Picture of Celia Fiennes

Celia Fiennes

places mentioned

1697 Tour: Hull to Chatsworth

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We enter ye town of Hull from ye Southward over two drawbridges and gates, there is the Same Entrance in another part of ye town by 2 gates and 2 drawbridges from Holderness, and so ye ditches are round ye town to ye Landward, and they Can by them floate ye grounds for 3 mile round wch is a good ffortification. The Garrison and plattforme wch is the ffortification to ye Sea is in a very uniforme ffigure and were it ffinished is thought it would be the ffinest ffortification that Could be seen-its wall'd and pallisadoed. I walked round it, and viewed it and when I was on ye water, it seemes to runn a great Length and would require many Soldiers to deffend ye halfe moons and workes. In the town there is an hospitall yts Called ye Trinity house, for Seamens widdows, 30 is their Completmt , their allowance 16d pr weeke and ffewell, they have a little Chapple to it for prayers; over this building is a large roome for Cordage and sailes, where they make them and keep their Stores. In the middle of this roome there hangs a Canoe to ye Roofe of ye Roome just bigg Enough for one man to sit in, and the Effigie of a man that was taken wth it, all his Cloths Cap and a Large bag behind him where in his ffish and provision were, these were all made of ye skin of ffishes and were ye same wch he wore when taken, ye forme of his face is only added and just resemble ye wild man that they took, for so the Inscription Calls him, or ye bonny boate man; he was taken by Captn Baker and there are his oars and spear yt was with him -this is all written on ye boat to perpetuate ye memory of it; he would not speak any Language or word to them yt took him nor would he Eate, so in a few dayes died. There is a good large Church in Hull. You Enter a large jsle just in the Middle that runns quite aCross through the Church, and divides the body of the Church wth ye pulpet and pews on one Side with a partition of wood Carv'd, and on the other side was such another partition for ye Chancell, and I observ'd there their alter stood tablewise for ye Comunion just in the middle of ye Chancell, as it was in the primitive tymes before Popery Came in. There was Severall Little monuments of marble in ye walls. Ffrom thence to Beverly againe 6 mile wch is all a flatt, thence to Brance Burton 8 mile, all likewise on a Levell wch they Call Loughs. Here we Could get no accomodation at a Publick house, it being a Sad poore thatch'd place and only 2 or 3 Sorry Alehouses, no lodgings but at ye hall house as it was Called Where liv'd a Quaker wch were Sufficient people. The rooms were good old rooms being ye Lord of the mannours house- these were but tennants-but did Entertain us kindly, made two good beds. for us and also for our Servants, and good bread and Cheese, bacon and Eggs. Thence we went to Agnes-Burton 7 mile, the miles are long and so they are in most part of these Northern County's. This is the East Rideing of Yorkshire and we saw ye Session house at Beverly for this Rideing.

Agnes Burton is a Seate of Sr Griffith Boyntons, Grandson to Sr ffrancis wch married my father's Sister one of William Lord Viscount Say and Seales Daughters. It looks finely In the approach. A mile or two off we pass by another of his houses wch is newer built and very good Gardens, Called Barmstone,-we Eate some of ye good ffruite. The house is all built with Bricks and so good Bricke that at 100 years standing no one Brick is faulty; it stands on a pretty ascent. We Enter under a Gate-house built wth 4 large towers into a Court which is large, in ye middle is a Bowling green palisado'd round, and ye Coaches runns round it to the Entrance wch is by 10 stepps up to a Tarress, and thence a pav'd walke to ye house. Cut box and ffilleroy and Lawrell about ye Court. The ffront Looks very uniform with severall round buildings on each side answerring Each other with Compass windows, and ye middle is a Round building, and ye door Enters in in ye side of yt tower wch was ye old fashion in Building and is like my brother Say's house at Broughton.

Out of an Entry you Come into a very Lofty good hall, ye Screen at the Lower End (wch divides it from ye Entry) is ffinely Carv'd, the parlour and drawing roome are well proportion'd roomes, and ye wanscoate is all well Carv'd, ye moldings of ye doores and Chimneys are finely Carv'd wth Staggs and all sorts of beasts, woods and some leaves and flowers and birds and angells &. There is beyond this a very good little parlour wth plaine wanscoate painted in veines like marble, dark and white Streakes. There is a very good dineing roome over this and 5 very good Chambers some well ffurnished, all very neate and Convenient wth Closetts to their own apartments and Anty roomes. There is much of ye Same ffine Carving in the dineing roome, the Chambers are all wanscoated and Carv'd, there is a noble gallery over all, with large windows on ye sides and at Each End painted very Curiously, out of wch you view the whole Country round and discover the shipps under saile though at a good distance. The Gardens are large and are Capable of being made very ffine-they now remaine in the old ffashion. There is gravell walks and grass and Close walks, there is one walke all ye Length of the Garden Called the Crooked walke, of grass well Cutt and rowled, it is indented in and out in Corners, and so is the wall wch makes you thinke you are at ye End off the walke Severall tymes before you are, by means of ye Codling hedge that is on the other side. This Leads you to a summer house that also opens to a large gravell walke that runns the breadth of ye Garden to the house ward. From Agnes Burton we went to Scarsborough 14 mile. We pass'd from this flatt to Boynton, thence ascended the wouls or high hills so Called in this County, and it prov'd misty wch made our observations to be fixed on it that the mist was thicker and more held in those high wouls as raine or mist is in thick trees, so ye mist was much more there than in ye plaine, so thick in some you Could not see the top. We descended these high wouls by a steep and hazardous precipice on one Side and ye way narrow.

Scarbrough is a very pretty Sea-port town built on the Side of a high hill. The Church Stands in the most Eminent place above all ye town and at Least 20 Steps you ascend up into ye Churchyard. The ruines of a Large Castle remaines, the Walls in Compass severall acres of ground yt feeds many beasts and milch Cows. Ye hill on wch the Castle Stands is very Steep and Severall trenches over one another, round the walls all one Side of the Castle Stands out to the sea shore a good Length. Its open to the Main ocean and to secure the harbour there is a mole or halfe moone, two, one within ye other something resembling the Cobb at Lime in Sommersetshire. The sea when the tide is in is Close up to the town and the bottom of a Ridge of hills that runns from the town 5 or 6 mile in a Compass. When its Ebb water it Leaves ye shore 400 yards all a flatt, and such good sand, as you presently walke on it without Sinking, ye Sand is so smooth and firme, and so you may walke 5 or 6 mile on the Sand round by ye ffoote of this Ridge of hills, wch is the poynt by wch all the Shipps pass that go to NewCastle or that way. I see 70 saile of shipps pass the point and so Come onward at some Distance off from the Castle, Supposed to be Colliers and their Convoys. On this Sand by the Sea shore is ye Spaw well wch people frequent, and all the diversion is ye walking on this sand twice a day at ye Ebb of the tide and till its high tide and then they drink. Its something from an Iron or Steele minerall but by means of the tide flowing on it Every tyme. Especially spring tydes it Covers ye well quite-and allwayes flowes up just to it, wch Leaves a brackish and saltness wch makes it purge pretty much, but they say ye Spring is so quick that it soone Casts off ye Sea water; but in my opinion is yt the whole spring and all the Springs that Bubble up all over the sands must be agreable and of the sort of water the sea is, being so just on the sea side and so neare must be Influenc'd by ye salt water. It seems to be a pretty turbulent Sea, I was on it in a little boate but found it very rough even just in ye harbour, I suppose the Cause may be from standing so open to ye Maine. The town has abundance of Quakers in it, most of their best Lodgings were In quakers hands, they Entertain all people, soe in Private houses in the town by way of ordinary, so much a Meale and their Ale. Every one finds themselves-there are a few Inns for horses only. I was at a quakers meeteing in the town where 4 men and 2 women spoke one, after another had done, but it seem'd such a Confusion and so incoherent that it very much moved my Compassion and pitty to see their delusion and Ignorance and no less Excited my thankfullness for the Grace of God that upheld others from such Errors. I observ'd their prayers were all made on the first person and single, though before the body of people; it seems they allow not of ones being the mouth of ye Rest in prayer to God tho' it be in the publick meetings. In this town we had good accomodations and on very Reasonable terms. They drye a large ffish Like Codlings and salt them and when you dress them, water them; then they string them on wire, and so Rost them before the fire and make good sauce for them, they Eate very well and as tender as a fresh Codling and very sweete iff they were well cured when they were first taken, Else they will taste stronge.

Thence we went to Maulton 14 miles wch is a pretty large town built of Stone but poor; there is a large market place and severall great houses of gentlemens round the town. There was one Mr Paumes that marry'd a relation of mine Lord Ewers Coeheiress who is landlady of almost all ye town. She has a pretty house in the place. There is the ruins of a very great house wch belonged to ye family but they not agreeing about it Caused ye defaceing of it. She now makes use of ye roomes off ye outbuildings and gate house for weaving and Linning Cloth, haveing set up a manuffactory for Linnen wch does Employ many poor people. She supply'd me wth very good beer, for ye Inn had not the best. Thence to York 14 miles, and so to Tadcaster 8 mile, thence to Aberfford 4 miles all on a heavy bottom, their miles are long and I observe the ordinary people both in these parts of Yorkshire and in the northern parts Can scarce tell you how farre it is to the next place unless it be in the great towns, and there in their publick houses, and they tell you its very good yate Instead of Saying it is good way, and they Call their gates yates, and do not Esteem it uphill unless so steep as a house or precipice; they say its good levell gate all along when it maybe there are Severall great hills to pass, but this account did Encrease on us the nearer we Came to Darbyshire, but in Generall they Live much at home and scarce Ever go 2 or 10 mile from thence Especially the women, so may be term'd good housekeepers. To Aberford we Came by severall pretty Seates in view, we Lay at an acquaintances house Mrs Hickeringalls: thence we went to Castleton Bridge 5 mile, where was a glass house; we saw them blowing white glass and neale it in a large oven by the heate of ye ffurnace. All the Country is full of Coale and the pitts are so thick in ye roade that it is hazardous to travell for strangers.

Thence to Pomffret 3 miles wch Looks very finely in the approach. Its built on a hill all of stone, its a very neate building and ye streets well pitch'd and broad, the houses well built and looks more stately than any in York, only its not the tenth part so bigg, its a neate little town as I have seen. there are severall very good houses in it, one Doctr Burgess has built a very good house wch is Call'd his ffolly. There is a noble house at the Entrance of the town of ye Lady Grace Perpoynt, and good Parke Gardens and walks and a great revenue belonging to it,-the Daughter of the Marquis of Dorchesters. There is a ffine Church in the town and as spacious a market place as is at Salisbury or as you shall see any where, and the building so Even and uniforme as well as Lofty that it appears very magnificent -its a Major town. We were in the Chief Inn the Sunn, tho' there are many good Inns, but this was a very good Genteel jnn and it happen'd the Landlord was then Major of ye town.

Provisions are very Easy here, we had 2 or 3 pound of Codffish for a small matter and it was a Large dish. Ye town is full of Great Gardens walled in all round on ye outside of the town, on the Edge of ye hill so the Gardens runns down a great way, you descend with them by severall stepps. Its a fruitfull place, fine flowers and trees with all sorts of fruite, but that wch is mostly jntended is the Encreasing of Liquorish wch ye Gardens are all filled with, and any body that has a Little ground improves it for the produce of Liquorish of wch there is vast quantetyes, and it returns severall 100 pounds yearly to the towns. The Leafe is not much unlike a Rose Leafe but some wt narrower and Longer, the Coullour is something a Yellower Green, Else the branches grow Like it wth double Leaves on a Stalke and severall all down ye Stalke, somewhat in the manner of Caliceily or Solomons Seale and much of that smoothness of Leafe. Thence to Hemsworth 4 mile where we Could meet wth no Lodging, only Little ale houses to give one a pot of beere, and so we went 2 mile ffarther but found it ye same and it being too farre to reach Rotheram we made use of ye hospitallity of a Clergyman one Mr Fferrer wch was a very Genteele man and gave us a Civil Entertainmt and good beds-he has a very good house and Genteely ffitted good Hall and parlour, and the Garden very neate. Its a very ffruitfull Country wch Encourages jndustry and there is plenty of Stone Like free Stone wch makes ffine houses and walls. Thence to Rotheram 12 miles, its most in a deep Clay ground and now the wayes are more difficult and narrow. Rotheram is a good market town well built all of stone. The Church stands high in ye middle of the town and Looks finely, its all Stone and Carv'd very well all the out side. Thence to Ackington 8 mile, a very Little place its 3 mile from Shellton town, but that was thought out of our way, so we Lay here in a poor Sorry Inn. There was one good bed for us Gentlewomen. Its a pretty Long Parish and through it runns a Water which Came down a great banck at the End of ye town like a precipice with such violence yt it makes a great noise, and looks Extreamely Cleare in the Streame that gushes out and runns along: it runns on off a deep yellow Coullour, they say it runns off of a poisonous mine or Soile and from Coale pitts; they permit none to taste it for I sent for a Cup of it and ye people in ye Streete Call'd out to forbid ye tasteing it, and it will beare no Soape so its useless. Here we Entred Darbyshire and went to Chesterffield 6 mile, and Came by ye Coale mines where they were digging. They make their mines at ye Entrance Like a Well and so till they Come to ye Coale, then they digg all the Ground about where there is Coale and set pillars to support it, and so bring it to ye well where by a basket Like a hand barrow by Cords they pull it up- so they Let down and up the miners with a Cord. Chesterffield Looks Low when you approach it from the Adjacent hill wch you descend, but then you ascend another to it. The Coale pitts and quaraes of stone are all about, Even just at ye town End, and in the town its all built of stone. Ye Church stands in a place of Eminency, the town Looks well, the Streets good, ye Market very Large. It was Satturday wch is their market day and there was a great Market Like some little ffaire, a great deale of Corne and all sorts of ware and ffowles there. I bought my self 2 very good ffatt white (pullings as they Call them) pullets for 6 pence both, and I am sure they were as Large and as good as would have Cost 18 pence if not 2 shills a piece in London-so said all my Company. In this town is ye best ale in the Kingdom Generally Esteem'd. All Derbyshire is full of Steep hills and nothing but the peakes of hills as thick one by another is seen in most of ye County wch are very steepe, wch makes travelling tedious and ye miles Long. You see neither hedge nor tree but only Low drye stone walls round some ground Else its only hills and Dales as thick as you Can Imagine, but tho' the Surface of ye Earth Looks barren yet those hills are impregnated wth Rich marble stone metals, Iron and Copper and Coale mines in their bowells, from whence we may see the wisdom and benignitye of oer greate Creator to make up the Defficiency of a place by an Equivolent, and also the diversity of the Creation wch Encreaseth its Beauty. We go from Chesterffield to ye Duke of Devonshires house and ascend a high hill at Least two or three miles Long, we pass'd by a Cavity in one great Banck or Rock Called Stonidge Hall all stone of about 12 yards long and about 4 or 5 broad, its all Rock like an arch on ye Roofe but its not ffenc'd so but ye beasts trample and ffowle it you Can scarce go into it. The same long steep hill we had to descend wch Comes to Chattsworth ten mile. The Duke's house Lyes just at ye foote of this steepe hill wch is like a precipice just at ye Last, notwithstanding the Dukes house stands on a little riseing ground from ye River Derwent wch runns all along ye front of ye house, and by a Little fall made in ye water wch makes a pretty Murmurring noise. Before ye gate there is a Large parke and Severall ffine Gardens one wth out another wth Gravell walkes and Squairs of Grass wth stone statues in them, and in ye middle of Each Garden is a Large ffountaine full of I mages, sea gods and Dolphins and sea horses wch are full of pipes wch spout out water in the bason and spouts all about the Gardens. 3 gardens just round the house. Out of two of ye Gardens you ascend by Severall Stepps into other Gardens wch some have Gravell walks and squares Like ye other wth Statues and Images in the bason. There is one bason in the Middle of one Garden thats very Large and by sluces besides the I mages Severall pipes plays out ye water-about 30 Large and small pipes altogether, some fflush it up that it ffrothes Like snow. There is one Garden full of stone and brass statues. So the Gardens Lyes one above another wch makes the prospect very fine. Above these gardens is an ascent of 5 or 6 stepps up to green walk and groves of firrs and a wilderness and Close arbours and shady walks. On Each End of one Walke stands two piramidies full of pipes spouting water that runns down one of them-runns on brass hollow work wch looks like rocks and hollow stones.

Ye other is all fflatts, stands one above another like Salvers so the water rebounds one from another 5 or 6 one above the Other. There is another green walke and about ye Middle of it by ye Grove stands a fine Willow tree, the Leaves, Barke and all looks very naturall, ye roote is full of rubbish or great stones to appearance and all on a Sudden by turning a sluce it raines from Each Leafe and from the branches like a shower, it being made of Brass and pipes to Each Leafe, but in appearance is Exactly like any Willow. Beyond this is a bason in wch are ye branches of two Artichock Leaves wch weeps at ye End of Each Leafe into the bason wch is placed at ye foote of Lead steps 30 in number. The Lowest step is very deep, and between Every 4 stepps is a half pace all made of Lead and are broad on Each side. On a little banck stands blew balls 10 on a side, and between Each ball are 4 pipes wch by a sluce spouts out water aCross ye stepps to Each other like an arbour or arch. While you are thus amused suddenly there runs down a torrent of water out of 2 pitchers in ye hands of two Large nimphs Cut in stone that Lyes in the upper step wch makes a pleaseing prospect. This is designed to be Enlarged and Steps made up to ye top of ye hill wch is a vast ascent, but ffrom ye top of it now they are Supply'd wth water for all their pipes so it will be the Easyer to have such a fall of water Even from ye top wch will add to the Curiositye. The house is built all of Stone yt is dugg out of the hills, its like free stone-a flatt Roofe wth Barristers and flower potts. In the ffront is 7 large windows, the glass is diamond Cutt and all off large Looking glass, ye panes bigg 4 in a breadth 7 in height, to the Garden ward was 12 windows of ye same glass 4 panes broad 8 long, ye Lowest windows are made wth Grates before them and are for birds-an Averye-and so looking glass behind. Ye stepps out of ye Garden are on Either side 20 steps and Iron barrs painted blew and tipt wth gold. Ye steps meete on ye top in a halfe pace railed ye same, but ye front entrance is not finished; there is a large Court wch is to be pas'd and so stepps on Each side of stone wth half paces up to a tarrass walke. Ye large gates of jron barrs are 3 at ye Court and from this tarress you Enter. The ffront is wth Severall Large stone pillars Carv'd, at ye Entrance into another Court wch ye house is built about, and here are peaso's supported wth stone pillars, under wch you pass from one place to another. Out of it is ye Chappel wch is a very lofty building and supported by 4 large pillars of black marble, two at ye alter, 2 just at ye bottom to support ye gallery for ye Duke and Dutches to sitt in. Ye pillars are 14 foote, and so bigg that I could not Compass one wth my arms. These 4 and 2 stepps by ye alter was made out of one stone Cut out of ye hill just by, so is all ye marble about the house and so finely polish'd like a Looking glass; the pavemt is black and white marble vein'd, Lay'd long wayes in large stones all of ye same. Ye painting is very fine, on the top and on the sides ye history of Christ and ye New testament. There is a very fine Carving of wood and Stone, the Dove at the alter ye Angels and Cherubims wth flowers, Leaves Laurell &. &. very Curiously Carv'd. The hall is very Lofty, painted top and Sides with armory and there is 18 steps on Each side goes up as an arch, wth Iron Barristers tipt wth gold wch Meetes on ye top Large steps of stone. Thence you Enter a dineing roome' two drawing roomes, a bed Chamber and Closet wch opens quite thro' the house a visto, and at the End of the dineing roome is a Large door all of Looking glass in great pannells all diamond Cutt. This is just opposite to ye doores that runs into ye drawing roome and bed Chamber and Closet so it shews ye roomes to Look all double. Ye ffloores of ye Roomes are all finely Inlaid, there is very Curious Carving over and Round the Chimney pieces, and Round the Looking-glasses that are in ye peers between the windows, and fine Carv'd shelves or stands on Each side of ye glass. Every roome is differing work and all fine Carving and over ye doores some of it is of ye Natural Coullr of ye wood and varnish'd only- others painted. Ye Dutchess's Closet is wanscoated wth ye hollow burnt japan, and at Each Corner are peers of Looking glass; over the Chimney is Looking glass an oval and at the 4 Corners after this figure O, and hollow Carving all round ye glass. The roomes are all painted very finely on ye top; all ye windows ye Squares of glass are so large and good they Cost 10s. a pannell. There was sweete tapistry hangings with small figures and very much silk, they Look'd as ffresh as if new tho' bought severall yeares-there were no beds up. There was as many roomes on the other side wch were not ffinished, they were just painting ye Ceilings and Laying the floores wch are all jnlaid, these were the Duke and dutchess's apartmts besides which are a great number of roomes and severall offices. There is a fine Grottoe all stone pavement Roofe and sides, this is design'd to supply all ye house wth water besides severall ffanceyes to make diversion. Within this is a batheing roome, ye walls all wth blew and white marble- the pavement mix'd, one stone white, another black, another of ye Red vaned marble. The bath is one Entire marble all white finely veined wth blew and is made smooth, but had it been as finely pollish'd as some it would have been the finest marble that Could be seen. It was as deep as ones middle on the outside, and you went down steps into ye bath big enough for two people. At ye upper End are two Cocks to let in one hott, ye other Cold water to attemper it as persons please-the Windows are all private Glass. The Gallery we ascended out of ye hall into before we Came to ye dineing roome, wch I should have spoken off then, was delicately painted over head, and Round on the top was a raile and Barristers so naturally drawn just round the Cornish, that you would take it for a Railed walke round ye top to looke down into the gallery. There is another ffine staircase all stone and hangs on it self on ye outside, ye support is from ye wall and its own building. Ye stone of ye half paces are large and one Entire stone makes Each. On the top of ye Staires ye space Leading to ye roomes are 3 large Stones, the Stones Cost 20? a piece, so large and thick you would wonder how they should be raised up so high and be supported by its own arch without any pillars on ye outside. This is all of Stone Cut out of ye hills wch Looks like what we Call free stone. Ye house is all off the same and all the marble in ye Windows, Chimneys and pavements is all marble dug out of the hill above the house, both black, white rance, and Curiously veined and polished, so fine as any I ever saw wch Came from beyond sea. Thence we came to Bankwell a pretty neate market town 2 mile; it Stands on a hill, yet you descend a vast hill to it wch you would thinke impossible to go down, and we was forced to fetch a Great Compass, and by reason of ye steepness and hazard of ye wayes if you take a wrong Way there is no passing. You are forced to have guides as in all parts of Darbyshire, and unless it be a few yt use to be guides ye Common people know not above 2 or 3 mile from their home, but they of ye Country will Climbe up and down wth their horses those steep precipices. There are many fine springs of water purling out of ye Rock on these hills. At Bankwell there was an Excellent Minister in ye Publick who pray'd and preach'd very seriously and his Life and Conversation is suitable, not very frequent in our dayes to be found.

Celia Fiennes, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press, 1888)

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