Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for HEREFORD

HEREFORD, a city, a sub-district, and a district in Herefordshire; and a diocese partly also in Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Salop, Radnor, and Montgomery. The city stands on the river Wye, in a fine spacious valley, 29¾ miles SW by W of Worcester, 30¼ NW by W of Gloucester, 51 S of Shrewsbury, and 134 by road, but 144 by railway, WNW of London; and it has railway communication in five directions, toward Worcester, Gloucester, Abergavenny, Brecon, and Shrewsbury.

History.—The date of the city's origin is matter of dispute. Some writers suppose it to have been a Roman outpost, dependent on the large station of Magna Castra, about 4 miles distant; others suppose it to have been founded by the Britons, soon after Magna Castra was deserted by the Romans; others believe it to have originated in connexion with the establishment of the Saxon power; and others date it so late as the time of Edward the Elder. Early British names of it are said to have been Treffawyd and Caerffawyd, in allusion to beech trees; a later British name for it was Henfordd, signifying "the old ford;" and the present name of it was originally Herefordd, signifying "the ford of the army" Most writers represent the place as of great im portance at the rise of the Mercian kingdom; as having early become the capital of that kingdom; and as having, in 680, been the meeting place of a synod for re-adjusting the episcopal government of Mercia. Walls were built around it, and a castle was erected at it, about 905, by Ethelfleda; and these were strengthened or rebuilt, about 939, by Athelstane. The city then began to overawe the Welsh, and to hold them to tribute; but, in 1055, it was captured, sacked, fired, and reduced almost to total ruin, by Llewelyn ap Giyfydd, Prince of Wales. Its walls were rebuilt, and its castle was re-erected-or, as some say, built for the first time-by Harold. The castle was given, by William the Conqueror, to the Fitz-Osbornes; was seized, against King Stephen, by William Talbot; and was recovered, in 1141, by Stephen. The city was captured, in 1263, by the Earl of Leicester and the rebellions barons; was the place of the forcible detention by them of Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., till his escape from it in 1265; and was the scene of the execution of Edward II. 's favourite Despenser, in 1322, and of Edward II. 's own deposition in 1326. It was the scene also after the battle of Mortimer's Cross. It surrendered to the parliamentarian forces under Sir William Waller, in 1643; was soon retaken by the royalists; was besieged, in 1645, by the Scots, under the Earl of Leven; was relieved by the approach of the king, after his defeat at Naseby; and was one of the last places which surrendered finally to the parliament. Charles II., on coming to the throne, granted it the motto "Invictæ Fidelitatis Præminm." It gives the title of Viscount to the Devereuxs: and numbers, among its distinguished natives or residents, Roger of Hereford, Lady M. Deering, Nell Gwynne, General Stringer, Captain Cornewall, David Garrick, Cardinal Wolsey, Polydore Virgil, Phillips the poet, Havard the song writer, and Wathen the pedestrian.

Streets and Environs.—The city occupies a gentle eminence; and, though environed by low lands, is sufficiently elevated to be free from damp or fog. The walls which surrounded it had a circuit of about 2, 350 yards, and were aided, in their defence of it, by the Wye and a little brook. Fifteen towers projected from them, embattled, and with cruciform embrazures, in the sides and centre, for discharge of arrows, and for observation. The gates were six in number, Eigne gate on the W, Widemarshgate on the N, Bishop's gate on the NE, St. Andrew'sgate or St. Owen's gate on the SE, Wyebridge gate at the S end of the bridge, and Friar's gate on the SW. The castle stood contiguous to the Wye, a little below the bridge; and was described by Leland as having been "one of the largest, fairest, and strongest castles in England, ", - "strongly ditched where not defended by the river., -the walls of it high and strong and full of great towers." Some portions of the city walls, in fair preservation, still exist; but the six gates and all the castle have utterly disappeared. The castle green, or area of the outer ward, overhanging the river, is now surrounded by an elevated and delightful public walk, which runs along the site of the castle walls, and commands beautiful and extensive views of the surrounding country. The site of the castle's lower keep also is now occupied by another walk, still more elevated, and forming a kind of semicircle. The site of the principal keep still bears the name of Castle hill . The city has undergone great improvement since the commencement of the present century; and now, on the whole, presents a pleasing, wellbuilt, modern appearance; yet still contains a goodly number of old houses. The main streets are broad and well paved, and have been decorated with many tasteful shops and residences; and numerous streets of an inferior description diverge from the main ones. A curious ancient house, the Butchers' hall, with a large amount of carving, is in St. Peter's street; another curious house of the 17th century, is in East street; the birthplace of Nell Gwynne was in Gwynne street; and that of David Garrick was in a small street diverging from Widemarshstreet. The environs are noted for luxuriant fields, charming orchards, delicious gardens, and extensive pasture lands; they are adorned with fine mansions, as Belmont, Holm-Lacy, Rotherwas, Sufton, and others; and they stretch away, on all sides, over the fertile valley, to picturesque ranges of hills, most of which are wooded to the summits.

Public Buildings.—The bridge across the Wye leads to a suburb; is ancient and six-arched; was originally a beautiful structure, for its time; and suffered considerable defacement by the irregular reconstruction of an arch, which was destroyed at the siege of 1645, to prevent a renewed attack by the Scots. The old town hall in Hightown, an open space where some principal streets meet, was erected in the time of James I.; figured as a remarkable feature of the city; was an oblong structure of wood and plaster, supported by pillars of solid oak; but was taken down in 1861. The county hall was built in 1817, after designs by Smirke; is in the Doric syle, with a handsome octostyle portico; contains two well-arranged court-rooms for the sessions of the assizes; contains also a fine concert hall, 71 feet by 50, hung with portraits of George IN. and a duke of Norfolk, and with other paintings; and used for a triennial musical festival, by the choirs of Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucester, the profits of which are appropriated to charitable purposes. The county jail, in Bye street suburb, was built in 1797, at a cost of £18, 000; is enclosed within a high brick wall, with handsome rusticated Tuscan gateway; and has accommodation for 92 male and 22 female prisoners. The city jail, with police station, was rebuilt in 1842, at a cost of nearly £20, 000; is an ornamental edifice, surrounded by a lofty wall; and has accommodation for 78 male and 24 female prisoners. The markets are situated on and near the site of the old town hall; and the corn exchange was built at a cost of £4, 500. The White Cross, in Eigne suburb, was built in 1347, by Dr. Charlton, afterwards bishop of Hereford, as a market-place during the prevalence of an epidemic in the city; had a graduated octagonal base, an ornamental shaft, and a variety of sculptures; and was restored by the present archdeacon of Hereford and treasurer of the cathedral, Lord Saye and Sele. The theatre has been taken down; was small and badly situated; yet claims notice for having been long under the management of the Kemble family, and for having nurtured many distinguished actors, including Clive, Siddons, Kemble, and Garrick. The museum is centrally situated; contains a valuable collection of curiosities; and stands connected with a well-stocked reading and news room. A massive column, to the memory of Lord Nelson, stands in Castle-green; is 60 feet high; and rests on a square pedestal, on one side of which is a bust, in relievo, of Lord Nelson. A bronze statue of Sir G.Lewis, by Baron Marochetti, was erected, in 186 4, in front of the county hall. The Gloucestershire bank's office, in the Italian style, was built in 1867.

The Cathedral.—More than one ancient church seems to have stood on the S side of the city, on the site of the present cathedral. Polydore Virgil speaks of a large church-"Templum quod Herefordiæ id temporis magnificum erat"-as early as the reign of Offa. This structure appears to have been formed of wood; yet it may probably enough have been a grand one for its era; and at least it acquired a sort of magnificence by becoming the burial-place of the murdered and canonized King Ethelbert, and the resort of pilgrims to his shrine. A new church, of stone, in lieu of the wooden one, was erected on the same spot, in honour of Ethelbert, in 825, by Milfred, a Mercian viceroy; but this, within less than 200 years, fell into complete decay. Another church, some small portions of which still exist in the present cathedral, was founded, on the same spot, in 1030, by Bishop Athelstan; but was destroyed, in 1055, at the capture of the city by Llewelyn ap Gryfydd. The present pile was begun, in 1079, on the plan of that of Aixla-Chapelle, by Bishop Lozinge or Lothingar. The nave and the original W front, the latter of which is said to have been the finest specimen of arcade work ever constructed, were completed, about 1114, by Bishop Raynelm. The retro-choir was built, between 1186 and 1199, by Bishop De Vere. The Lady chapel and the crypt were constructed about 1120. The lower portion of the central tower was built, between 1200 and 1215, by Bishop de Braose; the upper portion about a century later. A great western tower, 130 feet high, and very similar to the central tower, was built also by Bishop De Braose; and this fell down, in 1786, destroying four bays of the nave. The north transept, the choir, and the earlier part of the N porch, were built, between 1275 and 1282, by Bishop Cantilupe. The later part of the N porch was built, between 1516 and 1535, by Bishop Booth; and the chapter house, the main cloisters, the choir transept, and the aisles of nave and choir, were built, between 1 4 26 and 1 47 4, by Bishops Spofford and Stanbury. The cathedral, as it now stands, consists of a nave of seven bays with aisles, instead of nine original bays with aisles; a choir of four bays, with aisles; a main transept, of two bays in the N wing, and one bay in the S wing; a choir transept, divided laterally into two aisles; a presbytery; a Lady chapel of three bays; square cloisters, on the S side of the nave; and a central tower. The nave is 130 feet long, 74 wide, and 70 high; the choir is 96 feet long, 76 wide, and 64 high; the main transept is 150 feet long, and 64 feet high; the choirtransept is 106 feet long; the presbytery is 24 feet long; the Lady chapel is 75 feet long; the cloisters are 100 feet square; and the central tower is 1 40 feet high. The entire pile is 325 feet long. The cathedral, owing to the widely different dates of its different parts, necessarily exhibits many different styles; and, at the same time, owing to extensive modern reconstructions and recent renovations of some of these parts, displays portions of the styles in a much altered form. The reconstruction of the W front was done by Wyatt, at a cost of about £18, 000, -a sum quite inadequate to the fair or even moderate reproduction of the work in its pristine character; and it both cut away 15 feet of the former length of the nave, and raised a front of miserably poor features compared with those of that which had fallen. Restorations of numerous parts, not completed in 1 865, and carried on during many years before, under the superintendence of Mr. G. G. Scott, are of a far happier kind, and tend to bring back no small aggregate of the original excellence of the fabric; and these had cost about £30, 000 at the close of 1861, and were on a scale to require a further cost of about £8, 000 before completion.-The nave, in the columns and circular arches which separate it from the aisles, presents beautiful examples of zig-zag, nail headed, lozenge, and other Norman decorations; below the clerestory, shows a range of arcades with pointed arch; and on the N side, b as early decorated English windows. The north porch rises two stories; consists of three broad, open arches, with windows above them to light the parvise; and is a fine example of later English. The south wing of the main transept has, on the E side, five arcades of circular arches; and the north wing has a triforium of three trefoiled lights, under three quatrefoiled circles, within a triangular headed early decorated arch. The choir transept has windows of four lights, with early geometrical tracery; and probably was parted off for four altars. The choir has a later English window of five lights, flanked with pinnacled buttresses; and its clerestory has early English windows of two lights each, an under arcade of long lancet arches, and an upper arcade of small arches trefoiled. The Lady chapel was restored, about 1850, by Mr. Cottingham; is a beautiful example of early English architecture, with lancet windows; has five of these in the E end, filled with stained glass in memory of Dean Merewether; and has also a magnificent stained glass window, erected by public subscription, at a cost of £1, 300, to the memory of Dr. Lane Freer, late archdeacon of Hereford. The central tower rises two stories, divided by a broad band of quatrefoil tracery; has, on each face of the belfry, four canopied two light windows, trefoiled, with a quatrefoil in the head, set between buttresses; is crowned by pinnacles, added in 1858; and, till 1792, had a broach spire 92 feet high.- The font, in the nave, is Norman, circular, with twisted columns resting on lions, and with figures of the apostles in an arcade. Fifty oak canopied stalls, in the choir, are of the time of Edward II., and were restored under the direction of Dr. Meyrick. The reredos was designed by Cottingham, and executed in 1853; has five deeply recessed panels, with alti-relievi of our Lord's passion, in Caen stone; and is a memorial of Joseph Bailey, M. P. The organ was built by Schmidt in 16 86, and given to the cathedral by Charles II.; and has been improved by Byfield, Green, Avery, and Bishop. The chief monuments in the cathedral are, in the nave, an effigies and tomb of Bishop De Lorraine, an effigies of Bishop De Braose, an effigies of Sir Richard Pembridge, and an effigies of Bishop Booth; in the main transept, a sculptured shrine of Bishop Cantilupe, a canopied effigies of Bishop Aqua Bella, a canopied effigies of Bishop Charlton, and effigies of Bishops Westphaling and Trevenant; in the choir transept, tombs of Bishops Swifield and Godwin; in the choir, an altar tomb of Bishop Mayo, an arcaded effigies of Bishop Raynelm, a brass of Dean Frocester, and effigies of Bishops De Vere, Foliot, Betun, and Melun; and in the Lady chapel, an effigies of Humphrey de Bohun, an effigies with frescoes of Joanna de Bohun, several black incised slabs of the earlier part of the 15th century, and effigies of Bishops Lothingar, Clyve, Mapenore, and Dean Berew. An octagonal chapel, built about the close of the 15th century, by Bishop Audley; a fine example of later English architecture, with fan tracery vaulting, is to the S of the Lady chapel; another chapel, built in the 15th century, by Bishop Stanbury, also with fan tracery ceiling, is on the N of the choir. The crypt is reached by descent off the N side of the Lady chapel; measures 50 feet by 40; consists of two aisles; and is called Golgotha. The main cloisters are a good specimen of later English; but only the E alley of eight panes, and the S walk of nine panes, remain. Other cloisters, called the Lady Arbour or Bishop's cloisters, are of later date than the main cloisters; and consist of a single alley, 100 feet long. The Vicar's college, a quadrangle about 100 feet square, is reached through the Lady Arbour. The original chapter house stood on the E side of the main cloisters, and was decagonal and richly decorated; but only part of its wall remains. The present chapter house adjoins the SW transept; and contains one of the oldest maps in existence, a Saxon map of the world, with Jerusalem in the centre, and bearing inscriptions of the time of Henry III. The Bishop's palace is on the S side of the cathedral, fronting the river; and the deanery is on the E.

Parishes.—The parishes within the borough boundaries of the city are All Saints, St. Nicholas, St. Owen, St. Peter, and parts of St. John Baptist, St. Martin, Breinton, Holmer, Bishop-Hampton, and Upper Bullingham. Acres of All Saints, 341; of St. Nicholas, 554; of St. Owen, 256; of St. Peter, 60; of St. John Baptist, 436; of St. Martin, 1, 210. Pop. of All Saints, in 1851, 3, 172, -in 1861, 4, 525; of St. Nicholas, in 1851, 1, 228, -in 1861, 1, 533; of St. Owen, in 1851, 1, 743, -in 1861, 2, 171; of St. Peter, in 1851, 2, 620, -in 1861, 3, 053; of St. John Baptist, in 1851, 1, 306, -in 1861, 1, 419; of St. Martin, in 1851, 1, 157, -in 1861, 1, 457. Houses, in 1861, of All Saints, 908; of St. Nicholas, 291; of St. Owen, 424; of St. Peter, 525; of St. John Baptist, 273; of St. Martin, 305. Pop. in 1861 of the borough part of St. John Baptist, 1, 407; of the borough part of St. Martin, 1, 364. The other parishes are noticed in their own separate places.-The livings of St. Nicholas and St. Owen are rectories, those of All Saints, St. Peter, St. John Baptist, and St. Martin, vicarages, that of StJames a p. curacy, in the diocese of Hereford; and those of St. Owen and St. Peter are united. Value of St. Nicholas, £300; of St. Owen-with-St. Peter, £366; of All Saints, St. John Baptist, and St. Martin, each £300.* Patrons of All Saints and St. Martin, the Dean and Canons of Windsor; of St. Nicholas, the Lord Chancellor; of St. Owen-with-St. Peter, Simeon's Trustees; of St. John Baptist, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford.

Churches.—The parish churches do not possess striking features in themselves; but, being mostly situated at the terminations of streets, they add considerably to the picturesqueness of the city. All Saints' stands at the top of Eigne street, almost in the centre of the city; is very ancient, partly Norman, and said to be the mother church of the city; was given, by Henry III., to the hospital of St. Anthony of Vienna; consists of nave, chancel, and aisles, with a fine tower and spire, which leans considerably out of the perpendicular; includes parts in decorated English, and parts in later English; and contains some curious, carved oak stalls, which are supposed to have been appropriated to the brethren of St. Anthony's hospital. St. Nicholas stands at the foot of Victoria street; was rebuilt, in 1842, partly from the materials of a previous ancient church in the adjoining square; and is a neat edifice, with a fine tower. St. Owen's stood without the walls; and was destroyed in 1645, during the siege by the Scots. St. Peter's stands in St. Owen's street; was founded by Walter de Lacy, about the year 1070; is of pure Norman character; was restored in 1793; and contains seven stalls and a piscina. St. John the Baptist is part of the main transept of the cathedral. St Martin's stands on the Ross road; was rebuilt in 1845; and is cruciform, with tower and lofty spire. St. James' was built in 1869; and is in the early geometric style, and cruciform. There are chapels for Independents, Baptists, Quakers, Methodists, and Roman Catholics. A black priory was founded in Port field beyond Byestreet gate, about the year 1276, by William Cantilupe, brother of Bishop Cantilupe; was rebuilt in Widemarsh suburb in the times of Edward II. and III.; enjoyed the presence of Edward III., Edward the Black Prince, three archbishops, and many nobility and gentry at its dedication; became an establishment of great note; was given, at the dissolution, to John Scudamore and William Wygmore; passed to the Coningsbys and the Earls of Essex; and is now represented by inconsiderable ruins, chiefly the south wall of the abbot's house, some remains of the monks' residences, and a mutilated but still beautiful hexagonal pulpit cross of the 15th century. A grey friary was founded, in 1293, by Sir W. Pembrugge or Brydges; was the burial place of Owen Tudor, whom we noticed as having been executed in the city; and was given, at the dissolution, to the Boyles. The house of an ancient community of prebendaries stood in the Bye street suburb; bore the name of St. Guthlac's priory; is described as having been "very pleasant and large;" with fine grounds and a gloomy spacious chapel; was destroyed at some period not recorded; and its site is now occupied by the county jail. Several other monastic establishments existed in the city; but they figure little on record, and have left no remains.

Schools, &c.—The grammar school is held in the cloisters of the cathedral; was founded before 1385, and aided by Queen Elizabeth; has an endowed income of £30, and several scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge; and numbers among its pupils, Davies and Gerthinge, the penmen, Guillim, the herald, and Bishop Smith, who wrote the preface to the Bible. The blue coat school is supported partly by endowment, but chiefly by subscription; and has a large attendance of both males and females. The national schools were built in 1859; and are a fine structure in the early English style. Coningsby's hospital stands on the site of a Templar's house; was founded, in 1614, for a chaplain and eleven poor men; and comprises a chapel, a hall, and twelve residences. St. Giles' hospital stands on the site of a friary; was rebuilt in 1770; and has an endowment of £84. St. Ethelbert's hospital was founded in the time of Henry III.; is a handsome Gothic edifice; has an endowed income of £177; and appropriates this to aged and infirm women. Price's hospital was founded in 1665; has an endowed income of £422; and is devoted to the support of native freemen. Williams' hospital has £314 from endowment, and supports aged men. Trinity hospital was built, by subscription, early in the present century; has an endowed income of £217; and supports poor men and poor women. Five other hospitals or alms houses have aggregately an endowed income of about £100; and all the endowed charities of the city have aggregately about £2, 600. The infirmary stands a little SE of the Castle walks; was first opened, with capacity for 70 patients, in 1776; and is now a great institution, aided by considerable endowments, and mainly supported by munificent subscription. There are a dispensary, a lyingin charity, and other benevolent institutions. There are also a public library, a literary institution, and other public aids to knowledge.

Trade.—Hereford has a head post office, a railway station with telegraph, five banking offices, and a num ber of hotels and large inns; is a seat of assizes and quarter sessions, a polling place and the political capital of the county; publishes two weekly newspapers; and has races, on an oval course of 1 mile 330 yards, in August. Markets are held on Wednesdays and Saturdays; and fairs, on the Wednesday after 2 Feb., Easter Wednesday, the 3d Wed. of May, the 1ST. Wed. of July, the 3d Wed. of Aug. and Oct., and the 2d Wed. of Dec. Much business is done in cider, hops, malt, and grain. The city was chartered by Henry III.; has sent two members to parliament since the time of Edward I.; and is governed, under the new act, by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors. Real property in 1860, £88, 605; of which £36, 990 were in railways, and £495 in gas works. Electors in 1868, 1, 314. Pop. in 1851, 12, 108; in 1861, 15, 585. Houses, 3, 005.

The District.—The Hereford sub-district of Hereford poor law district, contains the parishes of All Saints, St. Nicholas, St. Owen, St. Peter, St. John Baptist, and part of St. Martin. Acres, 2, 417. Pop. in 1851, 11, 156; in 1861, 14, 065. Houses, 2, 710.—The district comprehends also the sub-district of Dewchurch, containing the parishes of Much Dewchurch, Little Dewchurch, Much Birch, Little Birch, Boulstone, Aconbury, Dewsall, Callow, Allensmore, Clehonger, Upper Bullingham, Lower Bullingham, Dinedor, and Holm-Lacy, the Grafton township of St. Martin, and the extra-parochial tract of Haywood; the sub-district of Fownhope, containing the parishes of Fownhope, Mordiford, Bishop-Hampton, Lugwardine, Dormington, Weston-Beggard, Stoke-Edith, Withington, and part of Marden; the sub-district of Burghill, containing the parishes of Burghill, Credenhill, Kenchester, Stretton-Sugwas, Pipe-cum-Lyde, Holmer, Breinton, Bishop-Eaton, Sutton-ST. Nicholas, SuttonST. Michael, Moreton-on-Lugg, and Wellington, the Marden-proper part of Marden, and the extra-parochial tract of Dinmore; the sub-district of Madley, containing the parishes of Madley, Kingstone, Thruxton, Tiberton, Peterchurch, Turnastone, Vowchurch, and St. Margaret; the sub-district of Clodock, containing the parishes of Clodock, Walterstone, Llancillo, Rowlstone, Dulas, Bacton, and Michaelchurch-Eskley; and the sub-district of Kentchurch, containing the parishes of Kentchurch, Orcop, Killpeck, Wormbridge, St. Devereux, Abbeydore, Treville, Ewyas-Harold, Kenderchurch, Llangua, and Grosmont, -the two last electorally in Monmouth. Acres, 144, 991. Poor rates in 1863, £21, 837. Marriages in 1862, 312; births, 1, 230, of which 103 were illegitimate; deaths, 772, -of which 218 were at ages under 5 years, and 37 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 2, 911; births, 10, 250; deaths, 7, 811. The places of worship, in 1851, were 83 of the Church of England, with 15, 088 sittings; 5 of Independents, with 775 s.; 6 of Baptists, with 1, 264 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 450 s.; 8 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 855 s.; 17 of Primitive Methodists, with 1, 315 s.; 1 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, with 386 s.; 1 of Brethren, with 18 s.; 5 undefined, with 726 s.; and 3 of Roman Catholics, with 690 s. The schools were 42 public day schools, with 2, 561 scholars; 50 private day schools, with 1, 006 s.; 49 Sunday schools, with 2, 622 s.; and 3 evening schools for adults, with 66 s. There are two workhouses, -one in Abbeydore, the other in St. Peter's parish, Hereford; and the latter was built in 1836, and, at the Census of 1861, had 1 84 inmates.

The Diocese.—The bishopric of Hereford is said, by some writers, to have been founded in the time of the ancient Britons, and to have been subject first to the metropolitan see of Caerleon, afterwards to that of St. Davids; but, if it really existed in such early times, it has left no distinct trace of its limits, and none whatever of its bishops. It cannot be said, on the authority of any very credible record, to have been founded till 680; and it is recorded to have then got for its first bishop Putta, under Sexulfus, archbishop of Lichfield. It has undergone many mutations; and it is now, in point of population, the smallest in the province of Canterbury, excepting only the bishopric of Bangor. The most notable among its bishops have been Leofgar, who was more soldier than priest, and went to battle with Prince Gryffydd at Glasbury; Robert of Lorraine, whose conduct was swayed by astrology; De Clive, who had a very brief tender of office; Foliot, the enemy of Thomas â Becket; D'Aqua Blanca, the crusader, robbed by Robin Hood; Cantilupe, who was canonized; Orlton, the traitor; Charlton, the lord treasurer; Castello, the cardinal; Westphaling, remarkable for demureness; Bennet, a keen tennis player; Godwin, the historian; Herbert Croft, distinguished for bravery against the Cromwellians; Bisse, "who rose by the distaff;" Hoadley " who rose by heresy;" and Huntingford, the scholar. Richard Baxter was offered the bishopric, and refused it. Among the dignitaries have been two cardinals; Baron Saye and Sele; Polydore Virgil, the chronicler; Adam de Murimuth, the chronicler; and Simon de Frene, the poet. The cathedral establishment includes the bishop, the dean, four canons, a precentor, a treasurer, two archdeacons, twenty four prebendaries, and a chancellor. The income of the bishop is £4, 200; of the dean £1, 000; of three of the canons, £24, £24, and £25; of each of the archdeacons, £200. The diocese is divided into the archdeacouries of Hereford and Salop; and it comprehends all Herefordshire, except part of the district of Mathon-ST. James, North Hill; the southern portion of Salop; a small part of Staffordshire; a considerable part of Worcestershire; four parishes and part of a fifth in Radnorshire; and a portion of Montgomeryshire. Acres of the whole, 986, 244. Pop. in 1861, 232, 401. Houses, 47, 402. Many of the livings have recently been raised in status, principally p. curacies into vicarages, and are named according to their altered designations in our articles on them severally; but all shall be classed, in the following paragraph, as they stood in 1862. The archdeaconry of Hereford comprises the deaneries of Hereford, Frome, Irchingfield, Leominster, Ross, Weobly, and Weston. The deanery of Hereford contains the rectories of Dinedor, Bishop-Eaton, BishopHampton, Hereford-ST. Nicholas, Hereford-ST. Owen, Thuxton, Moreton-on-Lugg, and Putley; the vicarages of Allensmore, Blakemore, Preston, Canon-Pyon, Dewsall, Hereford-St. John, Hereford-St. Martin, HerefordAll Saints, Hereford-St. Peter, Holmer, Kingston, Madley, Marden, Moreton-Magna, Norton-Canon, Pipe, Withington, and Woolhope; and the p. curacies of Breinton, Brockhampton, Bullinghope, Huntington, Tebberton, Moreton-Jeffries, and Preston-Wynne. The deanery of Frome contains the rectories of Aylton, Bridenoury, Coddington, Collington, Colwall, Cradley, Donnington, Eastnor, Edwin-Ralph, Evesbach, Frome-Castle, Little Marcle, Munsley, Pixley, Upper Sapey, StokeLacy, Tedstone-Delamere, Tedstone-Wafer, Thornbury, Ullinswick, and Whitborne; the vicarages of Avenbury, Bosbury, Bromyard, Much-Cowarne, Felton, BishopFrome, Canon-Frome, Ledbury, Pitchard-Ocle, StokeBliss, Stretton-Grandison, Wolferlow, and Yarkhill; the p. curacies of Cradley-St. John, Bishop-Grendon, BishopStanford, Ashperton, Little Cowarne, and Wacton; and the donative of Brockhampton. The deanery of Irchingfield contains the rectories of Little Birch, St. Devereux, Kentchurch, Llandinabo, Llanwarne, Pitstow, Tretire, Michaelchurch, Welsh-Bicknor, Whitchurch, and Ganerew; the vicarages of Bridstow, Much Dewchurch, Foy, Goodrich, Holm-Lacy, Llanrotha1, and Sellack; the p. curacies of Aconbury, Ballingham, Much Birch, Callow, Garway, Hentland, Little Dewchurch, Hoarwithy, Bolston, Kenderchurch, Kilpeck, Llangarren, St. Weonards, Marstow, Pencoyd, Kings-Caple, and Welsh-Newton; and the donatives of Wormbridge and Orcop. The deanery of Leominster contains the rectories of Byton, Croft, Humber, Kingsland, Knill, Pembridge, Presteigne, Puddlestone, New Radnor, Old Radnor, Sarnesfield, Shobdon, and Stretford; the vicarages of Aymestry, Birley, Yarpole, Eardisland, Eye, Leominster Monkland, Norton, Orleton, Stanton-upon-Arrow, and Wigmore; the p. curacies of Brimfield, Elton, Eyton, Ford, Hatfield, Hope-under-Dinmore, Kimbolton, Middleton-on-the-Hill, Leinthall-Earls, Starkes, Ivington, Lingen, Lncton, Marston-in-Pencombe, Discoyed, Kimmarton, Stoke-Prior, Docklow, and Titley; and the donative of Kinsham. The deanery of Ross contains the rectories of Aston-Ingham, Brampton-Abbots, HopeMansel, How-Caple, Sollershop, Mordiford, Ross, and Weston-nnder-Penyard; the vicarages of Fownhope, Linton, Much Marcle, Bishop-Upton, and Walford; and the p. curacies of Fawley, Yatton, and Bishops-Wood. The-deanery of Weobly contains the rectories of Bacton, Bishopstone, Michaelchurch, Brobury, Byford, Credenliill, Cnsop, Abbeydore, Dorston, Kenchester, Kinnersley, Letton, Moccas, Monnington-on-Wyre, Stanntonupon-Wye, Stretton-Sngwas, Turnastone, Whitney, Wil6 lersley, and Winforton; the vicarages of Almeley, Yazor, Bredwardine, Sollers-Bridge, Brilley, Clifford, Clodock, Eardesley, Lyonshall, Kington, Mansel-Gamage, Mansel-Lacy, Eskley-Michaelchurch, Peter-church, Rowlstone, Vowchurch, and Weobl y; and the p. curacies of Hardwick, Craswall, Llanfaino, Longtown, Newton, Dulas, Bollingham, Ewyas-Harold, Huntington, Llancillo, St. Margaret, Walterstone, and wormsley. The deanery of Weston contains the rectories of Stoke-Edith and Sutton-ST. Nicholas; the vicarages of Bodenham, Brinsop, Burghill, Dilwyn, Dormington, Kings-Pyon, Lugwardine, Tarrington, Wellington, and Weston-Beggard; and the p. curacies of, Westhide, Sutton-St. Michael, and Wisterton. The archdeacoury of Salop comprises the deaneries of Burford, Clnn, Ludlow, Pontesbury, Stottesden, and Wenlock. The deanery of Burford contains the rectories of Abberley, Burford, Buraston, Core1ey, Dowles, Easthani, Hanley-William, Edwin-Loach, Greet, Hopton-Wafers, Kyre-Wyard, Neen-Sollers, Ribbesford, Rochford, Rock, Lower Sapey, Shelsey-Walsh, Stanfordon-Teme, and Stockton-on-Teme; the vicarages of Cleobury-Mortimer, Clifton-on-Teme, Lindridge, Mamble, Bayton, and Tenbury; and the p. curacies of Bockleton, Nash, Cleobury-Mortimer-St. John, Hanley-Child, Orleton, Laysters, Knighton-on-Teme, Pensax, MilsonBewdley, Heightington, and Far-Forest. The deanery of Clun coiitains the rectories of Aston, Bedstone, Bramp, ton-Bi.yan, Clungunford, Hopesay, Hopton-Castle, Lydham, Mindtowii, Mainstone, More, Wentnor, and Wistanston; the vicarages of Bishops-Castle, Bucknell, Burrington, Clun, Downton, Leintwardine, North Lydbury, and Stow; and the p. curacies of Bettws, Clunbury, Chapel-Lawn, Edgton, Knighton, Llanvair-Waterdine, Norbuiy, Sibdon, and Whittingstow. The deanery of Ludlow contains the rectories of Ashford-Carbonell, Little Hereford, Bitterley, Cold Weston, Culmington, Hope-Baggott, Ludlow, Onibury, Castle-Richards, and Silvington; the vicarages of Bromfield, Cainham, Diddlebur.y, Stauuton-Lacy, Stoke-St. Milborough, and Stokesay; and the p. curacies of Ashford-Bowdler, Middleton, Cainham-St. Paul, Clee-St. Margaret, Westhope, Halford, Hopton-Caugeford, Ludford, and Heath. The deanery of Pontesbury contains the rectories of Cardiston, Habberle Hanwood, Montgomery, Pontesbury, Pulverbatch, Shelve, Snead, Sutton, Westbury, Worthen, and Yockleton; the vicarages of Alberbury, BraceMeole, and Chirbury; and the p. curacies of Marton, Middleton, Churchstoke, Criggion, Ford, Forden, Hyssington, Cruckton, Ratlinghope, Minsterley, Woolaston, Hopc, Trelystan, and Leighton. The deauery of Stottesd en contains the rectories of Aston-Bottrell, Billingsley, Bnrwarton, Chetton, Deuxhill, Glazeley, North Cleobui.y, Middleton-Scriveu, Neenton, Oldbury, Sidbury, Tasley, Upton-Cressett, and Wheathill; the vicarages of Chelmarsh, Claverley, Ditton-Priors, Highley, Kinlet, Neen-Savage, and Stottesden; and the p. curacies of Alveley, Astley-Abbotts, Bobbington, Bridgnorth-St. Mary, Bridgnorth-ST. Leonard, Longhton, Morvill, Aston-Eyre, Farlow, and Quatford. The deanery of wenlock contains the rectories of Abdoii, Acton-Scott, Badger, Willey, Beckbury, Broseley, Linley, Easthope, Holgate, Tugford, Hope-Bowdler, Hughley, Munslow, Rushbury, Church-Stretton, Little Wenlock, and Woolstaston; the vicarages of Cardington, Eaton, Madeley, Long Staunton, and Much Wenlock; and the p. curacies of Acton-Round, Barrow, Benthall, Bnrton, Jackfield, Coalbrookdale, Ironbridge, Moiik-Hopton, Broadstone, Preeu, and Shipton.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "a city, a sub-district, and a district"   (ADL Feature Type: "cities")
Administrative units: Hereford CP       Hereford RegD       Herefordshire AncC
Place: Hereford

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