1881 Census of England and Wales, Tables: Ages, Condition as to Marriage, Occupations and Birthplaces of people, Table 10 : " Occupations of Males and Females in the Division and its Registration Counties".

List Hertfordshire RegC Barnet PLU/RegD
OCCUPATIONS. Males.
[1]
Females.
[2]
1. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE GENERAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 264 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Civil Service (officers and clerks) 64 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Civil Service (messengers, &c.) 42 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Prison Service, &c. 3 Show data context -
  Police 134 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Municipal, Parish, Union, District, Officer 9 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Other Local or County Official 12 Show data context -
2. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY. 82 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Army Officer (effective/retired) 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Soldier and Non-commissioned officer 14 Show data context -
  Militia, Yeomanry, Volunteers 43 Show data context -
  Army Pensioner 14 Show data context -
  Navy Officer (effective/retired) 1 Show data context -
  Seaman, R.N. 4 Show data context -
3. PERSONS ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS (WITH THEIR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES). 519 Show data context 565 Show data context
  Clergymen (Established Church) 31 Show data context -
  Roman Catholic Priest 3 Show data context -
  Minister, Priest of other religious bodies 7 Show data context -
  Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant preacher 3 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Nun, Sister of Charity - 30 Show data context
  Theological Student 16 Show data context -
  Church, chapel, cemetery - officer, servant 32 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Barrister, Solicitor 60 Show data context -
  Law Student 6 Show data context -
  Law Clerk, and others connected with the law 64 Show data context -
  Physician, Surgeon, General Practitioner 31 Show data context -
  Dentist 7 Show data context -
  Medical Student, Assistant 5 Show data context -
  Midwife - 2 Show data context
  Subordinate Medical Service 2 Show data context 196 Show data context
  Schoolmaster 66 Show data context 143 Show data context
  Teacher, Professor, Lecturer 21 Show data context 122 Show data context
  School Service, and others connected with teaching 4 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Author, Editor, Journalist 13 Show data context -
  Reporter, Short-hand Writer 2 Show data context -
  Persons engaged in Scientific Pursuits 8 Show data context -
  Literary, Scientific, Institution, Service, &c. 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Civil Engineer 27 Show data context -
  Mining Engineer 2 Show data context -
  Land, House, Ship, Surveyor 17 Show data context -
  Painter (artist) 8 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Engraver (artist) 3 Show data context -
  Sculptor 1 Show data context -
  Architect 19 Show data context -
  Musician, Music Master 10 Show data context 28 Show data context
  Art Student 5 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Photographer 37 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Actor 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Art, Music, Theatre Service 1 Show data context -
  Billiard, Cricket & other Games, Service 4 Show data context -
4. PERSONS ENGAGED IN DOMESTIC OFFICES OR SERVICES. 498 Show data context 3,417 Show data context
  Domestic Coachman, Groom 105 Show data context -
  Domestic Gardener 133 Show data context -
  Domestic Indoor Servant 145 Show data context 2,862 Show data context
  Lodge, Gate, Park Keeper (not Government) 3 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Inn, Hotel Servant 39 Show data context 28 Show data context
  Office Keeper (not Government) 1 Show data context -
  Cook (not domestic) 3 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Charwoman - 136 Show data context
  Washing and Bathing Service 7 Show data context 363 Show data context
  Hospital and Institution Service 59 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Others engaged in Service 3 Show data context -
5. PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 681 Show data context 12 Show data context
  Merchant 53 Show data context -
  Broker, Agent, Factor 89 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuer, House Agent 19 Show data context -
  Accountant 23 Show data context -
  Salesman, Buyer (not otherwise specified) 2 Show data context -
  Commercial Traveller 58 Show data context -
  Commercial Clerk 337 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Officer of Commercial Company, Guild, Society &c. 3 Show data context -
  Banker 5 Show data context -
  Bank Service 47 Show data context -
  Bill Discounter, Bill Broker, Finance Agent 3 Show data context -
  Life, House, Ship &c., Insurance Service 42 Show data context 1 Show data context
6. PERSONS ENGAGED IN CONVEYANCE OF MEN, GOODS, AND MESSAGES. 606 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Railway Engine Driver, Stoker 2 Show data context -
  Railway Guard 7 Show data context -
  Other Railway Officials and Servants 161 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Omnibus, Coach, Cab, Owner - Livery Stable Keeper 16 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 123 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Carman, Carrier, Carter, Haulier 118 Show data context -
  Tramway Companies' Service 1 Show data context -
  Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 4 Show data context -
  Navigation Service (on shore) 2 Show data context -
  Seaman (Merchant Service) 46 Show data context -
  Ship Steward, Cook 4 Show data context -
  Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 10 Show data context -
  Warehouseman (not Manchester) 30 Show data context -
  Messenger, Porter, Watchman (not Railway or Government) 79 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Telegraph, Telephone Service 3 Show data context 3 Show data context
7. PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 1,197 Show data context 23 Show data context
  Farmer, Grazier 70 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Farmer's, Grazier's - Son, Grandson, Brother, Nephew 14 Show data context -
  Farm Bailiff 23 Show data context -
  Agricultural Labourer, Farm Servant, Cottager 507 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Shepherd 7 Show data context -
  Agricultural Student 1 Show data context -
  Others engaged in, or connected with agriculture 1 Show data context -
  Woodman 2 Show data context -
  Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist 54 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Gardener (not domestic) 518 Show data context 3 Show data context
8. PERSONS ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS. 101 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Horse Proprietor, Breeder, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Groom, Horse-keeper, Horse-breaker 55 Show data context -
  Veterinary Surgeon, Farrier 18 Show data context -
  Cattle, Sheep, Pig - Dealer, Salesman 5 Show data context -
  Drover 5 Show data context -
  Gamekeeper 6 Show data context -
  Dog, Bird, Animal - Keeper, Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Knacker, Catsmeat Dealer &c &c. 5 Show data context 1 Show data context
9. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN BOOKS, PRINTS, AND MAPS. 96 Show data context 15 Show data context
  Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 17 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Music-Publisher, Seller, Printer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Bookbinder 8 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Printer 57 Show data context -
  Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Others 2 Show data context -
  Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 5 Show data context -
  Copper Plate and Steel Plate Printer 1 Show data context -
  Map and Print - Colourer, Seller - 1 Show data context
10. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 78 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Engine, Machine Maker 7 Show data context -
  Fitter, Turner (Engine and Machine) 7 Show data context -
  Boiler Maker 3 Show data context -
  Spinning and Weaving Machine Maker 1 Show data context -
  Tool Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Cutler, Scissors Maker 1 Show data context -
  Steel Pen Maker - 1 Show data context
  Watch Maker, Clock Maker 19 Show data context -
  Philosophical Instrument Maker 10 Show data context -
  Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Maker 1 Show data context -
  Surgical Instrument Maker 1 Show data context -
  Gunsmith, Gun Manufacturer 2 Show data context -
  Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 20 Show data context -
  Type Cutter, Founder 2 Show data context -
  Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 1 Show data context -
  Toy Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Fishing Rod, Tackle, Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
11. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN HOUSES, FURNITURE, AND DECORATIONS. 1,209 Show data context 22 Show data context
  Builder 79 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Carpenter, Joiner 388 Show data context -
  Bricklayer 283 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Mason 56 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Plasterer, Whitewasher 72 Show data context -
  Paperhanger 6 Show data context -
  Plumber 58 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Painter, Glazier 176 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cabinet Maker 44 Show data context 8 Show data context
  French Polisher 2 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Furniture Broker, Dealer 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Locksmith, Bellhanger 1 Show data context -
  Gas Fitter 22 Show data context -
  House and Shop Fittings - Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 1 Show data context -
  Wood Carver 3 Show data context -
  Carver, Gilder 2 Show data context -
  Dealer in Works of Art 1 Show data context -
  Figure, Image - Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Animal, Bird &c. Preserver, Naturalist 2 Show data context -
  Artificial Flower Maker 3 Show data context 5 Show data context
12. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CARRIAGES AND HARNESS. 68 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Coachmaker 21 Show data context -
  Railway Carriage, Railway Wagon, Maker 1 Show data context -
  Wheelwright 27 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 19 Show data context 1 Show data context
13. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN SHIPS AND BOATS. 6 Show data context -
  Ship, Boat, Barge Builder 4 Show data context -
  Shipwright, Ship Carpenter (ashore) 2 Show data context -
14. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS. 38 Show data context -
  Dye, Paint Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Ink, Blacking, Colour Substance Manufacture 4 Show data context -
  Chemist, Druggist 29 Show data context -
  Manufacturing Chemist 4 Show data context -
15. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TOBACCO AND PIPES. 15 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Tobacco Manufacture, Tobacconist 13 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box &c. Maker 2 Show data context -
16. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN FOOD AND LODGING. 606 Show data context 65 Show data context
  Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 76 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Lodging, Boarding House Keeper - 10 Show data context
  Coffee, Eating House, Keeper 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Brewer 16 Show data context -
  Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 22 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cellarman 4 Show data context -
  Wine, Spirit - Merchant, Agent 15 Show data context -
  Milkseller, Dairyman 32 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Cheesemonger, Butterman 3 Show data context -
  Butcher, Meat Salesman 103 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Provision Curer, Dealer 9 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Poulterer, Game Dealer 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Fishmonger 33 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Corn, Flour, Seed Merchant, Dealer 10 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Corn Miller 2 Show data context -
  Baker 119 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Confectioner, Pastrycook 6 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Greengrocer, Fruiterer 27 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Sugar Refiner 2 Show data context -
  Grocer. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate Maker, Dealer 117 Show data context 14 Show data context
  Ginger Beer, Mineral Water Manufacturer, Dealer 4 Show data context -
17. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TEXTILE FABRICS. 139 Show data context 83 Show data context
  Woollen Cloth Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, Blanket Dealer 11 Show data context -
  Silk, Silk Goods, Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Silk Merchant, Dealer 7 Show data context -
  Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacture 4 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Cotton, Calico - Warehouseman, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Flax, Linen - Manufacturer, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Lace Manufacturer, Dealer 2 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Rope, Twine, Cord - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Mat Maker, Seller 1 Show data context -
  Sacking, Sack, Bag - Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Weaver (undefined) 7 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Factory Hand (textile, undefined) 1 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Carpet, Rug Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Manchester Warehouseman 7 Show data context -
  Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 76 Show data context 46 Show data context
  Fancy Goods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 6 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Trimming Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Embroiderer 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
18. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN DRESS. 304 Show data context 534 Show data context
  Hatter, Hat Manufacture 6 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Straw - Hat, Bonnet, Plait Manufacture 4 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Tailor 102 Show data context 28 Show data context
  Milliner, Dressmaker, Staymaker 4 Show data context 326 Show data context
  Shirt Maker, Seamstress - 147 Show data context
  Hosiery Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Hosier, Haberdasher 13 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Glover, Glove Maker 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Button Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Shoe, Boot - Maker, Dealer 145 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 20 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Umbrella, Parasol, Stick - Maker, Dealer 6 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Accoutrement Maker 1 Show data context -
19. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 44 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Tallow Chandler, Candle, Grease Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell - Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Furrier, Skinner 7 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Currier 20 Show data context -
  Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c., Maker, Dealer 6 Show data context -
  Hair, Bristle - Worker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Brush, Broom, Maker 5 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Quill, Feather - Dresser, Dealer 2 Show data context -
20. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 91 Show data context 17 Show data context
  Oil Miller, Oil Cake - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Oil and Colourman 9 Show data context -
  Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  India Rubber, Gutta Percha - Worker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Waterproof Goods - Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Willow, Cane, Rush Worker, Dealer, Basketmaker 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Hay, Straw (not plait), Chaff, Cutter, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  Timber, Wood - Merchant, Dealer 7 Show data context -
  Sawyer 13 Show data context -
  Lath, Wooden Fence, Hurdle Maker 4 Show data context -
  Wood Turner, Box Maker 4 Show data context -
  Cooper, Hoop Maker, Bender 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Paper Manufacture 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Envelope Maker - 3 Show data context
  Stationer, Law Stationer 19 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker 5 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Ticket, Label Writer - 1 Show data context
  Others 1 Show data context -
21. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 360 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Coal Miner 1 Show data context -
  Miner, in other or undefined Minerals 2 Show data context -
  Mine Service 5 Show data context -
  Coal Merchant 21 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Coalheaver 10 Show data context -
  Coke, Charcoal, Peat - Cutter, Burner, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Gas Works Service 23 Show data context -
  Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Limeburner 2 Show data context -
  Well Sinker, Borer 1 Show data context -
  Plaster, Cement Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Brick, Tile - Maker, Burner, Dealer 52 Show data context -
  Road Contractor, Surveyor, Inspector 2 Show data context -
  Road Labourer 5 Show data context -
  Railway Contractor 3 Show data context -
  Platelayer 43 Show data context -
  Railway Labourer, Navvy 14 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Porcelain, Manufacture 8 Show data context -
  Glass Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Salt Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Waterworks Service 1 Show data context -
  Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweller 25 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Gold, Silver, Beater 1 Show data context -
  Others - 2 Show data context
  [Iron Manufacture] 3 Show data context -
  Blacksmith 78 Show data context -
  Whitesmith 6 Show data context -
  Nail Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Ironmonger. Hardware Dealer, Merchant 25 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Other Iron and Steel Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  [Coppersmith] 2 Show data context -
  Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  Lead, Leaden Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer - 2 Show data context
  Metal Refiner, Worker, Turner, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brass, Bronze Manufacture. Brazier 4 Show data context -
  Metal Burnisher, Lacquerer 1 Show data context -
  Wire Maker, Worker, Weaver, Drawer 1 Show data context -
  Clasp, Buckle, Hinge Maker - 1 Show data context
22. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN GENERAL OR UNSPECIFIED COMMODITIES. 1,153 Show data context 82 Show data context
  General Shopkeeper, Dealer 34 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Pawnbroker 4 Show data context -
  Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 20 Show data context 30 Show data context
  Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendant (undefined) 7 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Contractor (undefined) 3 Show data context -
  General Labourer 1,018 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not railway, marine or agricultural) 18 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Artizan, Mechanic (undefined) 40 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Apprentice (undefined) 3 Show data context -
  Factory Labourer (undefined) 5 Show data context -
  Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 1 Show data context 15 Show data context
23. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN REFUSE MATTERS. 14 Show data context -
  Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 12 Show data context -
  Rag Gatherer, Dealer 2 Show data context -
24. PERSONS WITHOUT SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 448 Show data context 1,233 Show data context
  Persons returned by Property, Rank &c. and not special occupation 448 Show data context 1,233 Show data context
[UNKNOWN OCCUPATION] 210 Show data context 4,963 Show data context
  [Occupation recorded but of unknown meaning] 15 Show data context -
  [Blank field, or illegible] 195 Show data context 4,963 Show data context

Notes:

The following notes to the table appeared in the original report.

1 This table is a very special case: The original Table 10 as published by Division in the 1881 census reports was limited to data for Registration Divisions, their component Registration Counties, and just those Urban Sanitary Districts with populations of over 50,000. Data presented here for counties and higher-level units are taken from the published reports, as usual, but we also include in A Vision of Britain through Time data for Registration Districts, sub-Districts and Civil Parishes which never appeared in the original reports. These were specially created for us by the History Data Service at the University of Essex and derive from the complete transcription of the individual-level Enumerators Book data coordinated by the Genealogical Society of Utah.
2 In creating these data, each occupation listed in the enumerators books has been assigned as far as possible to the relevant category used in the published reports, but some additional categories with labels in square brackets unavoidably appear. Unlike the published statistics for higher-level units, these specially-calculated data for districts and parishes include persons under 15 or over 65. For these and other reasons, no attempt has been made to ensure that county totals for the districts or parishes match the published county totals. The remaining notes are those that appeared below the original published table.
3 NOTE.--Persons returned as engaged in more than one occupation have been referred to the one that appeared to be of most importance; or if there was no difference in this respect, to the one first given by the person in his or her return. In some cases special rules have been followed: e.g. "Clergyman and Schoolmaster" in combination has always been referred to "Schoolmaster"; a Member of Parliament or Peer engaged in any branch of commerce or industry has always been referred to this latter, not to "Peer, M.P.".
4 The numbers returned under any heading include Labourers, Apprentices, and Assistants, as well as Masters, but not Clerks, Messengers, Errand boys, Porters, or Watchmen, for which occupations there are special headings. Civil, Military, and Naval Clerks, Law, Bank, Insurance, and Railway Clerks, and Government and Railway Porters, are, however, exceptions to this rule. Many young persons, being Apprentices or Assistants, have therefore been referred to occupations usually followed by adults. Women also, chiefly widows or orphans carrying on the business of their deceased husbands or fathers, will sometimes be found under occupations commonly followed by men only.
5 Persons returned as retired from any business have not been referred to that business. Inmates of workhouses have been referred to their trades, unless their age or infirmities showed that they were past work. But persons who might be supposed to be only temporarily separated from their usual employment, such as Prisoners, and Patients in General Hospitals, have been classed under their usual occupations.
6 In some cases, for convenience of space, the male designation, e.g. "Schoolmaster", alone is given, instead of "Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress".

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This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.


Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to the following contributors. If you make use of the data in your own work, please follow any instructions given here on acknowledgment and re-use.

(1) Kevin Schurer (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)

(2) Matthew Woollard (UK Data Service, University of Essex). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)