Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for Perthshire

Perthshire is a large inland county in the centre of Scotland, consisting of a main body and a small detached portion. The latter comprises the parishes of Culross and Tulliallan, and is separated from the former by a belt of Clackmannanshire and Fife, which is only 1¾ mile wide at its narrowest part; it is 6¼ miles long from E to W, and 4½ miles broad from N to S, and contains an area of 11, 170 acres. There is also a minute detached portion of Kippen lying S of the Forth. The main body of the county is bounded NW by Inverness-shire, N by Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire, E by Forfarshire, SW by Fifeshire and Kinross-shire, S by Clackmannanshire and Stirlingshire, SW by Stirlingshire and Dumbartonshire, and W by Argyllshire. The boundary is in great part natural and well-defined, but in some places it is quite artificial. From a point on the SW within about 3 miles of the head of Loch Fyne to a point at the base of Mount Blair between Glenshee and Glenisla in the E, a distance of 117 miles at least, the boundary line along the W, N, and most of the E of the county, follows the watershed or summit-lines of some of the loftiest and most elongated mountain-chains in Scotland. The only exceptions to this are at the points where the Moor of Rannoch places Loch Lydoch and the little Lochanachly on the W border, and where the S half of Loch Ericht forms part of the NW boundary. From Mount Blair the boundary follows southwards for 2 miles the river Shee, then for 12 miles runs along secondary watersheds and watercourses W to the course of the Isla, which it follows to the confluence with the Dean. After turning NW for 3½ miles along the Dean, the boundary again bends S, and making a considerable loop westwards, strikes the Firth of Tay at Invergowrie, 3 miles above Dundee, after an irregular course of 27 or 28 miles. Thence it continues along the N bank of the Tay for 11 miles, crosses to the S bank at Mugdrum island, and runs 36 miles to the SE in a sinuous and irregular line along the ridges and streamlets of the Ochils to a point upon the South Devon, ¾ mile S of Solsgirth. Thence it recedes for nearly 5 miles up the South Devon, 17 miles W and SW across the Ochils and Strathallan, till it falls upon the river Forth just at its confluence with the Teith. Thence, except for cutting off a few farms in Kippen parish S of the Forth, the boundary follows the Forth and its head-stream, the Duchray, for 30 miles to a point within 3¾ miles of Ben Lomond; thence NW by Lochs Arklet and Katrine, along Glengyle Water and the heights round the N end of Loch Lomond; and so up a tributary of the Falloch, through Lochanlarig to Crochrechan, the point whence the boundary was first traced. The outline thus traced presents the appearance of an irregular circle, described with a radius of about 32 miles from a centre near the head of Glenalmond. The extreme length of the county, from E to W, is 77 miles; its extreme breadth, from N to S, is 68 miles; and its total area is 2601 square miles or 1, 604,690 acres, of which 46,882 are water and foreshore, lying between 56o 4' and 56o 57' N lat., and between 3o 4' and 4o 50' W long. It is the fourth county of Scotland in point of size, and the eighth in population.

'Amid all the provinces in Scotland,' writes Scott in The Fair Maid of Perth, `if an intelligent stranger were asked to describe the most varied and the most beautiful, it is probable he would name the county of Perth. A native, also, of any other district of Caledonia, though his partialities might lead him to prefer his native county in the first instance, would certainly class that of Perth in the second, and thus give its inhabitants a fair right to plead that-prejudice apart-Perthshire forms the fairest portion of the northern kingdom.' Its scenery includes some of the loveliest as well-as some of the most romantic and grandest scenes in Scotland, and all kinds of landscape are represented within its borders. Its mountains, lochs, and rivers, its wild moors and smiling fertile plains, its passes and glens, its waterfalls and its forests, have all in turn justly been the subjects of admiration and praise. Hardly less interesting has been the romantic course of its history and the wild character of its people, for it is in Perthshire that the division between the Lowlands and the Highlands of Scotland may be located. A line drawn irregularly NE from Loch Katrine through Crieff and Dunkeld and thence eastwards to Strathardle would, in general, have the Highlands to the N and the Lowlands to the S, though of course there are many tracts which are of an intermediate character throughout the shire. Thus no general description of the aspect of the county would fit all or nearly all its diverse characteristics. In a general view Perthshire has a south-eastern slope. Though about the region of the moor of Rannoch in the NW it receives one or two inconsiderable streams from the W, it nowhere sends even a burn in return; and all along the rest of the W and all along the N it is walled in by a stupendous mountain barrier which effectually shuts off intercommunication except at a few passes, such as those at the head of the rivers Shee, Bruar, and Garry. Mountain ridges stretch far into the interior southward from the northern barrier, south-eastward from the inner edge of Rannoch Moor, and eastward from the western range; these generally spring from the higher ranges in lofty broad-based masses, and vary in breadth while they diminish in height as they advance towards the interior of the county; and they are separated from each other by wild, deep, narrow glens, which sometimes, however, expand into stretches of valley or mountain plain. Eventually they die away or several ridges or ranges merge into one; while almost everywhere they send off spurs and irregular massy projections and subranges, so that the county, from a bird's-eye view, would seem to be covered with a confused assemblage of peaks, and ranges, and mountain groups. A few isolated mountains, as for example Schiehallion, stand in the wider spaces between the mutual recessions of the ridges. Towards the S of the Highland line the county is much less rugged, its hills are lower; while across the whole county, at the base of the Highland hills, runs from SW to NE the valley known as Strathmore; while the northern part of the valley of the Forth which lies in Perthshire is even more level and lowland in its character. But the lie of the mountains, the position of the chief valleys or straths, and the general river system of the county are described more particularly below.

It will be convenient here to note the ancient divisions of Perthshire, which still have a local significance, though no longer a judicial or civil existence. Menteith comprehended all the territory W of the Ochils and drained by the Forth and its tributaries except the parish of Balquhidder. Breadalbane included the western division of the county from the NW boundary to the S screen of Glendochart; its north-western corner was termed Rannoch. Strathearn included Balquhidder and all the country drained by the Earn and tributaries and the country N of Menteith. Methven comprehended a small territory round the present village, N W of the city of Perth. Athole was a very large territory embracing the whole north and north-western parts of the county down to the heights overlooking Dunkeld and Blairgowrie. Strathardle and Glenshee, along the rivers Ardle and Shee in the E, were subdivisions of Athole. Stormont stretched in a zone 7 miles broad from the Ericht and Isla to near Dunkeld, immediately S of Athole; Gowrie was a district on the eastern frontier between Stormont and the Tay; and Perth was a district embracing Strathtay between Stormont and the point at which the Carse of Gowrie met Strathearn. Constant reference to these divisions is made in the geography of Perthshire.

Mountains.—The chief mountains of Perthshire are grouped under the names Grampians, Sidlaws, and Ochils, each the subject of a separate article, to which reference is made for detailed description. The Ochils occupy the S, the Sidlaw Hills the -SW, and generally speaking the Grampians occupy the remainder of the country, their immense mass being intersected by numerous glens and straths, of which the three chief Rannoch with Strathtummel, Strathtay with Loch Tay, and Strathearn-run from W to E to join the longer and narrower valley which conducts the Garry and the lower waters of Tay from NW to SE through the county. The chief summits of the Grampians in the three northern parishes of Fortingall, Blair Athole, and Kirkmichael, embracing Rannoch and most of the Forest of Athole, are, round Loch Lyon, about the middle of the W border of the county, Ben Creachan (3540 feet), Ben Achallader (3399), Ben Vannoch (3125), Creag Mhor (3305), and Ben Heasgarnich (3530); S of the Lyon, Meall Ghaordie (3407); between the Lyon and Loch Rannoch, Carn Gorm (3370), Carn Mairg (3419), and Schiehallion (3547); N of Lochs Lydoch and Rannoch, from W to E, Carn Dearg (3084), Sgur Gaibhre (3128), Ben Pharlagain (2836), and Ben Mholach (2758). Thence eastwards along the northern boundary of Athole the chief peaks are Ben Udlaman (3306 feet), Bruach nan Iombrean (3175), Glas Mheall Mor (3037), Carn na Caim (3087), Leathad an Taobhain (2994); Beinn Bhreac (2992), Ben Dearg (3304), Carn an Fhidleir (3726); An Sgarsoch or Scarsach Hill (3300), Benglo, with the highest of its five peaks, Carn Gabhar (3671), Carn Liath (3193), Carn an Righ (3377), Carn Bhac (3014), Beinn Iutharn Mhor (3424), Beinn Iutharn Bheag (3011), Glas Thulachan (3445), Ben Vuroch (2961); Carn Bhinnein (3006), Carn Geoidh (3l94); Cairn Well (3059), Craig Leacach (3238), and Cairn Aighe (2824). In the district N of the Tay and between the southern ends of Fortingall and Kirkmichael the chief mountains are Beinn Eagach (5259 feet) and Farragon Hill (2559) in Dull parish, and Ben Vrackie (2757) in Moulin. In the S parts of Breadalbane, occupied by the scattered parish of Kenmore and by Little Dunkeld, the chief summits are Beinn Dheiceach (3074 feet), Beinn Chaluinn (3354), Creag Mohr (3305); rising S from Loch Tay are Creag Charbh (2084), Meall Gleann a' Chloidh (2238), Creag Uigeach (2840), Beinn Bhreac (2341), and Creagan na Beinn (2909); and northwards, Meall nan Tarmachan (3421) and Ben Lawers (4004), the loftiest summit in Perthshire. Meall Dearg (2258 feet) is the highest point in Little Dunkeld. In the four parishes forming the SW corner of the shire the chief mountains are, in Killin, Craigchailliach (2990 feet), Ben Odhar (2948), Benloy (3078), Benmore (3843), Am Binnein (3827), Ben-a-Chroin (3l01), and Ben Dubh-chraige (3204); in Balquhidder, Beinn Tulachan (3099), Stob Garbh (3148), Stob Coire an Lochan (3497), and Stuc-a-Chroin (3189); in Callander, Parlan Hill (2001), Meall Mor (2451), An Garadh (2347), Meall Cala (2203), Ben Vane (2685), Ben Ledi (2875), and Beinn Each (2660); and in Aberfoyle, Beinn Bhreac (2295), Ben Venue (2393), and Beinn an Fhogharaidh (2000). In the remaining parts of Strathearn the highest mountains are, in Comrie parish, N of the Earn river and loch, Creag nan Eun (2990 feet) and Ben Chonzie (3048); and to the S, Ben Voirlich (3224) and Meall na Fearna (2479); in Crieff parish, Beinn na Gainimh (2367), in Glenalmond; in Kilmadock, Uamh Bheag (2179) and Uamh Mhor or Uamvar (2168), N of the Braes of Doune. The summits as we advance towards the E are less elevated. Stormont district, though in many places showing wild Highland scenery, does not attain any very high summit; among its mountains are Benachally (1594 feet), between Clunie and Caputh; Ashmore Hill (1277), in Blairgowrie; and Drumdearg (1383) and Mount Blair (2441), in Alyth parish. The Ochils lie entirely in the S of the shire, and stretch north-eastwards along the S border from the Forth near Stirling to the neighbourhood of Perth. Among the chief summits in Perthshire, in irregular order, from SW to NE, are Dunmyat (1375 feet), Mickle Corum (1955), Little Corum (1683), Blairdenon Hill (2072), Tambeth (1279), Core Hill (1780), Wether Hill (1574), East Bow Hill (1562), Carlownie Hill (1552), Steele's Knowe (1594), Sim's Hill (1582), Muckle Law (1306), Craig Rossie (1250), Rossie Law (1064), John's Hill (1500), Corb Law (1558), Skymore Hill (1302), Cock Law (1337), and Castle Law (1028). The Sidlaw Hills occupy the part of the county to the E of the Tay and N of the Carse of Gowrie, and stretch far beyond the limits of Perthshire into Forfarshire. The chief summits in the former county, in order roughly from the S towards the N, are Kinfauns Hill (555 feet), Kinnoull Hill (729), Evelick or Pole Hill (944), Beal Hill (849), Black Hill (1182), Dunsinane Hill (1012), King's Seat (1235), Blacklaw Hill (929), and Ballo Hill (1029). The Obney Hills are a small detached group of the Grampians lying immediately to the S of Dunkeld, and including Birnam Hill (1324 feet), Meikle Crochan (1915), and Craig Liath (1399). Amongst the hills of Perthshire noted for other reasons than mere height are the Braes of Balquhidder, stretching E and W to the N of Loch Voil, and the Braes of Doune, to the N of the Teith, between Doune and Callander, while many of the so-called ` forests ' are wide regions of mountain-land, nearly destitute of trees, and covered chiefly with heather. Such, for example, are the famous Forest of Athole in the N, Forest of Cluny in Stormont, Rannoch Forest in Rannoch, and the Forest of Glenfinlas in the SW.

Rivers and Lakes.—The Tay, with its tributaries, drains almost the entire county of Perth, except a tract 45 miles long and from 3½ to 18 broad in the extreme S. Its course lies in a rough parabolic curve through the centre of the shire from its source in the W to its mouth in the E. Although it is not called the Tay until it issues from Loch Tay, this great river draws its origin from the two head-waters, the Lochy and the Dochart, which rise on the Argyllshire border and flow into the SW end of Loch Tay. The latter of these is 13¼ miles long; and reckoning that as part of the Tay, it gives the total length of the Tay as about 140 miles, draining an area of about 2000 square miles. From its ultimate source on Benbuy, 1000 feet above sea-level, the Tay or Dochart flows through the centre of Killin parish to Loch Tay, whence, emerging at the NE end, it flows generally towards the NE, till it is joined at Ballinluig by the Tummel, when the united streams turn SE and then S till they reach the Firth of Tay. Just before entering Loch Tay the Dochart receives from the left the Lochay. The chief affluents on the right bank of the Tay, from Loch Tay downwards, are Urlar or Moness Burn at Aberfeldy, Balnaguard Burn from Grandtully Hill, the Bran, the Ordie and Shochie, the Almond, and the Earn. On the left bank the chief affluents are the Lyon, Derculich Burn, Tullypowrie Burn, the Tummel, Allt Ringh an Lagain, Dowally Burn, the Isla, and St Martin's Burn. Into the estuary of the Tay there flow from Perthshire from the N the Pow of Errol and other small streams.

Many of these streams have themselves considerable affluents. The Bran receives in its 19 miles course from Glen Quaich and through Loch Freuchie, on the left the Fender, Cochill Burn, Tombane Burn, and the united Ballinloan and Pitleoch Burn, and various less important streamlets from the S. The Almond has a course of 30 miles, and receives on the right bank the Fendoch Burn, and on the left the Glenshervie and Milton Burns. The Earn, flowing from Loch Earn, has a course of 46 miles; and receives on the right bank the Ruchill, Machany, Ruthven, May, and Farg; and on the left the Lednock and the Turret. The Lyon receives on the right bank the Invervane Burn and the Allt Da Ghob; and from the left the Allt Coire Eachainn, Allt Odhar, and the Keltney Burn from Schiehallion. By means of the Tummel the drainage of the large north-eastern district of the county finds its way into the Tay. From Loch Lydoch on the western border the Gauer flows eastwards into Loch Rannoch, and only receives the name Tummel on issuing thence at the eastern end. This chain of water-way receives from the right or S the Inverhadden Burn, the Allt Strath Fronan or Allt Kynachan from the northern slopes of Schiehallion, the Kinnardochy Burn, the Frenich and other burns flowing into Loch Tummel; on the left the Ericht, from Loch Ericht, flowing into Loch Rannoch, which also receives the Annet Burn, the Allt na Moine Buidhe, the Fincastle Burn, and the Garry. This last descends 1000 feet in its course of 22 miles from Loch Garry in the NW corner of the shire; and it receives on its right bank the Erichdie at Struan, and on the left the Edendon, Allt Geallaidh, and Ender, uniting the waters of the Allt Glas Choire, Allt a Mhuillinn and Allt a Chireachain, the Bruar, the Tilt, and the Allt Girnaig. The Tilt, flowing down from the northern mountain rampart, receives on the right the Tarff and the united stream of the Allt Mhaire and Allt Diridh; and on the left the Glen More Water and the Fender. The Isla, flowing from the Forfarshire Grampians, drains the NE of Perthshire; and within the borders of that county receives on the right bank Alyth Burn, the Ericht Water, and the Lunan. The Ericht Water is formed by the union of the Airdle and Blackwater, and receives on its right bank the Lornty (7 miles) from Loch Benachally; while the Airdle itself is formed by the union of the Briarachan and the Fearnach. The Black water flows from the Spittal of Glenshee, where the Allt Bheag, the Lochy, and Tatinich unite to form its stream, but for some miles the united stream is called the Shee. The south-western portion of Perthshire is drained by the river Forth, which forms for a considerable distance the southern border. The Duchray and Avondhu, the two headwaters of the Forth, rise on Ben Lomond and in Aberfoyle parish respectively and flow parallel, the former chiefly on the border between Perthshire and Stirlingshire, and the latter through Lochs Chon and Ard in Aberfoyle to their junction at a point 1 mile W of the hamlet of Aberfoyle. West of this point the Forth receives on its left or Perthshire bank the Goodie, the Teith, with its affluents the Keltie and Rednock, the Allan, with its affluents the Danny, Knaik, Bullie, Millstane, Muckle, Lodge and Wharry Burns, and the Devon. The Teith is formed of two confluent streams, each about 20 miles long, the one flowing from the S slopes of Ben-a-Chroin through Loch Voil and Loch Lubnaig, and bearing successively the names Balvaig, Ire, and Leny; while the other flows from Loch Katrine through Loch Achray and Loch Vennachar to join the Leny and form the Teith at Callander. The Falloch, in the W of the county, falls into the N end of Loch Lomond after a course of 10¼ miles from its source on Ben-a-Chroin. The Fillan, flowing from the N slopes of Benloy into Loch Dochart, is sometimes regarded as the remotest head-stream of the river Tay.

The courses of many of these rivers lie through scenery of the most beautiful and grandest description, which, for the most part, will be found noted in the separate articles on the chief streams. A prominent feature of Perthshire river-scenery is that afforded by the waterfalls and rapids, among which are those of Bruar and Fender, near Blair Athole; the Falls of Tummel, and the Black Spout at Pitlochry; the Falls of Moness at Aberfeldy; of the Lochay, near its junction with the Dochart; the Falls of Acharn, on the Acharn Burn, flowing into the eastern end of Loch Tay; Campsie Linn, on the Tay near Stanley; the Falls of the Bran, near Dunkeld; Muckersie Linn and Humble-Bumble on the May; the Devil's Mill on the Lednock, near Crieff; and Caldron Linn, on the Devon near Rumbling Bridge. The lakes of Perthshire are very numerous, but as all those that are either renowned for their natural beauty or interesting from historical or literary associations, are separately noticed, no more than a catalogue of them is given here. The largest lochs in Perthshire are Loch Tay, Loch Earn, Loch Rannoch in Breadalbane, Loch Ericht or Erochd on the boundary with Inverness-shire, and Loch Katrine in the W of Menteith. Next in size comes Lochs Luydon or Lydoch, on the boundary with Argyllshire; Garry, between Rannoch and Athole; Tummel, in Athole; Lubnaig, on the mutual border of Balquhidder and Menteith; Voil, in Balquhidder; and Vennachar and Lake of Menteith in Menteith. For convenience in indicating the position of the still smaller lochs, we regard Perthshire as divided into four parts-NW, NE, SW, and SE-by a line running N and S from Ben Dearg to Dunblane, and a line running NE and SW from Glenfalloch along the S of Loch Tay to Mount Blair. In the NW are Loch-a-Vealloch, Locha- Breaclaich, Loch -a- Londonich, Lochan -a- Chlaidh, Lochs Chon, Dhu, Eaigh, Essan, Kinnardochy, Larigeelie, Lyon, Maragan, Loch-na-Lairige, Loch Sron-Smear, Loch Tuhhair, and the Lochs of Roro, viz., Loch-aChait, Loch Girre, and Loch Damh. In the NE are Boar's Loch, Lochs Broom, Duin, Eun, Glassie, Loch, Mharich, Moraig, Na-Nean, Oishnie, and Schechernich or Bainie. In the SW are Lochs Achray, Ard, Boltachan, Chon, Doine, Drimnagowran or Bencraigh, Dhu, Drunkie, Machaich, Ruskie, and Tunet. In the SE are Lochs Benachally, Ballach, Clunie, Craiglush, Dowally, Drummond, Dupplin, Freuchie or Fraochie, Fender, Kennard, Lowes, Muir Dam Loch and Peppermill Loch, Lochs Monzievaird, NaCraig, Ordie, Oyl, Skiach, Tilt, Valigan, Vach, Voulin, and the Stormont Lochs, viz., Lochs Monksmyre and Haremyre, Saints Loch, Black, White, Fengus, Rae, Marlie or Drummellie, and Clunie Lochs. Spring water in all the hilly districts is both plentiful and exceedingly good; but in the Carse of Gowrie, in the low lying parts of Menteith, and a few other low level spots it is scarce or of inferior quality. There is an allusion to this in the proverb, quoted by Pennant, to the effect that the people of the Carse of Gowrie ` want water in the summer, fire in winter, and the grace of God all the year round. ' The chief mineral springs are those at Pitkeathley at the Bridge of Earn; and of Airthrey, which, however, are more properly considered in Stirlingsiiire. The chief glens and passes of Perthshire are perhaps the following: the Trossachs, between Loch Achray and Loch Katrine, Glenalmond, Glendevon, Glendochart, Glenfalloch, Glenlochy, Glenlyon, Glenogle, Glenshee, and Glentilt, each on the river indicated in its name; the passes of Aberfoyle, Leny, and Killiecrankie. Glendevon and Gleneagles are both said to have been the route by which the Romans crossed the Ochils. The plains and valleys of this county are numerous, and some of them are very extensive. In addition to those that are named from the river flowing through them, as Glentilt, Strathtay, etc., we may mention Strathmore, stretching north-eastward from Perth into Forfarshire, and forming part of the great plain from Dumbarton to Brechin. To the S of it lies the fertile Carse of Gowrie, stretching for 15 miles between the Sidlaw Hills and the estuary of the Tay.

Geology.—By far the larger portion of this county is occupied by a great series of metamorphic rocks, which, according to the classification laid down by Sir Rhoderick Murchison, are regarded as of Silurian Age. They are arranged in parallel zones, the long axes running approximately in an ENE and WSW direction. Along the Highland border they are bounded for a considerable distance by the great fault crossing the country from Stonehaven to the Firth of Clyde; while to the N of Crieff and E by Dunkeld they are unconformably overlaid by the members of the Lower Old Red Sandstone. From the researches of the Geological Survey, it would appear that there is a definite order of succession in the metamorphic series in this county. Close to the great fault, the strata, which are comparatively unaltered in the neighbourhood of Callander and Comrie consist of greywackes and shales, with some bands of black shale indistinguishable from some of the beds in the Moffat series of the S of Scotland. They are overlaid by the Aberfoyle slates, graduating upwards through schistose flags, pebbly grits, and sericite schists into a great mass of grits capping Ben Voirlich. From the fault W to Ben Voirlich the general inclination of the strata is towards the NW, and hence we have a gradually ascending series from the Highland border as far as the grits of Ben Voirlich. The latter are succeeded by the limestone series of Loch Earn and Loch Tay, and the limestones are overlaid in turn by a group of mica schists, which are splendidly developed on Ben Lawers. Indeed, the highest beds in the metamorphic series of Perthshire occur on the summit of this hill as the limestones reappear to the N with a SE inclination. Both in Glen Lyon and Glen Garry the calcareous series is underlaid by the representatives of the Ben Voirlich grits, which, on Schiehallion and in the upper reaches of Glen Garry, are more nearly allied to quartzites. From the foregoing description it is evident that the beds are more highly altered as we recede from the great fault and ascend the Highland glens.

The geological structure of the Old Red Sandstone area in Perthshire resembles that of Forfarshire (see Ord. Gaz., vol. iii., p. 40). The anticlinal fold in the volcanic series of the Sidlaws is continued in the Ochils, while the strata overlying the ancient lavas and tuffs occupy the syncline between the chain of the Ochils and the fault along the Highland border. In Perthshire, however, there is no trace of the succession of sandstones, flags, and shales underlying the volcanic series in Kincardineshire. The group of strata occurring to the N of the fault and resting unconformably on the metamorphic rocks probably occupy a position at the base of the volcanic series. These beds of lava and agglomerate are met with to the N of the fault E of Dunkeld, and we may justly infer that they represent the volcanic rocks of the Sidlaws and the Ochils in an attenuated form. On the S side of the great syncline the lowest beds are exposed along the crest of the arch of the Ochils, near the Yetts of Muckhart, where they consist of very coarse agglomerates and occasional lava flows. These are succeeded by a considerable thickness of porphyrites, with some intercalations of agglomerate. Again, the beds of tuff predominate, till eventually the volcanic ejections become so intermittent that sedimentary strata are mainly represented. The total thickness of the volcanic series in the N limb of the anticline of the Ochils is upwards of 6000 feet. It is probable, however, that, though this enormous accumulation of volcanic materials was deposited over a gradually sinking area, a good many of the cones ultimately raised their peaks above the level of the water, and became subaerial. The highest beds of this series in the vicinity of Bridge of Allan, Auchterarder, and other localities, consist of coarse conglomerates of well-rounded fragments of the porphyrites of the Ochils, and where this horizon reappears to the N of the great syncline vast beds of conglomerate occur, composed of the same materials. Near the top of the zone they alternate with marls and sandstones, but eventually they pass underneath a group of grey and chocolate-coloured sandstones with plant remains which are well seen in the Allan between Bridge of Allan and Dunblane and onwards by Auchterarder and Perth to the county boundary. On the estate of Westerton, near Bridge of Allan, a specimen of Encephalaspis Lyellii was found in a sandstone quarry, where the sandstones underlie a bed of lava, marking the close of the contemporaneous volcanic activity of the Ochils. This fossiliferous zone is probably on the same horizon as the fish-bed on Turin Hill in Forfarshire. The beds just described are succeeded by red sandy clays and marls, occupying the greater part of the low lying ground traversed by the Teith down to its point of junction with the Forth. They are traceable along Strathallan and over the low ground between that valley and the Earn, while further to the E splendid sections of the same beds may be seen in the Tay between Murthly and Perth. As described in the article on the geology of Forfarshire Strathmore is paved with these strata, which in that area form the highest beds in the centre of the syncline. In Perthshire, however, the red sandy clays and marls are overlaid by an immense thickness of conglomerates, which are splendidly developed on Uam Var, forming the highest members of the Lower Old Red Sandstone in this county. As we approach the fault the inclination of the beds increases till it is almost vertical, and in some cases the strata are actually inserted. It is interesting to note that as we approach the Highland border the sedimentary strata gradually become coarser, the sandstones are more pebbly, and the boulders in the conglomerates are larger. From the occurrence of metamorphic rocks in the Uam Var conglomerates, which have been derived from areas lying far to the N of the great fault, it is evident that the crest of the Grampian chain at least must have been exposed to denudation during the deposition of the highest beds of the Lower Old Red Sandstone.

The strata which now fall to be described have been grouped with the Upper Old Red Sandstone. They are prominently developed near Bridge of Earn, and extend underneath the estuary of the Tay and the Carse of Gowrie to near Dundee. Bounded on the N and S by two parallel faults, the strata are brought into conjunction with the Lower Old Red volcanic rocks on both sides of the estuary of the Tay. It is only to the W of this area, between Forgandenny and Bridge of Earn, that the basement beds are found resting unconformably on the denuded volcanic rocks. Though some fragments of the latter occur in the breccias, yet the pebbles consist mainly of quartzite or vein quartz derived in many cases from the Lower Old Red conglomerates. The Upper Old Red Sandstone of Perthshire consists mainly of marls and brick red sandstones generally much honeycombed and very friable. In the neighbourhood of Errol they have yielded excellent specimens of the genera of fishes which are characteristic of this formation.

To the N of the Ochils the only rocks of Carboniferous Age are contained in a small outlier covering a few acres of ground about half a mile to the S of Bridge of Earn. The strata consist of blue clays with sandstones and calcareous bands belonging to the Cementstone series; the blue clays having yielded Estheria and plant remains. Though this outlier is insignificant in extent, it is of the utmost importance in proving the extension of the Carboniferous system over a part of Scotland, from which it has been removed by denudation. It further shows that during the early part of that period the Ochils must have formed a barrier between the Tay and the Howe of Fife, for these strata do not resemble the calciferous sandstones as developed in the E of Fife. They are like the type of strata known as the Ballagan Series, underlying the volcanic rocks of the Campsie Fells. At a later stage, however, this barrier must have submerged and buried underneath the deposits belonging to higher divisions of that formation.

On the S side of the Ochils there is an isolated portion of Perthshire, which is wholly occupied by carboniferous strata. These may be grouped with the Clackmannan Coalfield, to which no reference has been made in the description of the latter county. In this area all the subdivisions of the Carboniferous system in central Scotland are represented. The lowest beds, consisting of red marls and sandstones, are seen on the Gairney, a tributary of the Devon, near the Caldron Linn, where they pass underneath the Cementstone series. It is probable that these beds represent the W extensions of the red sandstone group of the Howe of Fife. The Cementstone group, comprising green and grey clays and shales, with occasional bands and nodules of cementstone and calcareous sandstone, are well exposed in the Devon, above and below the Caldron Linn. The Carboniferous Limestone series, with its three typical subdivisions, forms the E boundary of the Clackmannan Coalfield, extending from a point near Dollar to the shore at Culross. The middle division, rich in coals and ironstones, forms the Oakley Coalfield, and beds occupying the same horizon were formerly extensively wrought beneath the Forth at Preston Island. Resting on this subdivision come the members of the upper group, comprising the Index, the Janet Peat, and Castlecary Limestones. Associated with the Janet Peat Limestone is a thick seam of ordinary coal, and a thin bed of gas coal, which was wrought at Culross in the olden time, and some of the workings extended for a considerable distance under the bed of the Forth.

Intermediate between the beds just described and the Coal-measures come the sandstones of the Millstone Grit division, which are extensively quarried. When the Devon Ironworks were in operation, some nodular clayband ironstones occurring among the fireclays were mined. To these succeed the representatives of the Coal-measures forming the Clackmannan Coalfield, and comprising several valuable seams of coal and ironstone, which are here given in ascending order: Slaty Band Ironstone, Coalsnau ton Main Coal, Cherry and Splint Coals, Nine-feet Coal and Upper Five-feet Coal. By a series of parallel faults running in an E and W direction, the coal seams are repeated several times to the S. The red sandstones overlying the Coal-measures occur at the Devon Ironworks near Tillicoultry, which is consequently the deepest part of the coalfield.

The metamorphic rocks of this county are pierced by masses of granite, quartz-felsite, and diorite. Examples of granitic intrusions are to be found in the vicinity of Loch Ericht and Loch Rannoch, and in Glen Tilt. Quartz-felsite occurs in the form of dykes, as for instance along the Highland border between Crieff and Callander, and in the form of sheets between Loch Earn and Loch Tay. Diorite also occurs in the form of dykes and sheets, and these in turn have been intersected by basalt dykes probably of Tertiary Age. Similarly the basalt rocks are met with in this double form; the sheets being mainly confined to the Carboniferous strata. The Abbey Craig, near Stirling, is a continuation of a great mass of dolerite intruded more or less along the bedding of the lower limestones. Truncated like the Carboniferous rocks by the great fault skirting the Ochils, it appears to under lie the Clackmannan Coalfield, for, where these limestones emerge in the Cleish Hills in Fife, a similar sheet accompanies them. That these sheets are not confined, however, to the Carboniferous rocks is evident from the occurrence of a remnant of such an intrusive mass on the top of Ben Buck in the Ochils. Numerous examples of basalt dykes are traceable throughout the county. Two or three of these parallel dykes after traversing the volcanic rocks of the Ochils, and the Old Red Sandstone area to the W, obliquely cut across the great fault, running W by Loch Lubnaig and Loch Katrine to Loch Lomond.

This county presents ample evidence of glaciation belonging partly,to the general and partly to the later icemovement. The ice-worn surfaces of the Ochils, Kinnoull Hill, and the Sidlaws, are excellent examples of the former, while the roches moutonnees of the Highland glens, and notably of the Trossachs, attest the influence of the later glaciers. Even the peaks of some of the mountains within the Highland border are beautifully glaciated, and are strewn with boulders foreign to them. The general trend of the ice-movement along the margin of the Highlands is from NW to SE, with certain local variations. Where the county joins with Stirling and Dumbarton, the trend of the ice-markings is N and S, near Callander about SSE, and in the Comrie district about SE. When the ice reached the low ground it veered still more towards the E, and after traversing the plain the course of the ice-flow was slightly deflected by the chain of the Ochils. Where the ice crossed the range the direction of the movement changed to a little N of E.

In favourable situations the boulder clay is invariably met with. It is worthy of note, however, that the Highland glens have been denuded to a large extent of this deposit by the action of the later glaciers. Where the latter were only partially developed, or where they did not exist, it fills the valleys to a great depth. The later glaciers were splendidly developed in many of the Highland glens, as is abundantly shown from the distribution of moraines. Excellent examples of these are to be met with along the banks of Loch Katrine, between Strone-a-Chlachar and Loch Lomond, and along the railway from Callander to the head of the Dochart. But perhaps the finest group in the county occurs at the head of Glen Garry and on the coll between the Garry and Glen Truim.

Numerous examples of boulders which have travelled far from their parent source are to be met with. The Ben Voirlich grits and certain diorites and hornblende schists among the Highland rocks, along with the massive Old Red conglomerates, supplied large boulders, which have been widely distributed by the ice. This dispersion was chiefly accomplished during the primary glaciation, and the direction of the movement of the boulders coincides with that of the ice-markings. But not only are large masses of the Highland rocks distributed over the low grounds, many of them have been carried over the highest colls in the Ochils. The observer may frequently note the occurrence of these foreign blocks which have been washed out of the boulder clay along the stream courses on the S side of the Ochils. ` Samson's putting-stone ' is the name given to a well-known boulder of Highland s chist situated on a knoll of Old Red conglomerate overlooking the Trossachs road near Coilantogle Ford.

The 100-feet beach forms the upper terrace at Bridge of Allan, and skirts the Carse of Stirling, stretching as far as Dollar, and forming some outlying patches in Clackmannanshire. It is also traceable up the valleys of the Tay and the Earn. The deposits consist of sands, gravels, and brick-clays, which frequently show crumpling of the beds. From this fact, as well as from the occurrence of boulders in the brick-clays, it is evident that floating ice must have existed in the sea during their deposition. The Carse of Stirling, as well as the Carse of Gowrie, mark the level of the 50-feet sea-beach. The clays of this terrace sometimes alternate with beds containing hazel-nuts, along with oyster and other shells, which are the same as are now to be found on our shores, though of a larger size. Kitchen middens occur on the bluffs above the 50-feet beach, indicating the presence of neolithic man where the sea washed the base of these cliffs.

Roofing-slate of various qualities is extensively quarried in the Highland districts. Marble is found in Glentilt, and limestone in Rannoch, Glen Lyon, and eastern parts of Athole, the southern part of Breadalbane, and in parts of the lowlands. Coal and ironstone abound in the Culross and Tulliallan district; and both are worked. Fireclay exists in large beds in Athole and in Culross. Copper has been found at Tyndrum, Ben Ledi, and in Glenlyon. Copper ore and arsenic have been found in the Ochils; sulphate of baryte's, in lumps about the size of hen's eggs, occurs in the bed of the Shaggy. Curious minerals and rare pebbles are discovered - in many parts of the county, and have attracted the attention of scientific students.

Soils.—The soils in a county so large and so diversified in character are naturally of the most varied description. A deep stiff clay forms the flat tract for 18 miles along the Forth from Gartmore Bridge to the Bridge of Allan; and by far the larger part of the Carse of Gowrie has a deep rich clay also, loam appearing only on the eminences in that fertile region. A pale brown clay extend s along the Earn from Forteviot Bridge to the Tay; and clayey soils occur elsewhere in the county. Haugh soil of fine alluvium occurs in the Allan, Goodie, and Devon; around Killin and in parts of Glendochart, Glenfillan, and other glens in various regions. Loam or fertile vegetable mould forms a fine bank from Rednock House to Blair Drummond, and extends over part of Strathearn; over most of the Tay valley below Dunkeld; over a large area in Strathmore; and over nearly all the SE slopes of the Sidlaws. Till is very widely diffused; a poor kind of it covers the NW face of the Ochils from Dunblane to Abernethy; other qualities skirt the moor between the Teith and Forth, and occupy areas round the Lake of Menteith and on the NW point of the Sidlaws; and on many of the other hills. A light sandy or gravelly soil appears in most of the valleys N of Dunkeld and Alyth, and W of Crieff and Callander, and is found in very abundant quantity all over the county. Moorish and alluvial soils interrupt its continuity in many parts. Moorland, or a thin stratum of moss upon sand or gravel, has given name to Orchillmoor, Sheriffmuir, Methven, Alyth, Dunsinane, and other moors; but much of these have now been reclaimed for agriculture.

Climate.—The climate is affected partly by the prevailing inclination of the general surface to the SW, but chiefly by the special configuration of the various parts. The temperature corresponds to the position of the county between Highlands and Lowlands; and strikes the medium between the northern and southern counties; but is, of course, exposed to great local variations. Easterly winds bring rain and unsettled weather on Gowrie, Stormont, Glenshee, and Strathardle, while the weather is dry and serene in Breadalbane. Westerly winds on the other hand bring up rain from the Atlantic over Menteith, Breadalbane, and Rannoch; while they leave the eastern regions quite unaffected. Neither class of winds can advance very far into the interior without being in great part disburdened of their moisture by the mountain-ranges. Northerly winds have their power much broken by the rampart of mountains in the N. According to observations made some time ago over a series of five years, west winds prevail from 165 to 220 days in the year; fair weather from 189 to 250 days; rain from 95 to 141; and frost from 11 to 66 days. The mean height of the barometer was found during three consecutive years to be from 29.59 to 29.71; and of the thermometer from 41 to 42½ The annual rainfall over five years varied between 31.45 inches and 38.4.

Animals.—The deer forests of Perthshire contain large herds of red-deer; fallow-deer, though not native, are found near some of the residences of the nobility; and roe-deer are also common in some places. The fox, otter, stoat, weasel, squirrel, and water-rat are among the common wild animals of Perthshire; and the wild-cat and badger among those that are almost extinct. Eagles still have their eyries among the mountains of this county; and several kinds of hawks and owls are also reckoned among its birds, in addition to a very large number of the commoner kinds. Game birds are very numerous; and the grouse-moors of Perthshire afford some of the best sport to be obtained in that way in the world. Ptarmigan is found only on the loftier mountains; and capercailzie, originally a native, but reintroduced from Norway after its extinction in Scotland, is abundant in many parts. The woodcock also breeds regularly. Perthshire abounds in excellent salmon and trout streams; while the salmon-fishing. in the river Tay and in its estuary is of a very valuable description. Scottish pearls are found in the Tay, in the shells of a fresh-water mussel, tolerably common in that river and its tributaries. The county has some reputation among entomologists for the number of rare insects to be found in it.

Industries.—The industrial sources of wealth of Perthshire include agriculture, sheep-farming, the letting of lands and waters for sport, and a small proportion of manufactures and commerce. According to the returns in 1881, 16,522 persons were engaged in agricultural employments, 6794 in domestic, 3801 in professional, 3257 in commercial, and 27,694 in industrial; of the last, 1474 were employed in woollen industries, 2524 in cotton and flax, 917 in hemp and jute, 60 in coal and shale mining, 6 in ironstone mining, and 69 in shipbuilding. Of the whole, 82, 214 were returned as without specified occupation, of whom 49,227 were females, and 41,808 children.

Only about one-fifth of the entire surface of the county is under tillage, the rest being taken up by pasture, woods, and deer-forests. The methods and conditions of agriculture naturally vary very much in the different parts of so large a region, but on the whole, although in the remoter quarters some antiquated and benighted practices still linger, the agricultural condition of the shire may be pronounced to be excellent. Nearly all the lowlands and many of the glens are in a high state of cultivation. Large tracts of moorland and moss have been reclaimed; others have been enriched; and draining, special manuring, and careful rotation have all lent their aid to improve the soil. According to the returns of 1881 there were 108 farms of 1000 acres or more; 90, between 500 and 1000; 988, between 100 and 500; 865, between 5 and 100; and 124 below 5 acres. The most common term for a farm lease is 19 years, at rents which run from £1 to £4, 10s. per Scottish acre. But sheep-farms bring only about 2s. 6d. per acre, or from 12 to 17 bushels of grain per acre, the money value being determined by the fiars prices for the year. During the last 20 years the lowest fiars price for the quarter of best wheat was 31s. 11d.; ditto best oats, 16s. 2d; ditto per boll of 140 lbs. of oatmeal, 12s. 8d. The highest prices were respectively 64s. 4d. in 1867, 28s. 11d. in 1868, and 22s. 9d. in 1867. In 1882 the prices were 36s. 1d., 21s. 6d., and 17s. 3d. Ploughmen receive money and kind to the annual value of from £43 to £49. The bothy system prevails to a considerable extent. The following table indicates the principal crops and the acreage under each in various years:

Wheat, . . . .14,06013,91514,8037,498
Barley, . . . .20,83122,34522,57224,454
Oats, . . . .63,23366,49465,51171,136
Rye, . . . .252295337385
Pease, . . . .226152108118
Potatoes,. . . .15,60616,61617,36217,723
Turnips, etc., . . .31,62833,62332,61431,837
Cabbages, etc., . .115188205166
Other Green Crops,. .1,2699621,055947
Bare Fallow, . . .  1,9412,461
Grass, Permanent Pasture,  96,28884,239
Grass, in Rotation,. .  92,943101,731

The following table shows the amount of farm-stock at various dates:

Horses, . 12,88510,13110,99710,856
Cattle, .78,02389,34283,32776,63474,955
Sheep, .680,267684,841703,959675,081684,920
Pigs, .9,1559,8389,9117,7419,465

The pastures of Perthshire are exceedingly varied, and are thus adapted to the rearing of a very great diversity of stock. The Angus and Fife breeds of cattle prevail in the Carse of Gowrie, and about Perth and the Bridge of Earn; the Argyllshire in Rannoch, Glenlyon, Glenlochy, Strathfillan, and other places in the west; the Lanarkshire, or those from the lower ward of that county, much akin to the Galloway breed, in Menteith; and the Ayrshire and Galloway in various parts. Breeds of black cattle have been introduced from Devonshire, Lancashire, Guernsey, and even from the East Indies; but these have become quite blended with each other and the former existing breeds. The stock of sheep has, as well as the cattle, undergone much improvement. The old stock was the whitefaced, which in the Highlands required to be housed in cots every night during winter and spring; but about 1770 the blackfaced breed was introduced, and has now, both in the pure breed and in numerous crosses, almost entirely ousted the former. Goats were formerly numerous, but have given way to sheep and tillage. Poultry is, of course, like swine, ubiquitous. Dovecots are rare in the Highlands, but abound about Perth and Cupar, the Carse of Gowrie, and in Menteith. Game has already been alluded to.

Woods.—Perthshire in early times was densely covered with forests, whose remains are still seen in such detached portions as the Black Forest of Rannoch, and in the tree-trunks that are occasionally even yet dug up. In feudal times the woods were sadly diminished, and the county gradually assumed a naked and treeless aspect. In more modern times, however, the proprietors in Perthshire, to whom the fourth Duke of Athole, ` the planting duke, ' first gave the example, set themselves to remedy this great defect; and at present the county, aided by its peculiar configuration, its diversity of soil, and its climate, may be described as the great treegrowing county of Scotland. In 1812 Perth had 203, 880 acres under wood, thus showing the largest acreage of any county in Scotland, the next return being Aberdeen with 148, 800. In 1 871 Perthshire had only 83, 525, or 179, 205 acres less than 60 years earlier. According to returns made in 1881, Perthshire had fallen to the third place among the counties, with 94, 563 acres, Inverness having 162, 201, and Aberdeen 103,156. It has been estimated by Mr Hunter in his Woods, Forests, and Estates of Perthshire (1883), in which full details of the whole subject are given, that the value of the woods in the county is about three and a half million pounds sterling. The following table shows the acreage under various forms of forestry in various years:

Orchards, etc., . .1,098327398394
Nursery Grounds,. .2399210599
Woods, . . . .85,52591,33394,56394,563

There was no change in the acreage under woods between 1871 and 1879.

As indicated before, the number of deer and the extent of deer forests in Perthshire is very great. The rent obtained for deer forests is very much above the ordinary agricultural or pastoral rent of a tract in the Highland districts; and the tendency of late years has been rather to increase than to diminish the amount of land occupied by deer forests. According to statistics drawn up for the Royal Commission on the state of Highland crofters, the chief deer-forests in Perthshire in 1884, with their extent, owners, and highest and lowest points in feet above sea-level, were—

in feet
in feet
Athole,. . . .Duke of Athole35,5403671620
Fealar,. . . .Do.14,10034241200
Glenbruar, . .Do.8,57032501400
Drummond Hill,Earl of Breadalbane2,4001500380
Glenartney, . .Baroness Wiloughby
de Eresby
Rannoch, . . .Sir Robert Menzies12,74031281153

Besides these there are 390 different grouse-shootings in the county, partly occupied by the proprietors, and partly let at rents varying from £30 to £1850 per annum; while the shootings under £20 yearly rent represent an annual aggregate of £700. About 73 different fishings are also reckoned, those not occupied by their proprietors bringing in rents varying from £5 to £400. The net fishings not included in these represent about £10, 642 annually. The total sum paid to proprietors of lands in Perthshire as sporting rent is the largest paid in any county of Scotland; but, of course, only a small part of it can be regarded as income flowing- into the county. The wants, however, of a large shooting tenancy, with their households and attendants, support a considerable amount of trade in Perthshire; while direct employment is given to many of the native inhabitants as gamekeepers, gillies, boatmen, etc. According to the Sportsman's and Tourists' Guide for June 1884, the amount paid as rent for shootings and deer-forests in Perthshire was £61, 169, for rod-fishings £l160, and for net-fishings for salmon £10, 642. The large number of tourists, also, who annually pour into the county to visit its beautiful and celebrated spots, must not be forgotten among the sources of wealth of Perthshire.

Perthshire cannot be called in any comprehensive sense a manufacturing or a commercial county. It contains no great centre of trade, and is the seat of no special industry of importance. The busiest commercial city is the county town, but even that has a steady rather than a flourishing business. Particulars of the main industries of the county will be found in the special articles on Perth and the other towns and parishes. The linen trade, though long established, has not attained any very striking importance, and is quite subordinate to that of Forfarshire. lts main seats in Perthshire are Perth, Coupar-Angus, and Blairgowrie. The cotton industry, once flourishing, has now much declined, but there are mills at Deanston, founded in 1785, Stanley, and Cromwellpark. Woollen manufactures are represented by factories for tweeds at Killin, Pitlochry, etc.; for tartans and galas at Auchterarder, and by mills at Crieff, Dunblane, Kincardine, and Burnfoot in Glendevon, and several other places. There are bleaching-fields at Luncarty and Cromwellpark, and elsewhere in the neighbourhood of Perth. The attempt to establish paper-mills has only been very partially successful. Dye-works, especially at Perth, breweries, linseed-oil mills, distilleries, as well as a considerable miscellany of less important manufactories and industrial institutions, are also included in the resources of the county. A very considerable trade in cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce is carried on; and centres, along with all other trade, mainly in Perth. Some of the small ports along the N side of the estuary of the Tay, as Port Allen and Kincardine, carry on a tolerably active commerce. The mineral wealth of Perthshire is inconsiderable, or at least has been worked to an inconsiderable extent. Coal has been found chiefly in the Culross district; and quarrying for various sorts of building stone is carried on in many of the parishes. Fairs are held at stated times in forty places, besides the county town; and weekly markets are kept in the principal towns and villages.

Railways and Roads.—Perthshire contains portions of four chief railway systems-Caledonian, North British, Callander and Oban, and Highland Railways. The Caledonian line enters the county from the S, a little N of Bridge of Allan. and runs north-eastwards to Perth by Dunblane and Crieff Junction. From the latter junction, near Auchterarder, a branch runs up to Crieff (9 miles), whence another line also connects with Perth by Methven Junction. From Perth the Caledonian railway has two exits, one across the river Tay by viaduct and through the Carse of Gowrie to Dundee (20½ miles), leaving Perthshire and- entering Forfarshire just before Invergowrie station. The second exit runs north-eastwards from Perth by Stanley Junction, entering Forfarshire at Coupar-Angus, and throwing off branches to Blairgowrie (5 miles) at Coupar-Angus, and to Alyth (5¼.) at Meigle. From Dunblane the Dunblane, Doune, and Callander branch runs off NW, and is continued from Callander up Strathyre, Glen Ogle, and Glen Dochart, to Tyndrum on the W boundary, and thence on to Oban in Argyllshire by the lately completed Callander and Oban line, which is worked by the Caledonian Company. The North British line extends from a point between Abernethy and Newburgh in Fife, up past the Bridge of Earn to Perth, a distance within 9 miles. The High land railway branches off NW from the Caledonian line at Stanley Junction, and proceeds up the valley of the Tay by Dunkeld to Ballinluig, and thence up Glengarry by Pitlochry, Blair Athole, etc., to Drumochter Pass on the NW boundary, where at the highest point (1500 feet) reached by any railway in the country, it enters Inverness-shire. Its length from Perth is about 53 miles. At Ballinluig a branch proceeds westwards to Aberfeldy, a distance of 9 miles. The roads in Perthshire are substantially made and well kept. From the S the main Edinburgh road enters the county a few miles SE of Perth, and arrives at that city across the South Inch; and the Glasgow road to Perth passes through Stirling, Dunblane, and Auchterarder. From Dundee the road approaches from the E through the Carse of Gowrie; and a fourth road enters the county town from Comrie, Crieff, and Methven. From Perth the great Highland road runs northwards alongside the Highland railway during its entire course in the shire. Another thoroughfare runs north-westwards to Coupar-Angus, where it forks, sending one branch W into Forfar, and another northwards by Blairgowrie through Glen Shee, and thence on to Braemar in Aberdeenshire. Besides, there are numerous and convenient connecting roads, especially in the S and SE. Further N the means of communication, except along the larger river valleys, are much less carefully constructed and much less numerous.

The cities in Perthshire are Perth, Dunkeld, and Dunblane; the royal burghs are Perth and Culross; the burghs of barony Abernethy, Alyth, Auchterarder, Blairgowrie, Craig of Madderty, Crieff, Kincardine, and Longforgan; the police burghs are Perth, Callander, part of Coupar-Angus, Crieff, and Dunblane. The towns with more than 2000 inhabitants are Perth, Auchterarder, Blairgowrie, part of Bridge of Allan, part of Coupar-Angus, Crieff, and part of Dollar. Towns with between 1000 and 2000 inhabitants are Aberfeldy, Callander, Comrie, Dunblane, Dunning, Kincardine, Lornty, Muthill, part of Oakley Ironworks, Rattray, and Scone. The villages with between 300 and 1000 inhabitants are Abernethy, Abernethan, Almondbank, Bankfoot, Birnam, Blackford, Blair Athole, Braes, Bridge of Earn, Burrelton, Culross, Deanston, Doune, Dunning, Errol, Huntingtower, Killin, Longforgan, Methven, Pitcairn Green, Pitlochry, Stanley, Thornhill, parts of Kippen, Mylnefield, Low Torry. Other principal villages are Aberbank, Aberdargie, Aberfoyle, Acharn, Amulree, Arntully, Arnprior, Balbeggie, Balbrogie, Balbunnoch, Balhaddie, Balledgarno or Ballerno, Ballendean, Ballinluig, Balnasuin, Balwhanaid, Bankfoot, Bellycloan, Blairburn, Blairingone, Blairlogie, Blairmore, Borelandpark, Bridgend, South Bridgend, Bridge of Earn, Bridge of Teith, Bridgeton, Buchanty, Buchany, Buttergask, Butterstone, Cairnbeddie, Cairniehill, Caolvaloch, Caputh-Wester, CarolinePlace, Cauldhame, Chapelhill, Cherrybank, Clathy, Clifton, Collace, Cottown, Cragdallie, Cragganaster, Craggantonl, Craigend, Craigie (in Perth parish), Craigie (in Caputh), Cromwellpark, Dalginross, Dargie, Dovecotland, Drums, Drumvaich, Dull, Flawcraig, Forgandenny, Forteviot, Fowlis-Easter and Fowlis-Wester, Friarton, Fungarth, Gartmore, Gartwhinean, Gilmerton, Grange, Greenloaning, Guildtown, Hawkstone, Heriotfield, Hillyland, Inchture, Inver, Kenmore, Kepp, Kilmahog, Kilspindie, Kinbnck, Kincairney, Kingoodie, Kinnaird (in Gowrie), Kinnaird (in Moulin parish), Kinrossie, Kintulloch, Kirklane, Kirkmichael, Leetown, Lochearnhead, Logierait, Longleys, Low Valleyfield, Mains-of-Errol, Meigle, Meikleour, Methven, Monzie, Moulin, Nethermains, New Rattray, Norriston, Pitheavlis, Pilmiddie, Pitrodie, Pool, Rait, Ross, Rottearn, Ruskie, Ruthvenfield, St Davids, St Fillans, Sancher, Scrogiehill, Shirgarton, Smithyhaugh, Spittalfield, Sronfornan, Strathyre, Strowan, Thornhill, Tomacher, Tombreck, Tulloch, Tyndrum, Washington, Waterloo, Weem, Westown, Wolfhill, Woodlane, and Woodside. The mansions and private seats in the county are very numerous, but the following are the chief: Blair Castle and Dunkeld House (Duke of Athole), Doune Lodge (Earl of Mar and Kellie), Dupplin Castle and Balhousie Castle (Earl of Kinnoull), Elcho Castle (Earl of Wemyss), Cluny Castle and Loyal House (Earl of Airlie), Taymouth Castle, Auchmore House, and Glenfalloch (Earl of Breadalbane), Scone Palace and Logiealmond (Earl of Mansfield), Gleneagles, (Earl of Camperdown), Belmont Castle (Earl of Wharncliffe), Strathallan Castle (Viscount Strathallan), Pitheavlis (Lord Elibank), Duncrub Park (Lord Rollo and Baron Dunning), Rossie Priory (Lord Kinnaird), Ferntower (Lord Abercromby), Drummond Castle (Baroness Willoughby de Eresby), Meikleour House and Aldie Castle (Baroness Nairne), Aberuchill Castle and Kilbryde Castle (Sir James Campbell), Pitfour Castle (Sir J. T. S. Richardson), Castle-Menzies, Foss House, and Rannoch Lodge (Sir Robert Menzies), Moncreiffe House (Sir Robert Drummond Moncreiffe), Delvine (Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie), Dunira House and Comrie House (Sir Sidney J. Dundas), Kinloch House (Sir J. G. S. Kinloch), Keir (Sir John Maxwell Stirling-Maxwell), Bamff House (Sir J. H. Ramsay), Grantully Castle (deserted) and Murtly Castle (Sir A. D. Drummond Stewart), Ochtertyre House (Sir Patrick Keith Murray). Other houses belonging chiefly to untitled owners are Abercairney Abbey, Aberuchill House, Airvoirlich, Ardargie, Ardoch, Atholl Bank, Auchleeks, Auchterarder, Balbrogie, Baledmund, Balhaldie, Ballechin, Balmyle, Balnakeilly, Balruddery, Barclayhill, Barnhill, Bellwood, Birnam College, Birnam Lodge, Blairdrummond, Blairhill, Bolfracks, Bonhard, Bonskeid, Boquhan, Braco Castle, Broich, Cambusmore, Cardean, Cardross, Carey, Carpour, Carse-Grange, Clathick, Cluny, Colquhalzie, Condie, Coralbank, Craighall, Cultoquhey, Dalchosnie, Dalguise, Dalhonzie, Dunalastair, Derculich, Dirnanean, Dollerie, Donavourd, Drumearn, Drumfork, Dunbarney, Dunsinane, Eastertyre, Edinample Castle, Edinchip, Edradynate, Errol Park, Evelick, Faskally, Findynate, Fonab, Forneth, Gartincaber, Gartmore, Gask, Glenawe, Glenbuckie, Glencarse, Glendelvine, Glendoick, Glenericht, Glenfeochan, Glenlyon, Gorthy, Hill of Ruthven, Huntingtower, Castle Huntly, Inchbrakie, Inchmartin, Inchyra, Invermay, Invertrosachs, Jordanstone, Keithick, Kilgraston, Killiechassie, Kindrogan, Kincairney, Kinfauns Castle, Kinnaird, Kippendavie, Lanrick Castle, Lawers, Leny, Lintrose, Lude, Lynedoch, Megginch, Meigle, Methven, Millearne, Millhead, Moness, Monzie, Murrayshall, Murie, Mylnefield, Newhouse, Newmill, Orchill, Pitcairns, Pitnacree, Rednock, Rottearns, Ruthven-Field, Ruthven, Seggieden, Snaigow, Stanley, Stenton, Stobhall, Strowan, Tullybelton, Tullymet, Urrard, Valleyfield, and Woodend. According to Miscellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom (1879), 1, 612, 840 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of £1,048, 427, are divided amongst 7644 proprietors, two together holding 388,144 acres (rental £69,554), one 76,837 (£28,955), fourteen 422, 599 (£111, 424), nineteen 248, 053 (£88, 506), twentyone 142, 818 (£77, 932), thirty-one 159,154 (£150, 819), fifty 72, 623 (£70, 999), seventy-five 53, 098 (£160, 063), etc.

Perthshire is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice-lieutenant, 45 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, two sheriff-substitutes, and nearly 300 justices of the peace. The deputy-lieutenants and justices are classed in ten divisions corresponding to the ten administrative districts into which the county was divided by act of parliament in 1795 for extending the jurisdiction of justices of peace in small debt causes. These districts are those of Perth, Auchterarder, Blairgowrie, Carse, Coupar-Angus, Crieff, Culross, Dunblane, Dunkeld, and Weem. But this division of the county refers only to the statutory duties; the ordinary jurisdiction of justices extends over the entire county. The sheriffdom is divided into the two districts of Perth and Dunblane, with a sheriff-substitute for each division. The meetings of the Perth sheriff court are noted under Perth; the Dunblane court meets there every Wednesday during session. Circuit courts for small debt causes are held at regular intervals at Blairgowrie, Coupar-Angus, Crieff, Dunkeld, Aberfeldy, Auchterarder, Kincardine, and Callander. The county police force, exclusive of the members of Perth city police, in 1884 numbered 66 men, with a superintendent with a salary of £330. There are prisons at Perth and Dunblane; and cells are attached to the police station-house in 26 other localities. The county returns one member to parliament, its parliamentary constituency in 1883-84 being 6032. The annual value of real property in 1674 was £28, 330; in 1815 it was £555, 532; in 1849, £706,878; in 1876, £966,461; and in 1884, £889, 658, exclusive of £109,115 for railways and waterworks, which brings up the total to £998,773. The parish with the lowest assessed rental was Arngask with £2481; the parish with the highest was Crieff with £31,530. The railways, were assessed as follows: -Caledonian, £67, 382; North British, £7967; Highland, £15, 532; Callander and Oban, £6469; Aberfoyle, £306; Forth and Clyde, £987; Glasgow Corporation Waterworks, £8591; Dunfermline Waterworks, £1881. Perthshire is one of the least densely populated counties of Scotland, having only 51 to the square mile, while the average for the whole country is 125. Only Kirkcudbright, Peebles, Ross and Cromarty, Argyll, Inverness, and Sutherland have a sparser population. Pop. (1801) 125,583, (1811) 134, 390, (1821) 138, 247, (1831) 142, 166, (1841) 137, 457, (1851) 138, 660, (1861) 133, 500, (1871) 127, 768 (1881) 129, 007, of whom 67, 455 were females, i.e., 109.59 to every hundred males; while 14, 505 or 11.24 of the population were Gaelic-speaking. Separate families 30,292. Houses (1881) occupied 26,722, vacant 1690, building 150.

The civil county previous to the Reformation and during the time of Protestant Episcopacy in Scotland contained the seats and most of the territory of the dioceses of Dunkeld and Dunblane, and some parishes of the archdiocese of St Andrews. Since the final establishment of Presbyterianism very many changes in the constitution of its presbyteries and the distribution of its parishes have occurred which it would be useless to trace. At present the county contains 78 quoad civilia parishes, of which 1-Perth-is divided into 4 quoad sacra parishes, making 81 entire quoad sacra parishes in the county. Besides these it shares 5 others with Forfarshire, 2 with Kinross-shire, 2 with Stirlingshire, and 1 each with Fife, with Clackmannan, with Fife and Kinross, and with Clackmannan and Stirling; and it also contains 5 chapels of ease. The parishes of Perthshire are Aberdalgie, Aberfoyle, Abernethy, Abernyte, Alyth, Arngask, Auchterarder, Auchtergaven, Balquhidder, Bendochy, Blackford, Blair Athole, Blairgowrie, Callander, Caputh, Cargill, Clunie, Collace, Comrie, Coupar-Angus, Crieff, Culross, Dron, Dull, Dunbarney, Dunblane, Dunkeld and Dowally, Dunning, Errol, Findo-Gask, Forgandenny, Forteviot, Fortingall, Fossoway, Fowlis-Easter, Fowlis-Wester, Glendevon, Inchture, Kenmore, Killin, Kilinadock, Kilspindie, Kincardine, Kinclaven, Kinfauns, Kinloch, Kinnaird, Kinnoull, Kippen, Kirkmichael, Lecropt, Lethendy, Little Dunkeld, Logie, Logierait, Longforgan, Madderty, Meigle, Methven, Moneydie, Monzie, Monzievaird and Strowan, Moulin, Muckart, Muthill, Perth, Port of Menteith, Rattray, Redgorton, Rhynd, St Madoes, St Martins, Scone, Tibbermuir, Trinity-Gask, Tulliallan, Weem. These are variously divided among the presbyteries of Dunkeld, Weem, Perth, Auchterarder, and Dunblane, in the synod of Perth and Stirling; the presbyteries of Meigle and Dundee in the synod of Angus and Mearns; and the presbytery of Kinross in the synod of Fife. The Established Church has 88 places of worship in the county, the Free Church 60, U.P. 25, Scottish Episcopalian 26, Roman Catholic 7, Baptist 4, Congregational 4, and other denominations 4. There are in the shire 193 elementary day schools (152 of them public), which, with total accommodation for 26,113 children, had (1882) 20,610 on the registers, and an average attendance of 15,591. The staff included 266 certificated, 16 assistant, and 145 pupil teachers. The registration county gives off parts of Arngask to Fife, of Fossaway and Tullibole to Kinross, of Kippen to Stirling, of Liff, Benvie, and Invergowrie, of Coupar-Angus, and of Scone to Forfarshire; and includes part of Alyth from Forfar, of Abernethy from Fife, of Forgandenny from Kinross, of Lecropt from Stirling, and of Logie from Stirling and Clackmannan. The pop. in 1881 was 130,382. All the parishes save six are assessed for the poor. There were in 1882-83 2999 registered and 2391 casual poor, on whom was spent a total of £35, 243. Fifteen parishes form the poor-law combination of Upper Strathearn, and eleven that of Athole and Breadalbane. The county asylum is at Murthly. In 1881-82 there were 435 pauper lunatics maintained in the county at a total expense of £10, 827. In 1882 the percentage of illegitimate births was 9.0. Perthshire contains the 42d regimental district, and the depot for the 1st, 2d, and 3d battalions of the Royal- Highlanders. Perth is the headquarters for the 1st Perth Rifle Volunteers, and Birnam for the 2d Perthshire Highland Rifle Volunteers.

Antiquities.—The antiquities of Perthshire are both numerous and interesting, but for anything beyond a brief mention of the most important, reference must be made to the articles on the various parishes and towns. Caledonian cairns, standing stones, cromlechs, and stone circles are found scattered over the entire county; and there are famous rocking-stones at Abernethy, Dron, and Kirkmichael. There is a vitrified fort on Craig Rossie, one of the Ochils; and on Castle Law there are the remains of what is said to be a Scandinavian camp, 500 feet in diameter. But by far the most important military antiquity is the famous Roman camp at Ardoch, the largest of the kind in the kingdom. There are other Roman camps at Fendoch, Dalginross, Fortingall, and Dunkeld; and there are various stretches of Roman road more or less distinctly traceable in different regions. In this connection should be mentioned the roads made by General Wade, about which a well-known distich remarks-

Had you seen these roads before they were made,
You would lift up your hands and bless General Wade.'

The curious high-pitched bridge across the Tay at Aberfeldy is an interesting specimen of the General's engineering. The cylindrical tower at Abernethy is the most interesting of the old watch-towers. There are localities and objects traditionally associated with King Arthur at Meigle, with Fingal at Glenalmond, and at Monzie and Killin, and with Ossian at Monzie and in Glen Beg. The quondam town of Bertha is separately noted. At Scone is the historic palace, and also the Boot-hill. Among the interesting castles, some now in ruins, are Macbeth's on Dunsinane Hill, Huntingtower or Ruthven, Castle-Campbell, Garth, Doune, Elcho, Drummond, Blair Athole, Kinclaven, Moulin, and Glasclune. The cathedrals at Dunblane and Dunkeld are described under those towns; other ecclesiastical and religious institutions were the collegiate churches of Methven and Tullybardine; and abbeys or priories, etc., at Scone, Inchaffray, Inchmahome, Abernethy, Culross, Coupar-Angus, Strathfillan, Elcho in Rhynd, and Loch Tay.

History.—The ancient inhabitants of Perthshire were known as the Daranii, Horestii, etc., and the names of the Caledonian `towns' of Alaunea on the Allan, Lindun near Ardoch, Victoria on the Ruchill, and Orrea on the Tay, have been recited by antiquarians. The county was traversed by the Romans under Agricola and Severus, and on their retirement became chief centre of a Pictish kingdom with capitals at Abernethy and Forteviot. A subsequent Scoto-Saxon monarchy held its seat at Perth and Scone; and the former of these places became, as we have seen, the capital of modern Scotland, and remained so till 1482. Most of the history of the county centres in Perth, with the exception of the obscure feuds of the Highland clans. The chief battles fought within the limits of the shire are Mons Granpius in A.D. 86 (see Caputh), where Agricola won a victory; Luncarty, where the Danes were defeated by Kenneth III. in 990; Methven, 1306; Dupplin, 1332; defeat of the Covenanters by Montrose at Tibbermuir, 1645; Killiecrankie, 1689; and Sheriffmuir, 1715; while in 1745-46 the county was deeply involved in the proceedings of the rebellion. The ancient jurisdictions have already been mentioned; it only remains to say that Menteith was a stewartry, Breadalbane a bailiary or separate jurisdiction of its earls-, Strathearn a stewartry, Methven a separate regality, and Atholl a regality of very large extent. Since the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1747, the sheriff, with his two substitutes, has exercised jurisdiction over the county, and in 1795 the present ten divisions, already referred to, were defined by Act of parliament.

literary Associations.—The romantic character of Perthshire scenery has attracted much attention from poets and novelists. Shakespeare's play of Macbeth has immortalised Birnam and Dunsinane. Sir Walter Scott lays the scene of The Lady of the Lake at Loch Katrine and the Trossachs; and much of Rob Roy is transacted in the same SW corner of the shire. Many of the scenes of Waverley are also laid in Perthshire; and Craighall claims to be the chief prototype of ` Tullyveolan' in that novel. Some of Burns's most beautiful lyrics have had a Perthshire inspiration; and the Birks o' Aberfeldy, The Humble Petition of Bruar Water,Allan Water, On Searing some Waterfowl in Loch Turrit, are among the best known. The Braes o'Doune and Braes o' Balquhidder have also been celebrated in poetry; and Mallet has sung The Birks o' Invermay. Many Jacobite songs have reference to Perthshire, not the least noticeable being James Hogg's Cam' ye by Athole. The Baroness Nairne's beautiful ballad The Auld House was written of the old House of Gask. The incident which gave rise to Wordsworth,s poem Stepping Westward occurred at Loch Katrine.

See James Robertson, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Perth (Perth, 1799); vol. x. of The New Statistical Account (Edinb. 1845); Perthshire Illustrated (Lond. 1844); John Dickson, `Report on the Agriculture of Perthshire,' in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. (Edinb. 1868); J. C. Guthrie, The Vale of Strathmore (Edinb. 1875); P. D. Drummond, Perthshire in Bygone Days (Lond. 1879); W. Marshall, Historic Scenes in Perthshire (Edinb. 1880); T. Hunter, Woods,.Forests, and Estates of Perthshire (Perth, 1883); R. S. Fittis, Illustrations of the History and Antiquities of Perthshire (Perth, 1874), Perthshire Antiquarian Miscellany (1875), Historical and Traditionary Gleanings Concerning Perthshire (18 76), Chronicles of Perthshire (1877), Sketches of the Olden Times in Perthshire (1878), Book of Perthshire Memorabilia (1879), and Reereations of an Antiquary in Perthshire History and Genealogy (1880); besides works cited under Crieff, Culross, Dunkeld, Fingask Castle, Gask, Grantully, Inchaffray, Inchmahome, Keir, Monteith, Perth, and Scone.

(F.H. Groome, Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland (1882-4); © 2004 Gazetteer for Scotland)

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "a large inland county"   (ADL Feature Type: "countries, 2nd order divisions")
Administrative units: Perthshire ScoCnty
Place: Perthshire

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