of one Rhuffus, as Bede guesseth; but it seemeth unto mee to retaine in it somewhat still of that old name Durobrevis. Neither is there cause why any man should doubt the name, seeing that by the account of journies or distance between places and Bedes authority, it is named expresly in the Charter of the foundation of the Cathedral church there Durobrovis, yet thus much I would advertise the reader, that in the printed bookes of Bede it is red Davervum , whereas in the manuscript copies it is termed Durobrovis. Seated it is in a botome, fortified on the one side with a marsh, the river, and weake walles, and as William of Malmesburie saith, pent within too streight a rowme . Whereupon in time past it was counted a Castle rather than a Citie. for Bede calleth it Castellum Cantuariorum , that is, the Kentishmens Castle. but now it stretcheth forth with large suburbs on the West, East, and South sides. It hath passed through no few dangers and mischances. In the yeere of Christ 676 it was overthrowen and laid along by King Aetheldred the Mercian, and many a time afterward sacked by the Danes. Athelbert King of Kent erected there a sumpteous Church, which also he made more famous with the dignitie of a Bishopricke, ordaining Justus to be the first Bishop of that See. But when it fell to decay for every age, Bishop Gundulph a Norman about the yeere 1080 reedified it, and thrusting out the Priests, brought in Monkes in their rowme, and when they were cast out, a Deane, six Prebendaries, and Scholars were substituted in their places. Neere unto the Church there standeth over the river an old Castle fortified both by art and situation, which, as the report goeth, Odo Bishop of Bayeux and Earle of Kent built. But it was, no doubt, King William the first that built it. For in Domesday Booke we read thus, The Bishop of Rovecester holdeth in Elesford, for exchange of the land on which the Castle is seated. Yet certaine it is that Bishop Odo, when his hope depended of a doubtfull change of the state, held this against King William Rufus. ‡At which time there passed proclamation through England that whosoever would not be reputed a niding [nonentity] should repaire to recover Rochester Castle. Whereupon the youth, fearing that name as most reprochfull and opprobrious in that age, swarmed thither in such numbers that‡ Odo was enforced to yeeld the place, lose his dignitie, and abjure the realme. But concerning the reedification of this Castle about his time, listen what the Text of Rochester saith: When King William the Second would not confirme the gift of Lanfranck as touching the Manner of Hedenham in the County of Buckingham, made unto Rochester church, unlesse Lanfranck and Guldolph Bishop of Rochester would give unto the king an hundred pound of deniers, at last by the intercession of Sir Robert Fitz Hamon and Henrie Earle of Warwick, the king granted it thus farre forth in lieu of the money which hee demaunded for grant of the Manour, that Bishop Gundulph, because he was verie skilful and well experienced in architecture and masonrie, should build for the king at his own proper charges a Castle of stone. In the end, whenas the Bishops were hardly brought to give their consent unto it before the king, Bishop Gundulph built up the Castle full and whole at his owne cost. And a little after, King Henrie the First granted unto the Church of Canterbury and to the Archbishops the keeping thereof, and the Constableship to hold ever after (as Florentius of Worcester saith), yea and licence withall to build in the same a towre for themselves. Since which time it was belaied with one or two great sieges, but then especially when the Barons with their Alarmes made all England to shake, and Simon Montfort Earle of Leicester assaulted it most fiercely, though in vaine, and cut downe the wooden bridge which was after repaired. But in the time of King Richard the Second, Sir Robert Knowles by warlike prowes raised from low estate to high reputation and great riches, built a verie goodly stone bridge of arch-worke with money levied out of French spoiles.‡ At the end of the said bridge, Sir John Cobham, who much furthered the worke, erected a chapell (for our elders built no notable bridge without a chappel), upon which besides of armes of Saints are seene the armes of the King and his three uncles then living. And long after Archbishop Warham coped a great of the said bridge with iron bars.‡ Under this, Medway, swelling with a violent and swift streame, strugleth and breaketh through roaring and loud, but forthwith running more still and calm becommeth a road at Gillingham and Chetham for a most roiall and warlike navie of strong and serviceable ships, and the same most readie alwaies at a short warning: which our late gracious Ladie Queene Elizabeth with exceeding great cost built for the safegard of her subjects and terror of her enemies, and for the defense thereof raised a castelet at Upnore upon the river side.

16. Now Medway, growne more full and carrying a greater bredth, with his curling waves right goodly and pleasant to behold, runneth along by the fruitfull fields, untill that being divided by meeting with the Iland Shepey (which we supposed to be Ptolemeis Toliatis), maketh his issue into the Aestuarie or Frith of Tamis at two mouths. Of which twaine, the Westerne is called West-Swale; the Easterne, that seemeth to have severed Sheppeie from the firme land, is named East Swale, but by Bede termed Geulad and Teulet. This Isle, of the sheepe whereof it feedeth mighty great flockes, being called by our ancestours Shepey, that is, The Isle of Sheep , passing plentifull in corne but scarse of woods, containeth twentie one miles in compasse. Upon the North shore it had a little Monasterie (now they call it Minster) built by Sexburga wife of Ercombert the King of Kent in the yeere 710. Under which a certaine Brabander of late beganne to trie by the furnace out of stones found upon the shore, both Brimstone and Coperas. It hath Westward in the Front thereof a very fine and strong Castle which King Edward the Third built, as himselfe writeth, Pleasant for site, to the terrour of his enemies and solace of his people , unto which he adjoined a Burgh, and in the Honor of Philip the Queene his wife called it Queene-borough, as one would say, The Queens Burgh. The Constable whereof at this day is Sir Edward Hoby, who hath polished his excellent wit with learned studies. Eastward is Shurland seated, which belonged in late times to the Cheineies, and now to Sir Philip, second sonne to Henrie Earle of Pembroch, whom King James in one and the same day created Baron Herbert of Shurland and Earle of Mont-Gomerie.

17. This Isle appertaineth to the Hundred of Middleton, so named of Middleton the towne, now Milton. This was some time a towne of the Kings aboade, and of greater name by farre than at this day, although Hasting the Danish pirate for to annoy it fortified a Castle hard by in the yeere 893. Neere adjoining heereto Sittingburn, a towne furnished with Innes, sheweth it selfe with his new Major and corporation; the remaines also of Tong Castle, ‡which, as some write, as so called for that Hengist built it by a measure of thongs cut out of a beasts hide when Vuortigern gave him so much land to fortifie upon as he could incompasse with a beasts hide cut into thongs.‡ Since the conquest it was the seat of Guncelline of Baldismer, of noble parentage, whose sonne Bartholomew begat Guncelline, and he by the Inheretrie of Raulph Fitz-Barnard Lord of Kings-Downe was father to that seditious Sir Bartholomew Lord Baldismer of whom I spake. He againe of Margaret Clare begat Sir Giles Lord Baldismer that died without issue; also Margerie, wife to William Roos of Hamlake; Mawde the wife of John Vere Earle of Oxford; Elizabeth espoused to William Bohun Earle of Northhamption, and afterward to Edmund Mortimer; and Margaret, whom Sir John Tiptoft wedded, from whom descended a goodly offspring and faire race of great nobilitie.

18. ‡Then saw I Tenham, not commended for health, but the parent as it were of all the choise fruit gardens and Orchards of Kent, and the most large and delightsome of them all, planted in the time of King Henrie the Eight by Richard Harris his fruterer, to the publique good. For thirty Parishes thereabout are replenished with Cherie-gardens and Orchards beautifully disposed in direct lines.‡ Among these is Feversham very commodiously situate. For the most plentifull part of this country lieth round about it, and it hath a creeke fit for bringing in and carrying forth commodities, whereby at this day it flourisheth amongst all the neighbour townes. It seemeth also in former times to have flourished, considering that King Aethelstane assembled hether an assembly of the Sages of his Kingdome and made lawes heere in the yeere of our redemption 903. King Stephen also, he that usurped the Kingdome of England, founded an Abbay here for the Monkes of Clugny, in which himselfe, Mawde is wife, and Eustach his sonne were entombed. Nigh thereto, like as elsewhere through this Countie, are found pits of great deapth, which being narrow in the mouth and very spatious beneath, have their certaine distinct rowmes or chambers (as it were) with their severall supporting pillers of chalke. Concerning these there are divers opinions. I for my part cannot tell what to thinke of them, unlesse they were those pits out of which the Britans in old time digged forth chalke or white marle to dung their grounds withall, as Plinie writeth. For they sound pits , saith he, an hundred foote deepe, streight at the mouth but of great capacity within , like unto these very same of which we now speake. And verily nowhere else are they found but in a chalkie and marly soile. Unlesse a man would thinke that our English-Saxons digged such caves and holes to the same use and purpose as the Germans did, of whom they were descended. For they were wont , as Tacitus writeth, to make holes and caves under the ground, and those to charge aloft with great heapes of dung as harbours of refuge for Winter and garners of receit for corne, because by such like places they mitigate the rigour of cold wether; and if at any time the enemy commeth, he wasteth onely the open ground, but as for those that lie hidden and buried under the earth, they are either unknowen, or in this respect doe disapoint the enimies, for that they are to be sought for.

19. From above Feversham the shoare runneth on, plentifull of shel-fish, but especially oisters (whereof there are many pits or stewes) as far as Reculver and farther. This Reculver is a place of ancient memory, named in the old English-Saxon Reaculf , but in elder times Regulbium. For so it is named in the Romane Office booke Notitia Provinciarum , which recordeth that the captain of the primier band of the Vetasians laie heere in garrison under the Lieutenant of the Saxon shore (for so was the sea coast a-long this tract called) who had the command then of nine Ports, as the Lord Warden now hath of five Ports. And verily the Romane Emperours coines digged up there give testimony to this antiquity of the place. In it Aethelbert King of Kent, when he had made a grant of Canterbury to Augustine the Monke, built himselfe a Palace, and Bassa an English-Saxon beautified it with a Monastery, out of which Brightwald the Eighth Archbishop of Canterbury was elected. Of this Monastery or Minster it was named Raculf-Minster, what time as Edred brother to King Edward the Elder gave it to Christ-church in Canterbury. Howbeit, at this day it is nothing else but an uplandish country towne, and if be of any name, it hath it for the salt savory Oisters there dredged, and for that Minster, the steeples whereof shooting up their lofty spires stand the Mariners in good stead as markes whereby they avoid certaine sands and shelves in the mouth of the Tamis. For, as he versifieth in his Philippeis ,

It now beholds swann-breading Tamis, where he doth mix his streame
With brackish sea -

20. Now are we come to the Isle Tanet, which the river Stour, by Bede named Wantsum, severeth from the firme land by a small channell running betweene, which river made of two divers riverlets in the woodland country called the Weald, so soone as it goeth in one entire streame, visiteth Ashford and Wye, two prety Mercat towns well knowen. Either of them had sometimes their severall Colledges of Priests, the one built by John Kemp Archbishop of Canterbury, who was there borne, the other to wit of Ashbord, by Sir Richard Fogge, Knight. Wye also had a speciall fountaine, into which God infused a wonderfull gift and vertue at the instant praier of Eustace a Norman Abbot, if we may beleeve Roger of Hoveden, ‡whom I would advise you to have recourse unto if you take delight in such like miracles. As how the blinde by drinking thereof recovered sight, the dumb their speech, the deafe their hearing, the lame their limmes. And how a woman possessed with the devill, sipping thereof, vomited two toades which immediately were first transformed into huge blacke dogs, and againe into asses , and much more no lesse strange than ridiculous, which some in that age as easily believed as others falsly forged.‡ Thence the Stour, ‡leaving East-well, the inhabitation of the family of the Finches, worshipfull of it selfe, and by descent from Philip Belknap and Peoplesham,‡ goeth on to Chilham, or as others call it, Julham, where are the ruines of an old Castle which one Fulbert of Dover is reported to have built, whose issue male soone failed and ended in a daughter inheritrice, namely Lora the wife of Wiliam Marmion, and Isabell wife first to David of Strathbolgy Earle of Athole in Scotland, afterward to Sir Alexander Baliol, who was called to Parliament by the name of Lord of Chilham, and mother to that John Earle of Athole who, being condemned oftentimes for treason, was hanged at the last upon a gibbet fifty foot high (as the King commanded because he might be so much the more conspicuous in mens eies, as he was of higher and nobler birth), and being cut downe halfe alive, had his head smitten off and the truncke of his body throwen into the fire, a very cruell kinde of punishment and seldome seene among us. And after his goods were confiscat, King Edward the first bounteously bestowed this castle together with Felebergh Hundred upon Sir Bartholomew Badilsmer, who likewise quickly lost the same for his treason, as I have before related.

21. There is a constant report among the inhabitants that Julius Caesar in his second voiage against the Britans encamped at this Chilham, and that thereof it was called Julham, that is, Julius his Mansion , and if I be not deceived, they have the truth on their side. For heere about it was when at this second remove he in his marche staied upon the intelligence that his ships were sore weather-beaten, and thereupon returned and left his army encamped tenne daies while he rigged and repaired the decaies of his Navy. And in his march from hence was encountered sharply by the Britans, and lost with many other Laberius Durus a Marshall of the field. A little beneath this towne there is a prety hillocke to be seene, apparelled in a fresh suit of greenesord, where men say many yeeres ago one Jullaber was enterred, whom some dreame to have beene a Giant, others a Witch. But I, conceiving an opinion that some antiquity lieth hidden under that name, doe almost perswade myselfe that the forsaid Laberius was heere buried, and that the said hillocke became named Jul-laber.

22. Five miles from hence the river Stoure dividing his Channell runneth swiftly by Durovernum, the chiefe Cittie of this Countie, and giveth his name. For Durwhern in the British tongue signifieth a swift river. Ptolome calleth in steed of Durovernum, Darvenum, Bede and others Dorobernia, the English Saxons Cant-wara-burig , that is The Kentishmens cittie , Ninnius and the Britains Caer Kent , that is, the Cittie of Kent , wee Canterbury, and the later writers in Latine Cantuaria . A right antient citie this is, and famous, no doubt, in the Roman time, not over great (as William of Malmesbury said 400 yeares since) nor verie small; much renowned both for the situation and exceeding fertility of the soile adjoining, as also for the walles whole and undecaied enclosing it round about, by reason likewise of the rivers watering it and commodiousnesse of woods there about; besides the vicinity of the sea, yeelding store of fish to serve it. Whiles the Saxons Heptarchie flourished, it was the head cittie of the kingdom of Kent and the kings seat, untill such time as King Ethelbert passed a grant of it together with the roialty thereof unto Augustine the Apostle, as they called him, and consecrated Archbishop of the English Nation , who established heere his habitation for himselfe and his successours. And albeit the Metropolitan dignity, together with the honour of the Pall (that is an Episcopall vestiment that was comming over the shoulders, made of a sheepe skin, in memoriall of Him that sought the stray sheepe,and having found the same laied it upon his shoulders, wrought and embrodered with crosses, first laied upon Saint Peters coffin or shrine), was ordeined by Saint Gregorie the Great, then Pope, to bee at London, yet for the honour of Augustine it was translated hither. For Kenulph King of the Mercians thus writeth unto Pope Leo: Because Augustine of blessed Memorie, the minister of Gods Word unto the English Nation, and who most gloriously governed the Churches of English Saxonie, departed this life in the Cittie of Canterburie, and his bodie was there buried in the Minster of Saint Peter Prince of the Apostle, the which Laurence his successour consecrated, it hath pleased all the wise men of our nation that the Meropolitane honour should be conferred upon that Citie where his bodie was entombed, who engraffed [grafted] in these parts the veritie of Christian faith. But whether the Archbishops See and Metropolitan dignity were here ordeined by authority of the wise men of our nation (that is to say, the States of the Parliament, to speake according to our time) or by Augustine him selfe whiles hee lived, as others would have it, the Bishops of Rome who next followed established the same so, as they decreed That to have it severed and taken away from thence was an abominable act punishable with Curse and hell-fire. Since which time, it is incredible how much it hath flourished, in regard both of the Archiepiscopal dignity and also of that schoole of the better kind of literature which Theodore the seaventh Archbishop erected there. And albeit it was sore shaken with the Danish warrs, and consumed for a great part thereof sundrie times by casualtie of fire, yet rose it up alwaies againe more beautifull and glorious then before.

23. After the Normans entrie into this land when King William Rufus, as it was recorded in the Register of Saint Augustines Abbay, had given the City of Canterbury whole in fee simple unto the Bishops, which before them they had held at the Kings courtesey onelie , it begun not onelie to get heart againe, what through the fame of the religious pietie of godly men there, and what through the bounty of the Bishops, and especially of Simon Sudbury, who rebuilt up the walls new, but grew also as it were upon a sodaine to such a state that for beauty of private dwelling houses it equalled all the cities of Britaine, but for the magnificent and sumpteous building of religious palaces and the number of them it surpassed even those that were most famous. Among which, two especially surmounted all, Christ-church and Saint Augustines, both of them replenished with monkes of the order of Saint Benet. And as for Christ-church, it raised it selfe aloft neare the heart of the Citie, with so great a majestie and statelinesse that it striketh a sensible impression of religion into their mindes that behold it a farre off. This church, built in old time, as Bede saith, by the pious and beleeving Romanes , the same Augustine of whom I spake got into his hands, consecrated it to Christ, and assigned it to bee the seat for his successors, where 73 Archbishops in a continued traine of succession have now set. Of whom Lanfranck and William Corboy brought the upper part of the Church, and they that succeeded the nethermore (whereas that the more antient worke had beene consumed with fire) to that statelinesse which now we see, not without exceeding great charges, which a devout perswasion in former times willingly disbursed. For a number of high, of low, and of meane degree flocked hither in pilgrimage with very great and rich oblations to visit the tombe of Thomas Becket the Archbishop, who being slaine in this Church by Courtiers, for that in maintaining of the Ecclesiasticall liberties he had stubburnly opposed himselfe against the King, was matriculated a holy Martire by the Bishop of Rome and worshiped as a Saint, and his shrine so looden with great offrings that the meanest part of it was pure gold, So bright, so shining and glittering , as Erasmus (who saw it) saith, was every corner, with rare and exceeding big pretious stons, yea and the Church all round about did abound with more than Princelike riches , and as though Christs name to whom it was dedicated had beene quite forgotten, it came to be called Saint Thomas Church. Neither was it for anything else so famous as for his memoriall and sepulture, although it may justly vaunt of many famous mens tombs and monuments, especially that of Edward surnamed The Blacke Prince of Wales, a most worthy and renowned Knight for warlicke prowesse and the very wonder of his age; also of Henrie the Fourth, a most puissant King of England. But Henrie the Eight scattered this welth heaped up together in so many ages, and dispersed those Monkes, in lieu of whom were placed in this Christs-Church a Dean, an Archdeacon, Praebendaries twelve, and Six Preachers who in places adjoining round about should teach and preach the Word of God. The other Church that alwaies mightily strove with this for superiority stood by the Cities side Eastward, knowen by the name of Saint Austins, which Augustine himselfe and King Ethelbert at his exhortation founded and dedicated to Saint Peter and Paule, that it might be the Sepulture place both for the Kings of Kent and also for the Archbishops (for as yet it was not lawfull to bury within Cities), and endowed it with infinite richesse, granting unto the Abbat a mint house with priviledge to coine money. And now at this day, notwithstanding the greatest part thereof is buried under his owne ruins, and the rest was converted to the Kings house, yet it sheweth manifestly to the beholders how great a thing it was. Augustine himselfe was enterred in the porch of the same with this epitaph, as witnesseth Thomas Spot:

The bodie of Saint Augustine doth heere enterred lie,
A prelate great, devout also, and England honor hie.

But, as Bede reporteth, who rather is to be credited, this was the more ancient Inscription of his tombe:


Together with him in the same porch were buried six Archbishops next succeeding, and in memoriall of these seven, namely, Austen, Laurence, Mellitus, Justis, Honorius, Deus-dedit and Theodosius, were these verses (such as they are) engraven there in marble

Seven Patriarchs of England, Primates seven,
Seven Rectors, and seven Labourers in heaven,
Seven Cesternes pure of life, seven Lamps of light,
Seven Palmes, and of this realme seven Crownes full bright,
Seven Starres, are heere bestow' d in vault below.

24. I may not forget another Church neere unto this, built, as Bede saith, by the Romans and consecrated to Saint Martin, wherein, before Austens comming, Bertha wife to King Ethelbert, descended from the bloud Roiall of France, was wont to frequent divine Christian service. Concerning the Castle on the South side of the Citie, the Bulwarks whereof now are decaied, it maketh no shew of any great antiquity, and there is no memorable thing therof come to my knowledge, but only that it was built by the Normans. As touching the dignity of the See of Canterbury, which in times past carried a great State, I will say nothing but this, that, as in former ages, during the Romane Hierarchie the Archbishops of Canterbury were Primates of all Britaine, Legates to the Pope, and, as Urban the Second said, the Patriarches, as it were, of another world . So when the Popes authority was abrogated, a decree passed in the Synode, anno 1554, that laying aside the said title, they should be stiled Primates and Metropolitanes of all England. Which dignity the right reverend Father in Christ Dominus John Whitgift lately held, who devoutly consecrated both his whole life to God and all his painfull labours to the Church, and in the yeere 1604 slept in the Lord, a Prelate much missed of all good men. after whom succeeded Doctor Richard Bancroft, a man of singular courage and counsaile in establishing and supporting the state Ecclesiasticall. For the Latitude of Canterbury, the Pole Artick is elevated above the Horizon fifty one degrees and sixteene minutes, and the Longitude is reckoned to bee foure and twenty degrees and fifth-one minutes.

25. Stour, by this time having gathered his waters all into one streame, runneth beside Hackington, where Dame Lora Countesse of Leicester, a most honorable Ladie in those daies, having abandoned all worldly pleasures, sequestred her self from the world devoutly, to serve God wholy. Afore which time Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury beganne a church there in the honour of Saint Stephen and Thomas of Canterbury. But being inhibited by the Bishop of Rome his authority, for feare the same might prejudice the Monkes of Canterburie, hee gave over the workes. Howbeit, ever since the name remained, and the place is called Saint Stephens. Of which Sir Roger Manwood Knight, Lord chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, a man of exquisite knowledge in our common lawes (unto whom for his bounteous liberality the poore inhabitants are much beholden) was of late time a right great ornament, and even so is his son at this day Sir Peter Manwood Knight of the Bath, whom I cannot but mention whenas hee is a favorer of vertue and learning. From thence Stour passeth by Fordich (called the little Borough of Forewich in King William the Conquerours booke), a place of note for excellent good trouts, and so in former time to Stour-mouth, which it hath now forsaken a mile and more, yet left and bequeathed his name to it. ‡But now by Stoure mouth runneth a brooke which, issuing out of Saint Hadburghs Well at Liming (where the daughter to King Ethelbert first of our nation tooke the veile) while it seeketh the sea, seeth Elham, a mercat towne of which I have read nothing but that the Mannour was the inheritance of Julian Leibourn, a Ladie of great honour in her time, who was the mother of Laurence Hastings first Earle of Penbroke of that surname, and after wife to William Clinton Earle of Huntingdon. Then it holdeth his course by diverse villages, which thereof receive the addition of bourn , as Bishops-bourn, Hawles-bourn, Patricks-bourn, and Brakes-bourn. This bourn is that river Stoure, as Caesar calleth it (as I have observed travailing lately in these parts), which Caesar came unto when he had marched by night almost twelve Italian miles from the sea-coast, and where hee had the first encounter, in his second expedition into Britaine, with the Britains, whome hee drave into the woods where they had a place fortified both by nature and mens labour, with a number of trees hewen downe and plashed to fore-close the entries. But yet the Romans forced an entrie, drave them out, and thereabout encamped. The place of campe, as I heare, is neare Hardes, a place of ancient Gentlemen of that surname descended from Esten grave Herengod and the Fitz-Bernards.‡ Below Stour-mouth, Stoure, dividing his streame, taketh two severall waies, and leaving that name is called In-lade and Wantsume, making the Isle of Tenet on the West and South side: for that on all other sides it is washed with the maine Sea. This Iland Solinus named Athanaton, and in other copies Thanaton, the Britains Inis Ruhis , as witnesseth Asserius, happily for Rhutupin , of Rhutupinae a Citie adjoining. The English Saxons called it Taneg and Tanetland , and we Tenet. All the Isle standeth upon a whitish marle, ful of goodly corne fields, and being a right fertile soile, carrieth in length eight miles, and foure in Bredth, reckoned in old time to containe 600 Families. In steede whereof, it is corruptly read in Bede milliarum sexcentarum for familiarum sexentarum . But whereas Solinus writeth that there is not a snake creeping in this Isle, and that the mould or earth carried from hence killeth snakes , it is now proved to bee untrue. That Etimologie therefore derived from ἀπὸ τοῦ θανάτου, that is, from the seath of snakes , falleth quite to the ground. Here the English Saxons landed first. Here by the permission of Guortigern they first seated themselves. Here was their place of refuge. And here Guortimor the Britan made a great slaughter of them when at Lapis Tituli (for so is that place named in Ninnius which we now call Stonar almost in the same sense, and haven certeinely it was) hee put them to flight and forced them with all the speed they might make to take their Pinnaces. In which place also he gave commandement, saith hee, that him selfe should be buried to represse thereby, as hee thought, the furious outrages of the English Saxons, in like sort as Scipio Africanus did, who commanded that his tombe should bee so set as that it might looke toward Africa, supposing that his verie tombe would be a terror to the Carthaginians. Here also at Wippedfleet (so called of Wipped the Saxon there slaine) Hengest discomfited the Britans and put them to flight, after he had sore tired them with sundry conflicts. S. Austin our Apostle (as they call him) many yeares after landed in this Isle, unto whose blessing the credulous Clergie ascribed the plentifull fertility of the country, and the Monke Gotceline cried out in this maner: O the land of Tenet, happy by reason of her fertility, but most happy for receiving and entertaining so many Divine in-commers bringing God with them, or rather so many heavenly citizens! Egbert, the third King of the Kentish-men, to pacifie Dame Domneva, a devout Lady whom before time he had exceeding much wronged, granted heere a faire peece of land, wherein she erected a Monastery for 70 veiled virgins, the prioresse whereof was Mildred, for her holiness canonized a Saint, and the Kings of Kent bestowed many faire possessions upon it, but Withred especially, who (that I may note the antiquity and maner of livery of Seisin in that age out of the very forme of his owne Donation) For the full complement of his confirmation thereof, laied upon the holy altar a turfe of that ground which he gave at Humantun. Heere afterward sundry times arrived the Danes, who piteously empoverished this Iland by robbings and pillages, and also polluted this Monastery of Domneva with all kinde of cruelty, that it flourished not againe before the Normans government. ‡Heere also landed Lewis of France, who, called in by the tumultuous Barons of England against King John, published by their instigation a pretended right to the Crowne of England, for that whereas King John for his notorious treason against King Richard his brother absent in the Holy-land, was by his Peeres lawfully condemned, and therefore after the death of King Richard the right of the Crowne was devolved to the Queene of Castile, sister to the said King Richard; and that shee and her heires had conveied over their right to the said Lewis and his wife her daughter. Also that King John had forfeited his Kingdome both by the murther of his Nephew Arthur, whereof he was found guilty by his Peeres in France, as also by subjecting his Kingdoms, which were alwaies free, to the Pope, as much as in him lay, contrary to his oath at his Coronation, and that without the consent of the Peeres of the realme, &. Which I leave to Historians, with the successe of his expedition, least I might seeme to digress extraordinarily.‡

26. Neither must I passe over heere in silence that which maketh for the singular praise of the inhabitants of Tenet, those especially which dwell by the roads or harboroughs of Margat, Ramsgat and Broadstear. For they are passing industrious, and as if they were amphibii , that is, both land-creatures and sea-creatures, get their living both by sea and land, as one would say, with both these elements: they be Fisher-men and Plough men, as well Husband-men as Mariners, and they that hold the plough-taile in earing [tilling] the ground, the same hold the helme in steering the ship. According to the season of the yeare, they knit nets, they fish for Cods, Herrings, Mackarels, &., they saile, and carry foorth Merchandise. The same againe dung and mannure their grounds, Plough, Sow, harrow, reape their Corne, and they inne [store] it, men most ready and well apointed both for sea and land, and thus goe they round and keepe a circle in these their labours. Furthermore, whereas that otherwhiles there happen shipwrackes here (for they lie full against the shore those most dangerous flats, shallowes, shelves, and sands so much feared of Sailers, which they use to call The Goodwin Sands, The Brakes, The Four-Foots, The Whitdick &.), these men are wont to bestir themselves lustily in recovering both ships, men, and Marchandise endangered.

27. At the mouth of Wantsum Southward (which men thinke hath changed his chanell) over against Isle stood a City, which Ptolome called Rhutupiae, Tacitus Portus Trutulensis , for Rhutupensis, if Beatus Rhenanus conjectureth truely, Antonine Rhitupus Portus , Ammianus Marcellinus Rhutupiae Statio , that is, The Road of Rhutupiae , Orosius the Haven and City of Rhutubis, the old English-Saxons, as Beda witnesseth, Reptacester , others Reptumuth , Alfred of Beverely named it Richberge, we at this day Richborow. Thus hath time sported in varying of one and the same name. Whence this name should arise it is not for certaine knowen. But seeing the places neere unto it, as Sandwich and Sandiby have their denomination of santi , I, considering also that rhyd tufith in the British tongue betokeneth a sandy fourd , I would willingly, if I durst, derive it from thence. This City seemed to have beene seated on the descent of an hill, the Castle there stood overlooking from an higher place the Ocean, which is now so farre excluded by reason of sandy residence inbealched [belched in] with the tides that comes hardly within a mile of it. Right famous and of great name was this City while the Romans ruled here. From hence was the usual passing out of Britan to France and the Neatherlands, at it the Roman fleets arrived, here it was that Lupicinus, sent by Constantius the Emperour into Britaine for to represse the rodes and invasions of Scots and Picts, both landed the Heruli and Batavians and Maesian regiments. Heere also Theodosius the father of Theodosius the Emperour, to whom, as Symmachus witnesseth, the Senate decreed for pacifying Britan armed Statues on horse back, arrived with his Herculii, Iovii, Victores , and Fidentes , for these were names of Roman regiments. Afterwards when the Saxon Pirates impeached entercourse of merchants and infested our coasts with continual piracies, the Second Legion Augusta, which being remooved by the Emperour Claudius out of Germany, had remained many yeares in Garizon at Isca Silurnum in Wales, was translated here and had a Provost of their owne heere under the Great Lieutenant and Count of the Saxon shore. Which Provost happily that Clements Maximus bare who, beeing heere in Britan by the soldiers saluted Emperour, slew Gratian, the lawfull Emperour, and was afterwards himselfe slaine by Theodosius at Aquileia. For this Maximus it was whom Ausonius in these verses of Aquileia called the Rhutupine robber :

Of Maximus, a base camp-Squire that sometimes knowen to be,
Had now usurped five yeeres past, and ruled with tyrannie.
Right happy thou, of Triumph such that had'st the joyfull sight,
Killing this Robber Rhutupine by maine Italian might.

The same Poet also in his Poem Parentalia preserved the memory of Flavius Sanctus, another President or Governour of Rhutupiae , concerning whom thus hee wrote:

His marshial service who discharg' d with care without al stur,
And Rhutupin rejoyce in him, while there he governed.

Ausonius likewise in a lamentable funerall verse setteth forth the praise of Claudius Contentus his Uncle, who being overtaken with death left behind him unto strangers a mighty stock of money which hee had put out to usury among the Britaines and encreased by interest, and was here also enterred.

My dolefull Muse, now call to minde the songs of Unckle mine,
Contentus, who enterred lies within mould Rhutupine.

28. The Rhutupia flourished also after the comming in of the English Saxons. For writers record that it was the Roiall Palace of Ethelbert King of Kent, and Bede gave it the name of a City. But ever since it beganne to decay, neither is the name of it read in any place afterward, as farre as I know, but in Alfred of Beverly, who hath put downe in writing that Alcher with a powre of Kentish-men at this towne, then called Richberge, foiled and defaited the Danes encombered with the spoiles they had before gotten. Now hath time razed out all the footings and tractes thereof, and to teach us that Cities as well as men have their fatall periods, it is a verie field at this daie, wherein when as corne is come uppe a man may see the draughts of streets crossing one another (for wheresoever the streetes went, there the corne is thinne), which the common people terme Saint Augustins Crosse. And there remaine onelie certaine walles of a Castle of rough flinte, and long Britan brickes in forme of a quadrant, and the same cemented with lime and a most stiffe binding sand, mightily strengthened by tract of time, so that the cement is as hard as the stone. Over the entrie whereof is fixed a head of a personage engraven in stone, some say it was Queene Berthas head, but I take it to bee a Romane worke. A man would deeme this to have beene the Citadell or keepe of the City, it stands on such a height over-looking the low grounds in Tenet, which the Ocean by little and little shrinking away hath now left. Moreover, the plot whereon the Citie stood, being now plowghed up, doth oftentimes discover peeces of Romane coines as well gold silver, evident tokens of the antiquity thereof, and a little beneath shee sheweth a daughter of hers, which the English Saxons of sand called Sontric and wee Sandwich. This beeing one of the Cinque-ports, as they terme them, is on the North and West side, fortified with walles and on other parts fensed with a rampier, river and ditch. The have, by reason of sand choaking it and a great shippe of burden belonging to Pope Paule the Fourth which was accidentalie sunke in the verie channel thereof, is not deepe enough to beare any tall vessels. ‡In auncient times it sundrie times felt the furious forces of the Danes. Afterward King Canutius the Dane, when he had gained the Crowne of England, bestowed it upon Christ-Church in Canterburie with the roialtie of the water on each side, so farre forth as, a shippe beeing afloat, a man might cast a Danish hatchet out of the vessel to the banke. In the Normane raigne it was reckoned one of the Cinque-ports, and to find five shippes. In the yeare 1217 Lewis of France, of whom wee spake lately, burned it. King Edward the First for a time placed heere the staple, and King Edward the Third by exchange reunited it to the Crowne. About which time there flourished heere a familie surnamed De Sandwich, which had matched with one of the heires of Creve-cur and Duaranches, Lord of Folkestone, and deserved well of this place. In the time of King Henrie the Sixth it was burned by the French. In our daies Sir Roger Manwood chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, native of this place, built and endowed heere a free-schoole, and the Netherlanders have bettered the towne by making and trading of Baies, Saies, and other commodities.‡

29. Beneath Rhutupiae , Ptolomee placeth the Promontorie Cantium as the utmost cape of the Angle, which in some copies is corruptly written Nuscantium and Acantium , Diodorus as corruptly calleth it Carion , and we at this day the Foreland of Kent. Now all these shores on every side are of the Rhutupiae by the Poets termed Rhutupina littora. Hence it is that Juvenall, satyrically inveighing against Curtius Montanus, a dainty and delicious glutton, speaking of oysters carried from this shore to Rome, hath these verses:

None in my time had more use of his tooth.
Whence oisters came, where they were bred, full well
He knew, at Circeie cape, at Lucrine rock, forsooth,
Or Rhutup coast, at first bit he could tell

And Lucan the Poet:

Or when unconstant waving sea and British shores doe rage.

From this Fore-land aforesaid, the shore runneth on Southward for certaine miles together, indented with a continued raunge of many hilles mounting up. But when it is come as farre as Sandon (that is to say the Downe of Sand) and to Deale and Walmer, three Neighbour Castles which King Henrie the Eighth within the remembrance of our Fathers built, it setleth low and in a flat and open plaine lieth full against the sea. At this Deale or Dole, as Ninnius calleth it (and that trulie in mine opinion, for our Britans at this daie doe so terme a plaine lying low and open upon sea or river), the constant report goes that Julius Caesar did arrive, and Ninnius avoucheth as much, who in barbarous Latine wrote thus, Caesar ad Dole bellum pugnavit , that is, At Dole Caesar fought a battaile. A Table likewise set uppe in Dover Castle confirmeth the same; yea and Caesar him selfe verifieth it, who reporteth that hee landed upon an open and plaine shore, and that the Britans welcomed and received him with a hote and dangerous encounter. Whereupon our Country man Leland in his Swans song ,

Dole, famed much, vants of new turrets hie,
A place well knowne by Caesars victorie.

For hee (give me leave I pray you to digresse a while out of my course) having (as Pomponius Sabinus reporteth out of Seneca) wonne all that was to bee gotten by sea and land, cast his eye to the Ocean, and as if the Romane world would not suffice him, bethought him selfe upon another world, and with a fleete of a thousand saile (for so writeth Athenaeus out of Cotas), either to bee revenged of the Britans (as Strabo saith), or in hope of British pearles, as Suetonius reporteth, or inflamed with an ambitious desire of glorie, as others doe record, in the yeare before Christs nativitie fiftie foure, and once againe in the yeare ensuing, entred into Britan, having before hand sounded the havens by his espialls [spies], as Suetonius and himself doth testifie, and not, as Roger Bachon fableth, by setting certaine looking glasses upon the coast of Gaule, and by Art perspective, which by reflexion multiplieth hidden formes. What hee exploited heere, himselfe hath at large delivered in this Commentaries , and I likewise before have summarily abridged out of him and the writings of Suetonius concerning Scaeva, whose valourous service during the civill warre was notablie seene above others at Dyrachium, and whom our Poet Joseph of Excester in his Antiocheis , and namelie in these verses touching Britan, reported (I know not how truely) to have been a Britan borne:

Here borne also was Scaeva, he that bare no little sway
In all these civill broiles. The Fort that stood full in his way
Alone he brake, Pompey besieged was Caesars strongest stay.

But what were the exploites of Caesar in this our country, learne you may of himselfe and out of that which hath before beene written. For neither as yet have I met with that old father a Britan whom Marcus Aper, as wee read in Quintilian, saw in this Island, who avowed that hee was present at the battaile in which they assaied to keepe Caesar from landing when hee came to warre upon them; neither is it an part of my meaning now to write an Historie, but a Topographie.

30. Upon this shore lie out with a long traine certaine heapes in manner of bankes or rampiers, which some imagine that the winde swept up togither. But I suppose them to have beene a fense and countermure [breakwater], or rather the Ship-camp which Caesar raised with tenne daies and as many nights labour, to haile up thereto his sea-beaten and shaken Navie, and to defend it both against tempests and also the Britans, who in vaine did assaile it. For I understand by relation of the dwellers thereby that this rampier is called Romes-worke, as if it were a worke of the Romanes. And so much the rather beleeve I that Caesar arrived here, because hee writeth that seaven miles from hence (for so wee reade in the auncient bookes corrected by Flavius Constantinus a man of Consul degree), the sea is kept in and compassed with such streight mountains that from the higher places a dart may be flung to the very shore: verily as soone as we are past Deale a mighty ridge of steepe high Cliffes (Cicero termeth them moles magnificas , that is stately cliffes ) bringing forth Sampier in great plenty, runneth for seaven miles or there about as far as to Dover, where it openeth it selfe, and of that nature is the place that, right as Caesar writeth, betweene two hills it letteth in and encloseth the sea. Within this partition and seperation of the Clyffes lieth Dubris, which Antonine the Emperour mentioneth, the Saxons named it Dofra , and wee Dover. This name was given unto it, as Darell out of Eadmer writeth, because the place was shut uppe and hard to come unto. For when as (saith he) in ancient times the sea there harborous spreded it selfe upon urgent necessity to make it a more commodious haven, they kept in with more streight bounds. Howbeit William Lambard with more probability fetcheth the reason of this name from the word dufyrrha , which in the British language betokeneth a place steepe and upright. The towne, which is seated betweene high clyffs (whereas some-time the haven was, when the sea more insinuated it selfe, as wee collect by the anchors and ship planks that are digged there up), is more famous for the commodiousnesse of the haven (such as it is) and for readie passage into France, than for any elegancie or great trade. For it is a place of passage of all other most haunted, and it was provided in old time by a speciall Statute that no man going forth of the realme in pilgrimage should elswhere embark and take sea; moreover it is reckoned one of the Cinque-ports, and in times past it was charged to furnish and set out one and twenty ships unto the warres in the same maner and forme as Hastings did, whereof I have already spoken. toward the sea (now somewhat excluded by Beach) it was fenced with a wall, whereof some part as yet standeth. It had a faire church consecrated unto Saint Martin, founded by Whitred King of Kent, an house also of the Knights-Templers, which now are quite gone, and nothing to be seene of them. It yeeldeth like-wise a seat for the Archbishop of Canterburies Suffragans, who when the Archbishop is busied in weightier affaires manageth for him matters that pertaine to Orders onelie and not to the Episcopall jurisdiction. From the toppe of a rough and craggie cliffe which mounteth up to a wonderfull height, where it looketh downe to the sea, a most stately castle like unto a pretie Citie, fortified right stronglie with bul-warkes and many a tower, overlooketh and threatneth after a sort the sea under it. Mathew of Paris called it the Key and Locke, the Barre and Sparre of England. The common sort of people dreameth that it was built by Julius Caesar, and verilie I suppose by the British Bricks in the Chappell there that it was built by the Romans who used such in their great buildings. What time as the Romane Empire declined, they placed heere a band or companie of the Tungricanes, who were accounted among the Aides-Palatine, out of whose armourie and munition happilie were those bigge arrowes which the Castellanes doe now shew for wonders, and were wont to bee discharged than and manie yeares after, ‡before the invention of great Ordinance, out of engines called balistae like huge crosse-bowes bent by force of two or foure men.‡ From the entrance of the English Saxons into this land unto the expiration of their Kingdome, no where could I as yet reade so much as one bare worde of this Castle or the towne, save onelie in certaine by-notes out of a Table that was heere hanged uppon a wall, which reported that Caesar, having arrived at Dale and discomfited the Britans at Baramdowne (which is a place adjoyning, fitte for horse fight and meete to embattaile an armie in) beganne the Castle of Dover, and that Arivagus afterward fortified it against the Romans and stopped up the haven. Also, that after him King Arthur and his knights vanquished I wot not what rebells here. Howbeit a little before the Normans comming in, it was reputed the onely defense and strength of England, and for that cause William Duke of Normandie bound Harold by an oath to deliver up into his hands this Castle together with the well, what time as he aspired to the Kingdome; and after he had setled his estate and affaires at London, thought it good before all other things to fortifie this peece and to assigne faire lands in Kent unto Gentlemen to be held in Castle-gard, which this condition: to be in readinesse with certaine numbers of men for defense of the same, which service notwithstanding at this day is redeemed with a yerly paiment of money. For when Sir Hubert de Burgh was Constable of this Castle (to use the words of an old writer), he, weighing with himselfe that it was not safe for the Castle to have evry moneth new warders for the Castle-gard, procured by the assent of the King and all that held of that Castle that every one should send for the ward of one moneth tenne shillings, and that therewith certaine men elect and sworne, as well horse as foote, should be waged for to gard the Castle. It is written that Philip surnamed Augustus King of France, when Lewis his sonne went about to gaine the Crowne of England, had wonne certaine Cities and Forts and could not get this, being manfully defended by the said Sir Humber de Burgh, said thus, Verily my sonne hath not one foote of land in England untill he be Maister of Dover Castle , as being in very deed the strongest hold of all England and most commodious for the French. Upon the other cliffe which standeth over against it and beareth up his head, in maner, even with it, are extant the remaines of a very auntient building. One, I know not upon what reason induced, said it was Caesars Alter. But John Twin of Canterbury, a learned old man who in his youth saw a great part thereof standing whole and entier, assured me that it had beene a Watch-towre to give night light and direction to ships, like as there stood another opposite unto it at Bologne in France, erected there by Charles the Great (as Regino witnesseth, in which Phanum for Pharum is falsly read), which at this day the French Terme Tour de Order and the English The Old Man of Bullen. Under this cliffe Henrie the Eighth, in our fathers daies, with exceeding labour and 63000 pounds of charges, by pitching huge posts fast within the very sea, and the same bound together with yron worke, and heaping thereupon a deale of timber and stones, brought up a mighty Pile which we call The Peere, wherein the ships might more safely ride. But the furious violence of the raging Ocean soone overcame the laudable endeavour of that puissant Prince, and so the frame of this worke, beaten continually upon with the waves, became disjoined. For the repaire whereof, Queene Elizabeth laid out a great summe of money, and the Authority of Parliament imposed upon every English ship that carry forth or bring in merchandise a certaine toll upon Tonneage for certaine yeares.

31. The Sea coast of Britaine is seperated from the Continent of Europe by a frete or streight where, as some suppose, the Seas brake in and made way between lands. Solinus calleth it Fretum Gallicum , Tacitus and Ammianus Marcellinus, Fretum Oceani and Oceanum Fretalem. Gratianus the Poet,

The narrow Seas on Bollen-coast that keepe uncertaine tides.

They of the Netherlands call it Dehofden of the two Heads or promontories, wee the Narrow-sea and the Strait of Calais, as the French Pas de Callais. For this is the place , as saith a Poet of our time,

Where current of two seas
In gullet streight, wherein throughout their billowes rage and fret,
Keepes France and England so apart, as though they never met.

The narrow sea, as Marcellinus truly writeth, swelleth at every tide with terrible high flouds , and againe at the ebbe becometh as flat as a plaine field: if it not be raised with winds and counter-seas between and too risings of the moone, it floweth twise and ebbeth as oft. For as the Moone ascendeth toward the Meridian and is set againe under the Horizon in just the opposite point, the Ocean heere swelleth mightily and the huge billowes rush upon the shores with so great a noise that the Poet might well say Rhutupinaque littora fervent , and Rhutup shore doth boile and billow , and D. Paulinus, where he speaketh of the Country of Bulloigne, which he termeth the utmost skirt of the world , not without cause used these words, Oceanum barbaris flucitibus frementem , that is, The Ocean raging and roring with barbarous billowes.

32. Heere might arise a question beseeming a learned man that that wit and time at will, whither where this narrow sea runneth between France and Britane now there was, a narrow banke or necke of land that in times conjoined these regions, and, afterwards being broken either by the generall deluge, or by rushing in of the waves, or else by occasion of some earthquak, did let in the waters to make a through passage. Verily, as no man makes doubt that the face of the whole earth hath beene altered, partly by the said deluge, and partly by long continuance of time and other causes, as also that Ilands by earthquakes or the shrinking backe of waters were layd and joined unto firme lands, so most certainly it appeereth by authors of best credite that Ilands, by reason of earthquake and the breaking in of waters, were severed, disjoined, and rent from the Continent. Whereupon Pythagoras in Ovid saith thus:

My selfe have seene maine ground sometime turnd into sea and sand,
And seene I have againe the Sea become maine setled land.

Strabo, gathering of things to come by those that are past, concluded that such Isthmi , neckes or narrow bankes of land, both have beene and shall be wrought and pierced through. You see , saith Seneca, whole regions violently removed from their places and now to lie beyond the Sea, which lay before bounding upon it and hard by. You see there is separation made both of Countries and nations, whenas some part of nature is provoked of it selfe, or when the mighty wind beateth strongly upon some sea, the force whereof, as in generall, is wonderfull. For although it rage but in part, yet it is of the universall power that it so rageth. Thus hath the sea rent Spaine from the Continent of Africke. Thus by Deucalions flud, so much spoken of by the greatest Poets, was Sicilie cut from Italy. And heereupon Virgil writes thus:

These lands whilom by violence of bretch and ruines great
(Such change makes time, and what is it that long time doth not eate?)
Asunder fell (men say), where as they both in one did growe,
The Seas brake in by force, and through the mids did overthrow
Both townes and grounds. And Italie forthwith from Sicilie side
Did cut, and them with in-let streight doth still part and devide.

Plinie sheweth likewise of Isles, that Cypres was rent from Syria, Eubaea from Boeotia, Besbicus from Bythynia, being parts before of the maine land. But none of the old writers was ever able to avouch that Britaine was so severed from the Maine. Onely those verses of Virgil and Claudian before cited by me into the very first entrance into this worke, together with the conjecture of Servius Honoratus, doe insinuate so much. And yet, Dominicus Marius Niger and Master John Twin, a right learned man, and whosoever he was that wrested these verses made of Sicilia unto Britaine, are of this opinion:

A part of France. But swelling tides on hie
Have changed the site, and Nereus he as Conqueror hath torne
The confines quite, and runs betweene the cliffs a sunder worne.

33. Considering, therefore, that in this matter there is no assured ground upon certaine authority, the learned, by laying and comparing the like examples in such narrow Seas as this for searching out of the truth, propose these and such like points duly to be weighed and considered:

  • First, whether the nature of the soile in both shores be the same, which verily is found heere to be even so. For the shore on either side, where the distance betweene is narrowest, riseth up with lofty cliffes of the same matter, as it were, and colour, so as they may seeme to have beene riven asunder.
  • Secondly, how great the bredth is of the sea or streight. Certes, the streights heere is not much broader than either the streight of Gibraltar or of Sicilie, to wit, twenty foure miles over, so as at the first sight one would imagine that these lands were severed by the billowes of the raging counter-seas. For that the land sunke downeward by earth-quakes I hardly dare thinke, seeing that this our Northern climate of the world is seldome shaken with earth-quakes, and those when they happen be never great.
  • Thirdly, how deepe the streight is. As the Streight of Sicilie is sounded in depth 80 paces, so this of ours exceedeth not 25 fatham, whereas the sea on both sides of it is much deeper.
  • Fourthly, of what nature the ground is in the bothoms, stony, sandy, beachy, or else oasy [oozy] and muddy. And whether there be beds or shelves of sand lying scattered in the said narrow sea. ‡I have learned of Sailers that there lieth but one banke, and the same in the very mid-chanell, which at low water is scarce 3 fatham deepe. But within halfe a league to the South-ward it is 27 fatham deepe, and to the Northward 25.‡
  • Lastly, whether any place in either of the two shores taken name in the ancient language of a breach, a plucking away, division, or such like, as Rhegium, which standeth upon the Sicilian Streight, is named of the Greeke word ῥήγνυμι, that is, to breake , because in that place by the violent force of waves Sicilie was broken off from Italie. But thinking, as I doe, heereof, I can meet with none, unlesse one would suppose that Vitsan upon the French shore had the name from gwith , which in the Brittish tongue betokeneth a division or separation.

34. They that would have Britain to have been the very continent of Gaule after the universall deluge argue from the wolves, whereof there were many among us in old time, like as at this day in Scotland and Ireland. How, say they, could there be any of them in Ilands, considering that all beasts and living creatures perished which were not in the Arke? Unlesse along time after the earth had beene passable throughout, and no Isles at all. This question busied Saint Augustine, but unto it he answereth it thus. Wolves and other beasts may be thought to have swome over the sea into Ilands, yet onely to neare adjoyning ilands (as stags yeerely for their reliefe and food swim out of Italy into Sicily). But Isles there be so fare remote from maine lands that it is to be thought no beast could swim over. If it should be said men caught them and so brought them over with them, it carrieth some credit that this might well have beene for the delight they had in hunting. Although it cannot be denied but by the commandement or permission of God, even by the work of Angels they might have beene transported. But if so be they sprung out of the earth according to their first originall, when as God said Let the earth bring foorth a living soule, then it appeareth much more evidently that all kinde of living creatures were in the Arke, not so much for the encrease and reparation of them, as to figure out sundry Nations for the sacrament of the church, in case the earth brought foorth many creatures in those ilands whereto they can not passe. Thus Philosophizeth he. Neither is any man able upon this argument to pronounce any thing more sufficiently and exquisitely. For me it may suffice that I have propounded thereof, let the Reader thorowly waigh and examine it. And he that is able in this point to see deepest what is most true, verily I will report him a man right skilfull and deepely quick-sighted.

35. On the other side in the Firme-land inhabited the Morini, so called in the ancient Gaules tongue, as it were, maritimi, sive maris accolae, men dwelling upon the Sea-coast or hard by the sea. Their country is now tearmed Conte de Guines and Conte de Bolonois , and had in old time two places of very great name, to wit Gessoriacum and Itium, whence, as Caesar hath recorded, there was the best and most commodious passing out of Gaule or France into Britain, and most authours thinke it was that towne which now they call Callais. But that famous and learned man Hospitalius, Chancellour of France, a very Skilfull Antiquary, avoucheth that Callais is no ancient towne, but was only a smal village such as the French-men terme burgados , untill that Philip Earle of Bolen walled it about, not very many yeres before the English won it. Neither is it red in any place that men tooke shipping there for Britain before those times. I think therefore that Itium is to be sought some where else: that is to say, below at Vitlan, neere unto Blacknesse, which we call Whitsan, the word sounding much unlike to Itium. For that all men crossed over out of this Iland thither and embarked to saile hither, we observed out of our owne histories, in so much as certaine lands were held in Coperland neere Dover by service to hold the Kings head between Dover and Whit-sand whensoever he crossed the Sea there. And Lewis the younger French King, when he came in devout pilgrimage to visit Thomas of Canterbury, besought that saint by way of most humble intercession that no passinger might miscarry by shipwracke betweene Vitsan and Dover, as who would say that at the same time that was the usuall passage to and fro; neither in truth is this narrow sea else where more streightned [narrow], although it is to be supposed that they who saile betweene, in passing over did not respect the neerer way and shorter cut in sailing, but the commodiousnesse of the havens in the one shore and the other. For even so, albeit the sea be narrowest betweene Blacknesse in France and the Nesse in England, yet now the ordinary passing is between Dover and Callais, as in former ages, before that Vitsan haven was dammed up, the passage was betweene it and Dover, and before that time between Rhutupiae and Gessoriacum. From whence Claudius the Emperour and other captaines whom I have spoken of sailed over into Britaine. This Gessoriacum Pliny seemeth to call Portum Morinorum Britannicum . Peradventure for the passage from thence into Britaine Ptolomee, in whom it hath crept in place of Itium, named it Gessoriacum Navale , in which signification also our Welsh-Britans commonly tearme it Bowling-long , that is Bolloine the ship road. For that Gessoriacum was the very same Sea-coast towne which Ammianus calleth Bononia, the Frenchmen Bolongne, the Low-country men Beunen, and we Bolen, I dare be bold to aver and maintaine against Hector Boethius and Turnebus, grounding my assertion both upon the authority of Beatus Rhenanus, who saw an ancient military Map wherein was written Gessoriacum quod nunc Bononia , that is, Gessoriacum, now called Bolen , and also upon Itinerarie computation or account of the miles, which answereth just to the distance that Antonine the Emperour hath put downe betweene Anbiani and Gessoriacum. But, that which may serve in steed of all proofes, the rablement of Pyrates serving under Carausius, which the Panegyrick Oration pronounced unto Constantius the Emperour reported to have been enclosed and shut up within the walles of Gessoriacum and there surprised, an other Oration unto Constantius Maximus his sonne relateth to have been vanquished at Bononia, so that Bononia, that is, Bolen, and Gessoriacum must needes be one and the self same place, and it may seeme that the more so was worne out much about that time. For it is not to be surpised that so grave authors unto the great Princes erred in the setting downe and naming of this place, the memorie thereof being then so fresh, and that victorie so glorious. But what have I to doe with France? Verely, I have the more willingly ripped up the memorie of these matters for that the prowesse and valour of our Ancestours shewed it selfe often in this coast, as who wonne and wrested both Calais and Bolen from the French. And as for Bolen, they rendred it backe againe at the humble request of the French King after eight yeres, for a summe of money agreed upon. But Callais they held 212 yeere in despite and malgree [disregard] of the French. Now returne we to Britaine with full sailes and a favourable tide.

36. From Dover ‡(leaving the little Abbay of Bradsole dedicated to S. Rardigund, whereof Hugh the first Abbot was founder)‡ there runneth for five miles in length a continued cheine of chalky cliffes standing in a row, hanging jointly one to another as far as Folkstone, which was a flourishing place in times past, as may appeare by the peeces of Romane coine and Britaine brickes daily there found, but under what name, it is uncertaine. Probable it is that it was one of those towres or holds which in the reigne of Theodosius the younger the Romans placed for to keep off the Saxons, as Gildas saith, at certaine distances along the shore in the South part of Britaine. Famous it was and much frequented by the English Saxons for religions sake, by reason of a Monasterie that Eanswide daughter to Eadbald King of Kent consecrated there unto Nunnes. but now it is a small towne, and the greatest part thereof the Sea hath, as it were, pared away. Howbeit, it was the Baronie of the Familie De Abrincis of Aurenches, from whom it came to Sir Hamon Crevequer, and by his daughter to Sir John of Sandwich, whose grand child Julian by his sonne John brought the same as her dowry to John Segrave.

37. From thence as the shore turneth a front South West-ward, ‡Sandgate Castle, built by King Henry the Eighth, defendeth the coast, and upon a Castle hill thereby are seene reliques of an auncient Castle.‡ More inward is Saltwood, a Castle of the Bishops of Canterbury which William Courtney Archbishop of Canterbury enlarged. And nere unto it is Osten-hanger, where Sir Edward Poinings Baneret, a father of many faire bastards, and amongst them of Thomas Lord Poinings Leiftenant of Bollen, began to build a stately house ‡but left it unperfect when death had bereft him of his onely lawfull child, which he had by his lawfull wife the daughter of Sir John Scot his neighbour at Scots-Haul, where the familie of Scots hath lived in worshipfull estimation a long time, as descended from Pashley and Serieaux by Pimpe. But to return to the seacoast.‡ Neere to Sandgate, Hith is situated, one of the Cinque ports, whereof it assumed that name which in the English Saxons tongue signifieth an haven or harbour, although hardly it maintaineth that name now, by reasons of sands and the Sea withdrawing it selfe from it. And yet it is not long since it first made any shew, and that by the decay and fall of Westhyth, a neighbour-towne Westward, and which was sometime a Port, until the Sea in our great grandfathers daies retired from it. so are Sea-townes subject to the uncertaine vicissitudes of the Sea. This Hith, like as West-Hith also, had their beginning from ruine of Lympne standing hard by, which in times past was a most famous Port towne, until the sands that the Sea casteth up had choked and stopped the haven. But Antonine and the Booke of Notices called it Portus Lemanis, Ptolomee Λεμήν, which being in Greeke a significative word, the Copiantes or Copiers out of old bookes, because they would seeme to supply the defect, wrot it Καινὸς λιμήν, and the Latin Interpreters following them translated it Novus Portus , that is, New-port or New haven , whereas the proper name of the place was Limen or Leman, like as this day Lympne. Heere the Captaine over a company or band of Turnacenses kept his station under the Count or Lieftenant of the Saxon Shore. And a Port way paved with stone, called Stony street, reacheth from hence toward Canterburie, which one would easily judge to have beene a worke of the Romans, like as the Castle adjoining hard unto it now named Stutfall, which in the side and descent of a prety hill tooke up about ten acres of ground in compasse, and the reliques of the wall remaine still of British bricke and are so close laid and couched together with a kind of strong morter made of lime, sand and pibles, that as yet time hath not given it the check, and now, although it be not an haven towne, yet it retaineth still no small shew of the ancient dignity it had. For heere the Warden of the Cinque Ports at a place called Shipway useth to take his solemne oath when he first entereth into his office, and heere upon certaine set daies the custom was to decide causes betweene the inhabitants of the said Ports.

38. Some have thought that in this place a great river discharged it selfe into the sea, for that one or two writers have made mention of the river Leman and the mouth of Leman, at which the Danes Fleet in the yeere of our salvation 892 arrived. But I suppose they are deceived in the description of the place, both because there is no river heere but a very small one, which streight waies being of no reckoning at all vanisheth, as also for that the Archdeacon of Huntingdon, a compendious authour and of good approoved credit, writeth that the said fleet arrived at the Haven Leman, and saith not a word of the river. Unlesse man would thinke (with whom I dare not accord) that the river Rother, which intermingleth it selfe with the Ocean under Rheine, ran downe this way and changed his course by little and little when that champian plane called Rumney Marsh grew unto the firme land. For this Marsh-country (which from Lympne containeth 14 miles in length and 9 in bredth, and reckoneth two townes, nineteene parishes, and 44200 acres or thereabout, by reason of ranke greene grasse most convenient for the grasing and feeding of beasts) hath beene by little and little laied unto the land by the benefit of the sea. Whereupon I may well and truely tearme it the Seas-gift, like as Herodotus called Aegypt the gift of the river Nilus, and a very learned man termed the pastures of Holland the gifts of the North-wind and the river Rhene. For the sea to make amends yeelded that againe in this place which it swallowed up elsewhere in this coast, either by retyring backe or by laying oze thereto from time to time, as some places which in the remembrance of our grandfathers lay close unto the sea shore are now disjoyned a mile or two from the sea. How fruitfull the soile is, what a number of heards of cattell it feedeth, that are sent hither from the furthest parts of Wales and England to be fatted, what art and cunning is used in making of bankes to fence it against the violent risings of the sea, one would hardly beleeve that hath not seene it. ‡And that it might be the better ordered, certain lawes of Sewers were made in the time of King Henry the Third.‡ And King Edward the Foorth ordeined that it should be a Corporation consisting of a Bailive, Jurates, and the Communalty. In the Saxons time the inhabitants heereof were called Mersc-ware , that is, Marshmen , and verily the signification of that name accordeth passing well with the nature of the place. Neither can I understand and conceive that ancient writer Aethelward, when he reporteth that Cinulph King of the Mercians wasted Kent and the country which is called Mersc-warum . And in another place, that Herbyth a Captaine was by the Danes beheaded in a place named Mersc warum , if he meant not this very Marsh-country. Rumney or Rumney, and in former time Romenal, which some conjecture by the name to have been the Romans worke, is the principall towne of this March and one of the Cinque-ports, whereof Old Romeney and Lid are accounted members, which joinctly were charged with the setting foorth of five ships of warre, in that manner and forme as I have before said. It is seated upon an hill of gravell and sand, and had on the West side an haven of good receit and commodious withall for most of the winds, before the sea with-drew it selfe from it. The inhabitants , as we read in King William the Conquerours booke, were in regard of their sea service quite and quiet from all custome, beside for Robbery, peace-breach and Foristell. And in those daies it flourished with the best. For it was devided into twelve wards, it had also five Parish-churches, it had a Priorie, and an Hospitall for sicke persons. But in the reigne of Edward the First, when the sea a-raging with the violence of windes overflowed this tract and made pitifull wast of people, of cattell, and of houses in every place, as having quite drowned Promhill, a prety towne well frequented, it made the Rother also forsake his old chanel, which heere before time emptied himselfe into the sea, and stopped his mouth, opening a new and neerer way for him to passe into the sea by Rhie, so as by little and little he forsooke this towne. Which ever since hath decreased and lost much of the former frequency and ancient dignity.

39. Beneath this the land, tending more East-ward, maketh a Promontory (we calle it the Nesse, as if it were a nose), before which lieth a dangerous flat in the sea, and upon which standeth Lid, a towne well inhabited, whereunto the inhabitants of Promihill after that inundation aforesaid betooke themselves. And in the very utmost point of this Promontory, which the people call Dunge-nesse, where there is nothing but beach and pible stones, Holme- trees grow plentifully with their sharp prickey leaves alwaies greene, in manner of an underwood for a mile and more. Among the sand beach neere unto Ston-end is to be seene an heape of greater stones, which the neighbour inhabitants call Saint Crispins and Crispinians tombe, whom they report to have beene cast upon this shore by ship-wracke and from hence called into the glorious companie of Saints. From thence the shore, retyring it selfe, is directly carried into the West, bringing foorth peason [peas] among the beach, which grow up naturally like clusters of grapes a number together, and in the tast little differ from our field peason, and so runneth on as farre as to the Rother-Mouth, by which for some space Kent is devided from Sussex.

40. The course of this river on Sussex side we have in part briefly spoken of before. On Kent side it hath Newenden, which I almost perswade my selfe was that haven so long sought for, and which the booke Notitia Provinciarum called Anderida, the old Britains Caer Andred , and the Saxons Andredscaster , first because the inhabitants by a continued tradition constantly affirme it was a most ancient towne and Haven whereof they shew the plot; then for that it is situated by the wood Andredswald, that tooke the name of it; lastly, because the English-Saxons seeme to have tearmed it Brittenden , that is, The Britans Vale (as they called also Segontium an ancient towne of the Britans of which we spake before), whence the whole Hundred adjoyning is named Selbrittenden. The Romans for to defend this coast against the Saxon rovers, placed heere the band of the Albuci with their Captaine. Afterward being taken by the English-Saxons, it decaied quite. For Hengest, being fully determined to rid all the Britans out of Kent, and thinking it would much availe him to encrease his troupes and bands with greater forces of his owne nation, called foorth Aella out of Germany with a strong power of English-Saxons, and while he have the assault unto this Anderida violently, the Britans out of the wood hard by, where they laie in ambushments, enchased him so that at length, after many losses on both sides given and taken, when he had parted his army and both dicomfited and put to flight the Britans in the wood, and also at the same time forced the towne by assaults, his barbarous hart was so enflamed with desire of revenge that he put the inhabitants to the sword and rased the towne even to the ground. The place, lying thus desolated, was shewed (as Henry of Huntington saith) to those that passed by many ages after , untill the Friers Carmelites, newly come out from Mount Carmell in the Holi-land, who sought for such solitary places, built them heere a little Priory in the time of King Edward the First, at the charges of Sir Thomas Alburger, Knight, and so streightwaies there rose up a village, which in regard of the old towne overthrowen began to be called Newenden, that is The New towne in the vale. ‡I saw nothing there now but a mean village with a poore church, and a wodden bridge to no great purpose, for a ferry is in most use since that the river Rother, not containing himself in his chanell, hath overlied, and is like to endanger and surround, the levell of rich lands therby. Whereupon the inhabitants of Rhie complaine that their haven is not scoured by the streame of Rother as heeretofore, and the owners heere suffer great loss, which their neighbours in Oxney doe feare, if it were remedied, would fall upon them.‡ This is a river-isle ten miles about, encompassed with the river Rother dividing his streames, and now brackish, having his name either of mire, which our ancestors called hox , or of Oxen, which it feedeth plentifully with ranke grasse. Opposite to this is Apledore, where a confused rable of Danish and Norman Pirates, which under the conduct of one Hasting had sore annoied the French coasts, loaden with booties, landed and built a Castle, whom notwithstanding King Aelfred by his valour enforced to accept conditions of peace.

‡Upland hence, and from Newenden I saw (which I should have before remembred) Cranbroke and Tenterden, good clothing towns; Sisingherst a faire house of the familie of Bakers, advanced by Sir John Baker not long since Chauncellour of the Exchequer, and his marriage with a daughter and heire of Dingley; Bengebury a habitation of the ancient familie of Colpepper; and neere adjoining Hemsted a mansion of the Guildfords, an old familie, but most eminent since Sir John Guildford was Countrouler of the House to King Edward the Fourth. For his sonne and heire Sir Richard Guildford was by King Henry the Seventh made Knight of the Garter. Of his sonnes againe, sir Edward Guildford was Marhsall of Callias, Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports, and Master of the Ordinance, father to Jane Duchess of Northumberland, wife to Sir John Dudley Duke of Northumberland, mother to the late Earles of Warwick and Leicester, and Sir Henrie was chosen Knight of the Garter by King Henrie the Eight, and had his Armes enobled with a Canton of Granadeo by Ferdinand King of Spaine for his worthy service in that Kingdome when it was recovered from the Moores, and Edward lived in great esteeme at home. To be briefe, from the said Sir John are issued by females immediatly the Darells of Cale-hill, Gages, Brownes of Beechworth, Walsinghams, Cromers, Isaacs, and Iseleies, families of prime and principall note in these parts. But now I digress and therefore crave pardon.‡ In the parishes heere-about the commendable trade of clothing was first set up and freshly practised ever since King Edward the Third his daies, who by proposing rewards and granting many immunities, trained Flemings into England in the tenth yeere of his reigne to teach our men that skill of draperie or weaving and making wollen cloth, which is justly counted at this day one of the staies that support our common Weale. ‡Thus much of Kent, which (to conclude summarily) hath this part last spoken of for Draperie, the Isle of Tenet and the East parts for the Granarie, the Weald for the wood, Rumney Marsh for the meddow-plot, the North downs toward the Tamis for the Conny-garthe [rabbit hunting] , Tenham and there about for an Orchard, and Head-Corne for the brood and poultry of fat, big, and commended capons.‡

41. As for the Earles, omitting the English Saxon Godwin and Leofwin his brother, and others who were Earles not be descent and inheritance, but by office, Odo, halfe brother by the mothers side to King William the Conquerour and Bishop of Baieux, was the first Earle of Kent of the Norman bloud: a man by nature of a bad disposition and busie head, bent alwaies to sow sedition and to trouble the State. Whereupon he was committed to prison by a subtile distinction, as Earle of Kent and not Bishop of Baeieux in regard of his holy orders, and afterward for a most dangerous rebellion which he had raised, he was by his nephew King William Rufus deprived of his places of dignity, lost all his goods in England, and abjured the Realme. Afterwards King Stephen, who as an intruder reaped the revenewes and commodities of the Crowne of England, that he might bind by benefits martiall men to him, he advanced William of Ipres, a Fleming, to that honor, who being, as Fitz-Stephen calleth him, violentus Cantii incubator , that is, the violent over-pressor of Kent , was forced by King Henrie the Second to depart sheading many teares, and so became a monke. Henrie likewise the sonne of King Henrie the Second, whom his father had crowned King, rebelling against his father, gave in like respect the title of Kent unto Philip Earle of Flanders. But this Philip was Earle of Kent in title onely and by promise. For, as Gervase of Canterburie writeth, Philip Earle of Flanders undertooke to the uttermost of his power for to aid the young King, doing him homage and binding himselfe with an oth, unto whom the said King promised in reward of his service the revenewes of a thousand pounds together with all Kent; also the Castle of Rochester and the Castle of Dover. Not many yeeres after, Hubert de Burgh, having done notable good service unto the State, received, as it were, by due desert the same honor at the hands of King Henrie the Third, who also made him chiefe Justice of England. This Hubert was a man who unfainedly loved his Countrie, and amidst the stormes of frowning Fortune performed all duties to the utmost that his Country could require of a right good patriot. Yet at length he fell in disgrace and was despoiled of his dignities, whereby this title slept and lay as dead untill the time of King Edward the Second, who bestowed it upon his younger brother Edmund of Woodstocke, who being Tutor of his nephew Edward the Third, falling into the tempest of false, injurious and malignant envie, was beheaded for that he never dissembled his naturall brotherly affection toward his brother deposed, and went about when hee was (God wot) murdered before (not knowing so much), to enlarge him out of prison, perswaded thereunto by such as covertly practised his destruction. Hee had two sonnes, Edmund and John who were restored by Parliament to bloud and land shortly after. And withall, it was enacted that no Peere of the land or other that procured the death of the said Earle should be empeached therefore, than Mortimer Earle of March, Sir Simon Beresford, John Maltravers, Bious, and John Devroil. So these his two sonnes succeeded in order, and when they were both dead without issue, their sister Joane who survived them (for her lovely beauty called The Faire Maide of Kent) brought this honour into the house of the Hollands. For Sir Thomas Holland her husband was stiled Earle of Kent, and shee after married by dispensation to the Black Prince heire to him King Richard the Second. Her sonne Sir Thomas Holland succeeded in that honorable title, who died in the twentieth yeare of King Richard the Second. Him againe there succeeded his two sonnes Thomas and Edmund. Thomas, who was also created Duke of Surry, and forthwith for complotting a conspiracy against King Henrie the Fourth lost his head, leaving no child. Edmund his brother being Lord High Admirall of England, was wounded in the assault of Saint Brien in little Britan, and died thereof in the yeare of Salvation 1408, leaving likewise no issue. Now when this dignity was expired in this family of the Hollands, their glasse being runne out and the Patrimony parted among Edmunds sisters, King Edward the Fourth honoured with the title of the Earldom of Kent, first, Sir William Nevill Lord Fauconbert, and after his death, Edmund Lord Grey of Ruthin, Hastings and Weisford, and who had to succeed him George his sonne. Hee of Anne Widevile his first wife begat Richard Earle of Kent, who having wasted his inheritance ended therewith his daies issueless, 1523. But the said George by his second wife Katherine, daughter to William Herbert Earle of Pembrocke, was father of Sir Henrie Grey of Wrest, Knight, whose grand-sonne Reginald by his sonne Henrie, Queene Elizabeth in the yeare 1571 advanced to the Earledome of Kent. And after his decease without issue, his brother Henrie succeeded, a right honorable personage and endued with the ornaments of true nobility.

This province hath parishes 398.

William Camden, Britain, or, a Chorographicall Description of the most flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland (London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610) Copyright 2004 by Dana F. Sutton. This text was transcribed by Professor Sutton, of the University of California, Irvine, from Philemon Holland's 1610 translation [British Library Short Title Catalogue 4509, Early English Books reel 911:1]. For a full critical edition presenting Camden's original Latin text in parallel with Holland's translation, visit Professor Sutton's site at:


Placename mark-up by Humphrey Southall.

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