1881 Census of England and Wales, Tables: Ages, Condition as to Marriage, Occupations and Birthplaces of people, Table 10 : " Occupations of Males and Females in the Division and its Registration Counties".

List Halifax PLU/RegD Halifax CP/AP
OCCUPATIONS. Males.
[1]
Females.
[2]
1. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE GENERAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 147 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Civil Service (officers and clerks) 28 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Civil Service (messengers, &c.) 23 Show data context -
  Police 62 Show data context -
  Municipal, Parish, Union, District, Officer 27 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Other Local or County Official 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
2. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY. 299 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Army Officer (effective/retired) 5 Show data context -
  Soldier and Non-commissioned officer 248 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Militia, Yeomanry, Volunteers 16 Show data context -
  Army Pensioner 29 Show data context -
  Navy Pensioner 1 Show data context -
3. PERSONS ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS (WITH THEIR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES). 398 Show data context 293 Show data context
  Clergymen (Established Church) 10 Show data context -
  Roman Catholic Priest 3 Show data context -
  Minister, Priest of other religious bodies 20 Show data context -
  Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant preacher 4 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Church, chapel, cemetery - officer, servant 13 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Barrister, Solicitor 16 Show data context -
  Law Clerk, and others connected with the law 57 Show data context -
  Physician, Surgeon, General Practitioner 24 Show data context -
  Dentist 20 Show data context -
  Medical Student, Assistant 14 Show data context -
  Subordinate Medical Service 8 Show data context 55 Show data context
  Schoolmaster 65 Show data context 169 Show data context
  Teacher, Professor, Lecturer 7 Show data context 20 Show data context
  School Service, and others connected with teaching 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Author, Editor, Journalist 4 Show data context -
  Reporter, Short-hand Writer 3 Show data context -
  Persons engaged in Scientific Pursuits 2 Show data context -
  Civil Engineer 5 Show data context -
  Land, House, Ship, Surveyor 3 Show data context -
  Painter (artist) 4 Show data context -
  Engraver (artist) 2 Show data context -
  Architect 20 Show data context -
  Musician, Music Master 51 Show data context 29 Show data context
  Art Student 8 Show data context -
  Photographer 13 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Actor 3 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Art, Music, Theatre Service 3 Show data context -
  Performer, Showman, Exhibition, Service 4 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Billiard, Cricket & other Games, Service 8 Show data context -
4. PERSONS ENGAGED IN DOMESTIC OFFICES OR SERVICES. 250 Show data context 2,146 Show data context
  Domestic Coachman, Groom 94 Show data context -
  Domestic Gardener 56 Show data context -
  Domestic Indoor Servant 27 Show data context 1,824 Show data context
  Lodge, Gate, Park Keeper (not Government) 2 Show data context -
  Inn, Hotel Servant 49 Show data context 42 Show data context
  College, Club Service 3 Show data context -
  Office Keeper (not Government) 7 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Cook (not domestic) - 5 Show data context
  Charwoman - 168 Show data context
  Washing and Bathing Service 8 Show data context 90 Show data context
  Hospital and Institution Service 2 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Others engaged in Service 2 Show data context -
5. PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 584 Show data context 22 Show data context
  Merchant 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Broker, Agent, Factor 49 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuer, House Agent 8 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Accountant 22 Show data context -
  Salesman, Buyer (not otherwise specified) 2 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Commercial Traveller 87 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Commercial Clerk 332 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Officer of Commercial Company, Guild, Society &c. 1 Show data context -
  Banker 1 Show data context -
  Bank Service 29 Show data context -
  Life, House, Ship &c., Insurance Service 47 Show data context 1 Show data context
6. PERSONS ENGAGED IN CONVEYANCE OF MEN, GOODS, AND MESSAGES. 624 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Railway Engine Driver, Stoker 3 Show data context -
  Railway Guard 5 Show data context -
  Pointsman, Level Crossing Man 8 Show data context -
  Other Railway Officials and Servants 97 Show data context -
  Omnibus, Coach, Cab, Owner - Livery Stable Keeper 17 Show data context -
  Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 38 Show data context -
  Carman, Carrier, Carter, Haulier 276 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Tramway Companies' Service 1 Show data context -
  Inland Navigation Service 1 Show data context -
  Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Seaman (Merchant Service) 3 Show data context -
  Ship Steward, Cook 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 1 Show data context -
  Warehouseman (not Manchester) 95 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Messenger, Porter, Watchman (not Railway or Government) 63 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Telegraph, Telephone Service 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
7. PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 73 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Farmer, Grazier 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Farm Bailiff 2 Show data context -
  Agricultural Labourer, Farm Servant, Cottager 48 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist 6 Show data context -
  Gardener (not domestic) 10 Show data context -
8. PERSONS ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS. 43 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Horse Proprietor, Breeder, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Groom, Horse-keeper, Horse-breaker 26 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Veterinary Surgeon, Farrier 6 Show data context -
  Cattle, Sheep, Pig - Dealer, Salesman 6 Show data context -
  Drover 2 Show data context -
  Gamekeeper 1 Show data context -
9. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN BOOKS, PRINTS, AND MAPS. 181 Show data context 33 Show data context
  Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 15 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Music-Publisher, Seller, Printer 6 Show data context -
  Bookbinder 25 Show data context 23 Show data context
  Printer 116 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 9 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
10. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 823 Show data context 25 Show data context
  Engine, Machine Maker 128 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Millwright 24 Show data context -
  Fitter, Turner (Engine and Machine) 140 Show data context -
  Boiler Maker 166 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Spinning and Weaving Machine Maker 190 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Agricultural Machine and Implement Maker 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Domestic Machinery - Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Tool Maker, Dealer 34 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Saw Maker 3 Show data context -
  Needle Maker 1 Show data context -
  Domestic Implement Maker 2 Show data context -
  Watch Maker, Clock Maker 32 Show data context -
  Philosophical Instrument Maker 10 Show data context -
  Electrical Apparatus Maker 37 Show data context -
  Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Maker 7 Show data context -
  Surgical Instrument Maker 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Gunsmith, Gun Manufacturer 2 Show data context -
  Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 41 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Toy Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
11. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN HOUSES, FURNITURE, AND DECORATIONS. 1,412 Show data context 62 Show data context
  Builder 18 Show data context -
  Carpenter, Joiner 297 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Bricklayer 31 Show data context -
  Mason 346 Show data context -
  Slater, Tiler 32 Show data context -
  Plasterer, Whitewasher 94 Show data context -
  Paperhanger 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Plumber 110 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Painter, Glazier 172 Show data context -
  Cabinet Maker 194 Show data context 55 Show data context
  French Polisher 30 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Furniture Broker, Dealer 27 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Locksmith, Bellhanger 7 Show data context -
  Gas Fitter 4 Show data context -
  House and Shop Fittings - Maker, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 1 Show data context -
  Wood Carver 16 Show data context -
  Carver, Gilder 18 Show data context -
  Dealer in Works of Art 1 Show data context -
  Figure, Image - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Animal, Bird &c. Preserver, Naturalist 1 Show data context -
12. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CARRIAGES AND HARNESS. 100 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Coachmaker 42 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Railway Carriage, Railway Wagon, Maker 1 Show data context -
  Wheelwright 27 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Others 6 Show data context -
  Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 24 Show data context 1 Show data context
13. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN SHIPS AND BOATS. 3 Show data context -
  Ship, Boat, Barge Builder 2 Show data context -
  Ship Rigger, Chandler, Fitter 1 Show data context -
14. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS. 69 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Dye, Paint Manufacture 13 Show data context -
  Chemist, Druggist 41 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Manufacturing Chemist 6 Show data context -
  Drysalter 9 Show data context -
15. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TOBACCO AND PIPES. 48 Show data context 38 Show data context
  Tobacco Manufacture, Tobacconist 46 Show data context 38 Show data context
  Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box &c. Maker 2 Show data context -
16. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN FOOD AND LODGING. 876 Show data context 178 Show data context
  Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 84 Show data context 17 Show data context
  Lodging, Boarding House Keeper 10 Show data context 17 Show data context
  Coffee, Eating House, Keeper 9 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Maltster 6 Show data context -
  Brewer 24 Show data context -
  Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 30 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Cellarman 11 Show data context -
  Wine, Spirit - Merchant, Agent 21 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Milkseller, Dairyman 7 Show data context -
  Cheesemonger, Butterman 7 Show data context -
  Butcher, Meat Salesman 196 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Provision Curer, Dealer 10 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Poulterer, Game Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Fishmonger 30 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn, Flour, Seed Merchant, Dealer 5 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn Miller 18 Show data context -
  Baker 50 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Confectioner, Pastrycook 25 Show data context 57 Show data context
  Greengrocer, Fruiterer 76 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Sugar Refiner 1 Show data context -
  Grocer. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate Maker, Dealer 247 Show data context 38 Show data context
  Ginger Beer, Mineral Water Manufacturer, Dealer 6 Show data context -
17. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TEXTILE FABRICS. 2,641 Show data context 3,401 Show data context
  Woolstapler 102 Show data context -
  Woollen Cloth Manufacture 323 Show data context 193 Show data context
  Wool, Woollen goods - Dyer, Printer 23 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Worsted, Stuff, Manufacture 567 Show data context 1,810 Show data context
  Blanket Manufacture - 1 Show data context
  Fuller 2 Show data context -
  Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, Blanket Dealer 71 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Silk, Silk Goods, Manufacture 85 Show data context 125 Show data context
  Silk Merchant, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacture 391 Show data context 529 Show data context
  Cotton, Calico - Printer, Dyer, Bleacher 57 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Cotton, Calico - Warehouseman, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Flax, Linen - Manufacturer, Dealer 24 Show data context 48 Show data context
  Lace Manufacturer, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Thread Manufacturer, Dealer - 2 Show data context
  Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre Manufacture 4 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Rope, Twine, Cord - Maker, Dealer 18 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Canvas, Sailcloth Manufacture - 1 Show data context
  Weaver (undefined) 22 Show data context 84 Show data context
  Dyer, Printer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer (undefined) 286 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Factory Hand (textile, undefined) 109 Show data context 125 Show data context
  Felt Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Carpet, Rug Manufacture 405 Show data context 391 Show data context
  Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 131 Show data context 43 Show data context
  Fancy Goods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 12 Show data context 25 Show data context
  Trimming Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Others 3 Show data context 7 Show data context
18. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN DRESS. 679 Show data context 851 Show data context
  Hatter, Hat Manufacture 13 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Straw - Hat, Bonnet, Plait Manufacture - 2 Show data context
  Tailor 195 Show data context 44 Show data context
  Milliner, Dressmaker, Staymaker 6 Show data context 663 Show data context
  Shirt Maker, Seamstress 1 Show data context 63 Show data context
  Hosiery Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Hosier, Haberdasher 17 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Shoe, Boot - Maker, Dealer 332 Show data context 65 Show data context
  Patten, Clog Maker 54 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 54 Show data context -
  Umbrella, Parasol, Stick - Maker, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Accoutrement Maker 1 Show data context -
  Old Clothes Dealer, and others - 1 Show data context
19. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 152 Show data context 69 Show data context
  Tallow Chandler, Candle, Grease Manufacture 6 Show data context -
  Soap Boiler, Maker 2 Show data context -
  Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell - Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Furrier, Skinner 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Tanner, Fellmonger 4 Show data context -
  Currier 28 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c., Maker, Dealer 13 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Hair, Bristle - Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brush, Broom, Maker 95 Show data context 50 Show data context
  Quill, Feather - Dresser, Dealer - 4 Show data context
20. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 206 Show data context 51 Show data context
  Oil Miller, Oil Cake - Maker, Dealer 7 Show data context -
  Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth Manufacture 9 Show data context -
  Japanner 1 Show data context -
  India Rubber, Gutta Percha - Worker, Dealer 12 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Waterproof Goods - Maker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Willow, Cane, Rush Worker, Dealer, Basketmaker 8 Show data context -
  Hay, Straw (not plait), Chaff, Cutter, Dealer 10 Show data context -
  Timber, Wood - Merchant, Dealer 17 Show data context -
  Sawyer 27 Show data context -
  Lath, Wooden Fence, Hurdle Maker 2 Show data context -
  Wood Turner, Box Maker 36 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Cooper, Hoop Maker, Bender 20 Show data context -
  Cork, Bark - Cutter, Worker, Dealer 6 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Paper Manufacture 6 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Stationer, Law Stationer 17 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Card, Pattern Card Maker 12 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker 2 Show data context 18 Show data context
  Ticket, Label Writer 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Others 9 Show data context -
21. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 1,161 Show data context 58 Show data context
  Coal Miner 13 Show data context -
  Miner, in other or undefined Minerals 2 Show data context -
  Mine Service 1 Show data context -
  Coal Merchant 51 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Coalheaver 7 Show data context -
  Gas Works Service 40 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Stone Quarrier 52 Show data context -
  Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 32 Show data context -
  Slate Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Limeburner 2 Show data context -
  Brick, Tile - Maker, Burner, Dealer 19 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Paviour 34 Show data context -
  Road Contractor, Surveyor, Inspector 2 Show data context -
  Road Labourer 15 Show data context -
  Railway Contractor 1 Show data context -
  Platelayer 2 Show data context -
  Railway Labourer, Navvy 47 Show data context -
  Others 1 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Porcelain, Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Glass Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer 13 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Waterworks Service 4 Show data context -
  Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweller 13 Show data context -
  Lapidary 1 Show data context -
  Others - 2 Show data context
  [Iron Manufacture] 186 Show data context 1 Show data context
  [Steel Manufacture] 2 Show data context -
  Blacksmith 105 Show data context -
  Whitesmith 25 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Nail Manufacture 4 Show data context -
  Ironmonger. Hardware Dealer, Merchant 33 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Other Iron and Steel Manufacture 6 Show data context -
  [Coppersmith] 4 Show data context -
  Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 34 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Lead, Leaden Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brass, Bronze Manufacture. Brazier 124 Show data context -
  Wire Maker, Worker, Weaver, Drawer 269 Show data context 39 Show data context
  Bolt, Nut, Rivet, Screw, Staple Maker 12 Show data context -
22. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN GENERAL OR UNSPECIFIED COMMODITIES. 895 Show data context 155 Show data context
  General Shopkeeper, Dealer 26 Show data context 50 Show data context
  Pawnbroker 17 Show data context -
  Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 69 Show data context 29 Show data context
  Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendant (undefined) 33 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Contractor (undefined) 8 Show data context -
  General Labourer 320 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not railway, marine or agricultural) 113 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Artizan, Mechanic (undefined) 249 Show data context 26 Show data context
  Apprentice (undefined) 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Factory Labourer (undefined) 45 Show data context 23 Show data context
  Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 8 Show data context 22 Show data context
23. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN REFUSE MATTERS. 35 Show data context -
  Town Drainage Service 3 Show data context -
  Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 17 Show data context -
  Scavenger, Crossing Sweeper 11 Show data context -
  Rag Gatherer, Dealer 4 Show data context -
24. PERSONS WITHOUT SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 126 Show data context 1,343 Show data context
  Persons returned by Property, Rank &c. and not special occupation 126 Show data context 1,343 Show data context
[UNKNOWN OCCUPATION] 91 Show data context 5,279 Show data context
  [Occupation recorded but of unknown meaning] 15 Show data context 9 Show data context
  [Blank field, or illegible] 76 Show data context 5,270 Show data context

Notes:

The following notes to the table appeared in the original report.

1 This table is a very special case: The original Table 10 as published by Division in the 1881 census reports was limited to data for Registration Divisions, their component Registration Counties, and just those Urban Sanitary Districts with populations of over 50,000. Data presented here for counties and higher-level units are taken from the published reports, as usual, but we also include in A Vision of Britain through Time data for Registration Districts, sub-Districts and Civil Parishes which never appeared in the original reports. These were specially created for us by the History Data Service at the University of Essex and derive from the complete transcription of the individual-level Enumerators Book data coordinated by the Genealogical Society of Utah.
2 In creating these data, each occupation listed in the enumerators books has been assigned as far as possible to the relevant category used in the published reports, but some additional categories with labels in square brackets unavoidably appear. Unlike the published statistics for higher-level units, these specially-calculated data for districts and parishes include persons under 15 or over 65. For these and other reasons, no attempt has been made to ensure that county totals for the districts or parishes match the published county totals. The remaining notes are those that appeared below the original published table.
3 NOTE.--Persons returned as engaged in more than one occupation have been referred to the one that appeared to be of most importance; or if there was no difference in this respect, to the one first given by the person in his or her return. In some cases special rules have been followed: e.g. "Clergyman and Schoolmaster" in combination has always been referred to "Schoolmaster"; a Member of Parliament or Peer engaged in any branch of commerce or industry has always been referred to this latter, not to "Peer, M.P.".
4 The numbers returned under any heading include Labourers, Apprentices, and Assistants, as well as Masters, but not Clerks, Messengers, Errand boys, Porters, or Watchmen, for which occupations there are special headings. Civil, Military, and Naval Clerks, Law, Bank, Insurance, and Railway Clerks, and Government and Railway Porters, are, however, exceptions to this rule. Many young persons, being Apprentices or Assistants, have therefore been referred to occupations usually followed by adults. Women also, chiefly widows or orphans carrying on the business of their deceased husbands or fathers, will sometimes be found under occupations commonly followed by men only.
5 Persons returned as retired from any business have not been referred to that business. Inmates of workhouses have been referred to their trades, unless their age or infirmities showed that they were past work. But persons who might be supposed to be only temporarily separated from their usual employment, such as Prisoners, and Patients in General Hospitals, have been classed under their usual occupations.
6 In some cases, for convenience of space, the male designation, e.g. "Schoolmaster", alone is given, instead of "Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress".

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This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.


Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to the following contributors. If you make use of the data in your own work, please follow any instructions given here on acknowledgment and re-use.

(1) Kevin Schurer (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)

(2) Matthew Woollard (UK Data Service, University of Essex). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)