Picture of Thomas Pennant

Thomas Pennant


places mentioned

Tyringham to Woburn

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FROM Gothurst I crossed the Ouze , to the respectable old house of Tyringham ,1 (once the seat of a family of the same name) which stands very high in point of antiquity. Giffard de Tyringham gave the church of Tyringham to the priory of Tickford , near Newport Pagnel , in 1187. Sir Roger de Tyringham was one of the knights who attended Edward I. into Scotland ; and Roger , his son, was sheriff of this county as early as the fifteenth of Richard II.2 A Sir John Tyringham had the honor of losing his head in the cause of Henry VI.; being, with several others, put to death unheard, in 1461, for the murder of the Duke of York ; that is, for being present at the battle of Wakefield , where that prince fell by some unknown hand. It continued in this antient family, till 1685, when, on the death of Sir William Tyringham , it devolved to John , son of Edward Backwell , alderman of London , who had married his only daughter.

THE house has been neglected for some time, but not wholly unfurnished. Several family-portraits still continue there: such as a head of Lady Tyringham , in a yellow laced cap and ruff; of the same kind with that in which the famous Mrs. Turner went to be hanged, for her concern in Overbury's murder.

A VERY curious picture, full-length, of an aged lady, in a great quilled ruff and gauze cap, distended behind, with an enormous gauze veil falling to the ground; a black gown spotted with white; jewels, in form of a cross, on her breast; another on her arm, and great strings of pearl round her wrists. She stands beneath a canopy, on which is a crown and coat of arms.

ANOTHER, of a young lady leaning on a chair, in a gauze cap, falling back; yellow petticoat flowered with red, and a feather-fan.

A HALF-LENGTH of Colonel Backwell , in blue, gold sleeves and frogs, a sash; and a battle in view.

A SMALL portrait of Edward Backwell , Esquire. He is represented in long hair and a flowered gown, with a table by him. I have a fine print of him, given me by the late Mr. Backwell , one of his descendants. He was, says Mr. Granger , an alderman of London and a banker, of great ability, industry, and integrity, and of most extensive credit; but ruined in the reign of Charles II. by the infamous project of shutting up the Exchequer. He retired to Holland , where he died, and was brought over to be interred in the church of Tyringham ; where he lies embalmed. A glass is placed over his face; so his visage may possibly be seen to this time.

I COULD not but admire a spirited picture of a Falcon stooping at Bitterns.

IN the hall is a curious table, of an ash-colored marble. I should call it a polynesious marble, being veined like a chart filled with little islands, nicely shaded at their edges.

As my curiosity led me to explore the kitchen, I found on the walls the rude portraits of the following fish, recorded to be taken in the adjacent river, in the years below-mentioned.

A carp, in 1648, 2 feet 9 inches long.
A pike, in 1658, 3   7.  
A bream, 2   3.  
A salmon, 3   10.  
A perch, 2   0.  
A shad, in 1683, 1   11.  

These are the records of rural life; important to those who were perhaps happily disengaged from the bustle and cares attendant on politics and dissipation.

THE adjacent church is dedicated to St. Peter , and united with Filgrave: it is in the gift of Mr. Backwell . The village of Tyringham is quite depopulated, and the church of Filgrave dilapidated; but the inhabitants of that parish make use of the church of Tyringham .

ABOUT a mile farther, go through the village of Lathbury ; near which is the church, and a large old house.

A LITTLE farther is Newport Pagnel: in former times of dangerous approach, by reason of the overflowing of the Ouze . This small town stands between that river and the Lovet , near their junction. Soon after the Conquest, it was the property of William Fitz-Ausculph ;3 from him it passed in the reign of William Rufus to the Paganels , or Painels , who continued possessed of it above a century. Leland mentions them as lords of the castle of Newport Pagnel .4 On the death of Gervase Pagnel , in the reign of Richard I. this manor became the property of John de Somerie , by marriage with Hawise , daughter of Gervase .5 His son Ralph gave King John a hundred pounds, and two palfreys, for livery of this lordship, and did homage for it. In the reign of Henry III. Roger de Somerie forfeited his lands, for neglecting (on summons) to receive the honour of knighthood.6 The king then granted the farm of this place to Walter de Kirkham for life, quitting him of suits to county and hundred, and of aid to sheriffs and his bailiffs; and that, when the king or his heirs should tallage their manors and demesnes, the said Walter might by himself, and to his own use, tallage the said manor in like form as it might be tallaged if it were in the king's hand.7 But I find that it afterwards reverted to the Someries . In the reign of Edward II. it was conveyed to Thomas de Botetourt , by his marriage with Joan , one of the sisters of John de Somerie , last male heir.8 I now lose sight of the succession, and can only say, that it continued a place of strength till the civil wars of the seventeenth century, when its strength was demolished, or, according to the phrase of the time, slighted, by order of parlement, in 1646.9

IT flourishes greatly, by means of the lace manufacture, which we stole from the Flemings , and introduced with great success into this county. There is scarcely a door to be seen, during summer, in most of the towns, but what is occupied by some industrious pale-faced lass; their sedentary trade forbidding the rose to bloom in their sickly cheeks.

THE church is dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul ; was an impropriation belonging to the neighboring abbey of Tickford ; and is in the gift of the crown.

HERE were three hospitals, founded in early times. That by John de Somerie , about the year 1280, still survives, for three poor men, and the same number of poor women; having been re-founded by Anne of Denmark , and from her is called Queen Anne's Hospital . The vicar of Newport for the time being is appointed master.10

ABOUT eight miles from Newport , at the forty-four mile-stone, at Hogsty-house , enter the county of

BEDFORD,

on Woburn Sands , seated on the extremity of the range of hills which traverse the east end of the former county, and contain the parishes of the three Brickhills . Near the road side are the noted pits of fullers' earth, that invaluable substance which is supposed to give the great superiority to the British cloth (honestly worked) over that of other nations.

THE beds over this important marle are, firstly, several layers of reddish sand, to the thickness of six yards; then succeeds a stratum of sand-stone, of the same color; beneath which, for seven or eight yards more, the sand is again continued to the fullers' earth; the upper part of which, being impure, or mixed with sand, is flung aside, the rest taken up for use. The earth lies in layers; under which is a bed of rough white free-stone, about two feet thick, and under that sand; beyond that the laborers never have penetrated.

THE great use of this earth is cleansing the cloth, or imbibing the tar, grease, and tallow, which are so frequently employed by the shepherds, in healing the external diseases which sheep are liable to; neither can the wool be worked, spun, or woven, unless it be well greased. All this grease must be gotten out, before the cloths are fit to wear. Other countries either want this species of earth, or have it in less perfection. The British legislature therefore have, from the days of Charles I. guarded against the exportation of it under severe penalties. The Romans attended to the fulling business by their lex Metella , which was made expressly to regulate the manufacture.11 They used various kinds of earth: the cimolia , the sarda (which came from Sardinia) , and the umbrica . The two first were white; the latter might be allied to ours: crescit in macerando ; it swells in water;12 a property of the true marles. But the application of earths in the woollen manufacture, and for the purpose of cleansing, was of very early times:—But who may abide the day of his coming, and who shall stand when He appeareth? for He is like a refiner's fire, and like FULLERS' SOPE.13

AT a small distance from hence lies the little town of Woburn , in which is a free-school, founded by Francis I. Earl of Bedford , and a charity-school for thirty boys, by Wriothesly Duke of Bedford . The church was built by the last abbot of Woburn ,14 and belonged to that religious house; having been a chapel to Birchmore , a church long since demolished. This place is of exempt jurisdiction, under the patronage of the adjacent great family.15 The steeple is oddly disjoined from the church. The chancel has been very elegantly fitted up with stucco by the late duke. The pulpit is a pretty piece of gothic carving, probably coeval with the abbey.

A NEAT monument of Sir Francis Stanton , is preserved here; who, with his lady, is kneeling at an altar.

IN the south aile stood a grey marble, robbed of the figure of a priest under a large canopy, and four coats of arms, with the inscription entire.

Hic jacet John Morton , filius quonda Johes Morton , de Porisgrave , domini de Lovelsbury , qi obiit in die comemorcois Sci Pauli , anno Dni Millmo C. C. C. nonagesimo quarto. Quor aie ppicietur Deus .

IN the east window were the arms of Robert Vere Earl of Oxford , impaling Samford ; the last, in right of his wife Alice , daughter and heiress to Gilbert Lord Samford , chamberlain to Elinor, consort to Edward I.16

AT a little distance from the town was situated the abbey, founded, in 1145, by Hugh de Bolebec , a nobleman of great property in this neighborhood; who, inspired by God, made a visit to the abbot of Fountains , to advise him about his pious design.17 The abbot encouraged him to proceed; and Hugh erected the buildings, endowed them, and peopled them with monks of the Cistercian order, and placed over them, as first abbot, Alan , brought from the monastery of St. Mary , at York .18 The place prospered, by several benefactions; and at the dissolution, was found, according to Dugdale , to be possessed of revenues tp the amount of .391. 18s. 2d. a year, or to . 430. 13s. 11d. according to Speed .19

THE last abbot, Robert Hobbs , was hanged at Woburn , in March , 1537, for not acknowleging the king's supremacy. The monastery and its revenues, in 1547, were granted by Edward VI. to Lord Russel , soon after created Earl of Bedford by the same prince. None profited so greatly by the plunder of the church as this family: whose fortune, even to the present time, principally originates from gifts of this nature. To the grant of Woburn it owes much of its property in this county, and in Bucks ; to that of the rich abbey of Tavistock , vast fortunes and interest in Devonshire ; and, to render them more extensive, that of Dunkeswell was added. The donation of Thorney abbey gave him an amazing tract of fens in Cambridgeshire , together with a great revenue. Melchburn abbey (I should have before said) increased his property in Bedfordshire ; the priory of Castle Hymel gave him footing in Northamptonshire , and he came in for parcels of the appertenance of St. Alban's , and Mountgrace in Yorkshire ; not to mention the house of the friars preachers in Exeter , with the revenues belonging to the foundation; and finally, the estate about Covent Garden , with a field adjoining, called The Seven Acres , on which Long Acre is built, appertenances to the convent of Westminster ; the first, a garden belonging to the abbot.

THE superstitious will stand amazed, that no signal judgment has overtaken these children of sacrilege; yet no house in Britain has thriven more than the house of Russel .

THE20 house is situated in a very pleasant park, well wooded, but defective in water; the several pieces being too much divided, and the dams too conspicuous. The present house was built by the late duke, excepting a paltry grotto, by Inigo Jones (which shews that his taste was superior to such childish performances), and the great stables, which were part of the antient cloisters, and still preserve their pillars and vaulted roof. The offices are also the work of the late duke, and form two magnificent but plain buildings, at a small distance from the mansion.

THIS house is a treasure of paintings; of portraits of the great, now illustrious by the figure they make in the eyes of posterity, undazzled by the wealth, rank, power, or qualifications, mental or corporeal, which concealed their failings, and made them pass at lest unnoticed openly by their cotemporaries. They now undergo a posthumous trial, and, like the Egyptians of old, receive censure or praise according to their respective merits.

THE greater number are now collected in the gallery, a room unparalleled for its valuable and instructive series of portraits; their history would make a volume. I can only pretend to point out some principal facts, that the spectator, who honors me with his company, through this illustrious assemblage, may not have to reproach me with suffering him to depart wholly uninformed. I lament they are not placed in chronological order. I must give them as they are now21 arranged. Beginning at the east end, the first I shall point out is

SIR Nicholas Bacon , in a black dress, furred; by Zucchero .

A FINE portrait by Sir Antonio More of Edward Courteney , last Earl of Devonshire of his name; who, for his nearness in blood to the crown, was imprisoned by the jealous Henry , from the age of ten till about that of twenty-eight. His daughter Mary set him at liberty, and wooed him to share the kingdom with her. He rejected her offer, from preference to her sister Elizabeth ; for which, and some false suspicions of disaffection, he suffered another imprisonment with Elizabeth . He was soon released. He quitted the kingdom, as prudence directed, and died at the age of thirty at Padua .

HE is represented as a handsome man, with short brown hair, and a yellow beard, a dark jacket, with white sleeves, and breeches; behind him is a ruined tower; beneath him this inscription, expressive of his misfortunes;

En! puer et insons et adhuc jurenilibus annis:
Annos bis septem carcere clusus eram.
Me pater his tenuit vinclis, quae filia solvit:
Sors mea sic tandem vertitur a superis.

Fourteen long years in strict captivity,
Tyrant-condemn'd I passed my early bloom,
'Till pity bade the generous daughter free
A guiltless captive, and reverse my doom. R. W.

SIR Philip Sydney is painted in the twenty second year of hjs age; in a quilled ruff, white slashed jacket, a three-quarter length. He was a deserved favourite of Queen Elizabeth: who well might think the court deficient without him; for, to uncommon knowledge, valour, and virtuous gallantry, was joined a romantic spirit, congenial with that of his royal mistress. His romance of Arcadia is not relished at present: it may be tedious; but the morality, I fear, renders it disgusting to our age. It is too replete with innocence to be relished. Sir Philip was to the English , what the Chevalier Bayard was to the French, Un chevalier sans peur, et sans reproche . Both were strongly tinctured with enthusiastic virtue: both died in the field with the highest sentiments of piety.

QUEEN Mary in her usual deformity, by Sir Antonio More .

THE head of Frances Countess of Somerset .22 She is dressed in black, striped with white, and her ruff and ruffles starched with yellow. This fashion soon expired; for her bawd and creature, Mrs. Turner , went to Tyburn in a yellow ruff, and put the wearers out of conceit with it. I need not enlarge on the well-known marriage and divorce of this lady from the Earl of Essex . They are too notorious to be insisted on; as is her weakness, in having recourse to the impostor Forman for philtres to debilitate Essex , and impel the affections of Somerset towards her. Her wickedness, in procuring the death of Overbury , who obstructed this union; her sudden fall, and confession of guilt on her trial, need no repetition. Her Earl avowed his innocency; he had been more covert in his proceedings. Her passions were more violent, her resentments greater, and, of course, her caution less. They both obtained an unmerited pardon, or rather reprieve, being confined in the Tower till the year 1622, and then confined, by way of indulgence, in the house of Lord Wallingford . The little delicacy which people of rank too frequently shew, by countenancing the vices of their equals, was too conspicuous at this time. The Countess felt their pity, and was visited even by the stern Anne Clifford. Somerset lived with his lady, after their confinement, with the strongest mutual hatred: the certain consequence of vicious associations. He died in the year 1645;23 she, before him. In her end may be read a fine lesson on the vengeance of Providence on the complicated wickedness of her life. It may be held up as a mirror to posterity, persuasive to virtue, and teach that Heaven inflicted a finite punishment on the criminal, in mercy to her, and as a warning to future generations. I give the relation (filthy as it is) in the Appendix; but hope the utility of the moral will excuse the grossness of the tale.

ON the north side of the gallery Sir Nicholas Throgmorton .

A FULL length portrait of Robert Earl of Essex , by Zucchero , in white. Elizabeth's passion for Essex certainly was not founded on the beauty of his person. His beard was red, his hair black, his person strong, but without elegance, his gait ungraceful.24 But the queen was far past the heyday of her blood: she was struck with his romantic valour, with his seeming attachment to her person, and I may add, with the violence of his passions; for her majesty, like the rest of her sex, probably

Stoop'd to the forward and the bold.

AT length his presumption increased with her favor; her fears overcame her affection, and, after many struggles, she consigned him to the scaffold; having thoroughly worked himself out of her gracious conceit.25

THOMAS Earl of Exeter , eldest son to the great Burleigh , is painted a full length. Notwithstanding this nobleman was inferior in abilities to his younger brother, yet was he a man of spirit and of parts. He served as a volunteer at the siege of Edinburgh castle in 1573; distinguished himself in the wars in the Low Countries; and, with his brother, served on board the fleet which had the honor of defeating the Spanish armada. He entered also into the romantic gallantries of the reign of Queen Elizabeth , and was a knight-tilter in the tournaments performed for the amusement of her illustrious lover, the Duke of Anjou , in 1581. In the following reign he was employed as a man of business; was created Earl of Exeter ; and finished his course, aged eighty, in February 1622.

His younger brother is placed near him, stand ing: a mean, little, deformed figure, possessed of his father's abilities, but mixed with deceit and treachery. His services to his master and his country, will give him rank among the greatest ministers, but his share in bringing the great Raleigh to the scaffold, and the dark part he acted, in secretly precipitating the generous, unsuspecting Essex to his ruin, will ever remain indelible blots on him as a man. His dress is that of the Spanish nation, (though he was averse to its politics) a black jacket and cloak, which add no grace to his figure.

THREE heads of Diana. Margaret and Anne , daughters of Francis , fourth Earl of Bedford .

Lucy , Countess of Bedford , exactly resembling that at Alloa .

DIANA Russel , wife to Francis , Earl of Newport , a head.

HER sister Margaret , wife to James Earl of Carlisle .

A FINE full length of a nobleman, in a black and gold vest, and with a high-crowned hat in his hand. On the back ground is a curtain, almost concealing a lady; of whom only one hand and a part of her petticoat are seen. By this is AEtatis: 1614. Lcy I.

EDWARD Earl of Manchester , lord chamberlain to Charles II. Long hair and robes.

CATHERINE, eldest daughter of Francis , fourth Earl of Bedford , and widow of the unfortunate Robert Lord Brook , who was killed at Lichfield . She is represented in mourning.

THOMAS, Earl of Southampton , in black with a star on his mantle.

HEAD of Anne Countess of Bedford .

CHRISTIANA, daughter to Edward Lord Bruce , of Kinloss , and wife to the second William Earl of Devonshire , a small head,26 with long hair; her dress white. This lady, who is less talked of than others, was by far the most illustrious character of the age in which she lived. Her virtues, domestic and public, were of the most exalted kind. Hospitality, charity, and piety, were in her pre-eminent. I speak not of her great maternal cares; nature dictates that, more or less, in all the sex: but her abilities in the management of the vast affairs of her family, perplexed with numberless litigations, gave her a distinguished character. She at least equalled her lord in loyalty, and was indefatigable in inciting the nobility, who had quitted the cause of majesty, to expiate their error. After the battle of Worcester , she lived three years in privacy at her brother's house at Ampthill , and had correspondence with several great personages, on the subject of restoring the exiled king. The reserved Monk had such an opinion of her prudence, as to communicate to her the signal by which she might know his intentions on that subject. She lived in high esteem, to a very advanced age; died in 1674, and was interred by her beloved lord, at Derby .

IT is no wonder that so illustrious a character should attract the powers of the poets. She had the honor of being celebrated by one equal in rank to her own. That accomplished nobleman William Earl of Pembroke , wrote several poems to her, and dedicated a collection of them to her. "There is wit and ease in several; but a great want of correction; and often of harmony." The following is the least faulty;27 the subject,

            That he would not be beloved .
Disdain me still, that I may ever love;
For who his love enjoys can love no more;
The war once past, with peace men cowards prove,
And ships returned, do rot upon the shore.
Then tho' thou frown, I'll say thou art most fair,
And still I'll love, tho' still I must despair.
As heat to life, so is desire to love;
For these once quench'd, both life and love are done.
Let not my sighs nor tears thy virtue move;
Like basest metals, do not melt too soon.
Laugh at my woes, although I ever mourn:
Love surfeits with rewards, his nurse is scorn.

A PORTRAIT formerly called Lucy Countess of Bedford , in a white satin gown worked with colors, a laced single ruff, and a long scarlet velvet cloak hanging gracefully with one arm folded in It. On her head is a pearl coronet, and pearls on her wrists. In the back ground, she appears in a garden, in the true attitude of stately disdain, bent half back, in scorn of a poor gentleman bowing to the very ground. Unfortunately for her lover, it is probable that Donne had just told her,

Out from your chariot, morning breaks at night,
And falsifies both computations, so;
Since a new world doth rise here from your light,
We your new creatures by new recknings go.
This shews that you from nature lothly stray,
Thus suffer not an artificial day.
In this vou have made the court the antipodes,
And will'd your delegate the vulgar sunne,
To doe profane autumnal offices,
Whilst here to you wee sacrificers runne,
In all religions as much care hath bin
Of temples frames and beauty, as rites within.

A HALF length of Henry Earl of Southampton , by Solomon de Caus ,28 with short grey hair; in black, with points round his waist, a flat ruff, leaning on a chair, with a mantle over one arm. This nobleman was a friend to the Earl of Essex , and through friendship, not disaffection, attended him in the mad and desperate insurrection which brought the favorite to the block. The plea was admitted, he was condemned, but reprieved; and continued in the Tower till the accession of James I. when he was instantly restored to his honors and estate. By reason of his love to the Earl of Essex , he never was on good terms with the minister, the Earl of Salisbury . He was one that attended Mansfield's army into the Netherlands , and died in 1624, at Bergen op Zoom , of a fever, contracted in that fatal expedition.

HEAD of Dorothy , daughter to Thomas Lord Viscount Savage , and wife to Charles , second Earl of Berkshire .

HEADS of Edward, John, Francis , and Catherine , children of Francis , fourth Earl of Bedford .

A FULL length of a nobleman, in a black jacket, double ruff, brown boots, and a stick in his hand; armour by him; a manly figure, with short black hair and square beard, miscalled Car Earl of Somerset .29 I forget whether the print among the illustrious heads (Vol. II. 19.) was not copied30 from this. But Car was a person of effeminate features and light hair.

A FULL length of Henry Danvers , created Baron Dauntsey by James I., and Earl of Danby by Charles I.; by Vandyck . His beard square and yellow, his jacket black; over that a red mantle, furred and laced with gold. His rich armour lies by him. Near him is written, Omnia praecepi . He was son of Sir John Danvers of Dauntsey , in Wiltshire , by Elisabeth , daughter and co-heir of John Nevil Lord Latimer .31 His elder brother, Sir Charles Danvers , lost his head for his concern in Essex's insurrection. James , who on all occasions testified his respect to that unhappy nobleman, countenanced every family who suffered in his cause, and accordingly, had Danvers restored in blood. Besides a peerage, he made him governor of Guernsey , and created him knight of the Garter. He passed his life as a soldier, under Maurice Prince of Orange , in the Low Countries; under Henry IV. in France ; and under the Earl of Essex and Lord Monjoy in Ireland . At length, in 1644, died, as his epitaph says, at his house of Cornbury Park, Oxfordshire , full of honor, wounds (verified in the portrait, by a great patch on his forehead), and days, in the seventy-first year of his age. Besides his military glory, we may add that of founding the Physic Garden at Oxford , in 1632, purchasing for that use the ground (once the Jews' cemetery) and inclosing it with a wall and beautiful gate, at the expence of five thousand pounds.32

WILLIAM Duke of Bedford , a full length, in a long wig, and the robes of the Garter.

THE head of Lady Cook , dated 1585, aet 44. She has on a quilled ruff, is dressed in black, richly ornamented with pearls. I apprehend this lady to have been the wife of the son of Sir Anthony Cook , one of the tutors to Edward VI., and distinguished by being father to five daughters, the wonders of their age for intellectual accomplishments.

AT the west end of the Gallery

GENERAL Monk .

A FINE three quarters of Killegrew , leaning on a table, a medallion with the portrait of Charles the First near him.

A HEAD of Lord William Russel , the sad victim to his virtuous design of preserving our liberties and constitution from the attempts of as abandoned a set of men as ever governed these kingdoms. True patriotism, not ambition or interest, directed his intentions. Posterity must applaud his unavailing engagements, with due censure of the Machiavelian necessity of taking off so dangerous an opposer of the machinations of his enemies. The law of politics gives sanction to the removal of every obstacle to the designs of statesmen. At the same time, we never should lessen our admiration and pity of the generous characters who fell sacrifices to their hopes of delivering, purified to their descendants, the corrupted government of their own days. To attempt to clear Lord Russel from the share in so glorious a design, would be to deprive him of a most brilliant part of his character. His integrity and ingenuousness would not suffer even himself to deny that part of the charge. Let that remain unimpeached, since he continues so perfectly acquitted of the most distant design of making assassination a means; or of intriguing with a foreign monarch, the most repugnant to our religion and freedom, to bring about so desired an end.

THE sad relict of this virtuous nobleman, the daughter to the good and great Wriothesley , Earl of Southampton , is placed near him; a small full length, in widow's weeds, with her head reclined on one hand, and a book by her, with a countenance full of deep and silent sorrow. I imagine her in the third month of her affliction, filled with the following meditation.

LORD, let me understand the reason of these dark and wounding providences, that I sink not under the discouragement of my own thoughts. I know I have deserved my punishment, and will be silent under it; but yet secretly my heart mourns, because I have not the dear companion and sharer of my joys and sorrows: I want him to talk with, to eat and sleep with. All these things are irksome to me now: the day unwelcome, and the night so too. All company and meals I would avoid, if it might be, yet all this is, that I enjoy not the world in my own way, and this sure hinders my comfort. When I see my children before me; I remember the pleasure he took in them! This makes my heart to shrink. Can I regret his quitting a lesser good for a bigger? O! if I did stedfastly believe, I could not be dejected! But I will not injure myself, to say I offer my mind any inferior consolation to supply this loss: no, I most willingly forsake this world, this vexatious, troublesome world, in which I have no other business but to rid my soul from sin, secure by faith and a good conscience my eternal interest; with patience and courage bear rny eminent misfortunes, and ever hereafter be above the smiles and frowns of it; and when I have done the remnant of the work appointed me on earth, then joyfully wait for the heavenly perfection, in God's good time; when, by his infinite mercy, I may be accounted worthy to enter in the same place of rest and repose; where he is gone for whom only I grieve.

THE series of portraits on the south side commences with Ambrose Dudley , Earl of Warwick , a head with a bonnet, black dress, the George pendent.

HIS unworthy brother the Earl of Leicester .

A HEAD of John Russel first Earl of Bedford , a profile witn a long white beard, and the George hanging from his neck; this gentleman was the founder of the family, and owed his rise to his merit and accomplishment. Philip Archduke of Austria , being in 1508 driven by a storm on the coast of Dorsetshire , was entertained by Sir Thomas Trenchard ; who sent for his neighbor, Mr. Russel , who was skilled ih the languages, to wait on his highness. The Duke was so pleased with his conversation, as to insist on his going with him to the King, then at Windsor. Henry , at the recommendation of the Duke, took him into his service. In the following reign he advanced in fortune with vast rapidity. He fortunately was cotemporary with the fall of monastic life, and obtained vast grants of the possessions of the church. Edward VI. created him Earl of Bedford . The last act of his life was a voyage to Spain , to bring over Philip II. (grandson of the prince to whom he owed his rise), to espouse his royal mistress. He died in March 1555, and lies buried at Cheyneys in Buckinghamshire , with his lady, by whom he acquired that estate. The church of Cheyneys , from that time, became the aeterna domus of all this great family, and contains a most superb collection of different fashioned monuments.

AN Earl of Rutland , a full length, in a rich flowered jacket, red full skirts, a single laced ruff, short hair and beard, brown boots; a plumed helmet near him. He wears the honor of the George. From his boots (a fashionable part of dress in the time of James I. and Charles I.), I suspect him to be Francis Earl of Rutland , who commanded the fleet which conveyed Charles , when Prince of Wales , in his return from his romantic expedition into Spain . This nobleman died in 1632.

NEXT is the portrait of Sir William Russel (afterwards Duke of Bedford) when young. He is dressed in the robes of the order of the Bath, leaning on his sword; and by him a dwarf, aged thirty-two. On the picture is inscribed Johannes Privezer di Hungaria , fecit 1627; a painter of merit, but whose works are rare.

LADY Anne Ayscough , eldest daughter of the first Earl of Lincoln , and wife to William Ayscough , son to Sir Francis Ayscough of Lincolnshire.

A HEAD of a gentleman of the name of Rogers , Comptroller to Queen Elizabeth. I imagine him to be Sir Edward Rogers , a person of some consideration at the time of her accession; for he was one of the few who waited on her at Hatfield , on the death of Queen Mary , and formed one of the privy-council held there on that great event.

A STRANGE figure of a man, in black, half-length, in a close black cap, and a letter in his hand, directed to Pr. de Nassau . I am informed, by a very able herald, that from the arms on the picture, the personage represented is the Count de Nassau-Uranien Nassau.

HEAD of the Duke of Monmouth .

SIR Edward Stradling , of St. Donet's , in South Wales . A head, with whiskers, a turn-over, and black dress. I imagine him to be the gentleman who had a regiment under Charles I., who was taken prisoner at the battle of Edgehill , and who died on his release at Oxford .

JAMES Earl of Carlisle , in long hair, buff coat, and red sash.33

ANNE, wife of Ambrose Dudley , Earl of Warwick> and daughter to Francis , second Earl of Bedford , in black and white sleeves, and a black body.

LADY Wimbledon , wife of Lord Wimbledon

LADY Bindloss , wife to Sir Francis Bindloss , of Berwick, near Lancaster , and daughter to Thomas third Lord Delawar .

Edward Earl of Bedford , sitting. He is dressed in black and gold, with a high-crowned hat; his hand in a sash, being gouty. This nobleman was an exception to the good understanding this family is blest with; and unluckily was matched with a lady whose vanity and expences were boundless.

SIR William Russel , in a black slashed vest. He was lord deputy of Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth , in 1594: a wise and most gallant commander, and successful in various expeditions against the rebels; but not brooking a divided power with the general, Sir John Norris , he was, at his own request, recalled. He was created by James I. Baron of Thornhaugh , and died in 1613.

Giles , the third Lord Chandos , in a high-crowned hat, white jacket, black gown laced with silver, short hair and beard. AEt. 43, 1589. He died in 1594.

THE first Francis Earl of Bedford , with a long white beard and furred robe, and George pendent; a head. Another. illustrious personage of this house, who discharged several great offices in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth , Such was his hospitality, that the latter used to say of him, that he made all the beggars. He died, aged 58, on the 28th of July 1585, the day after his third son, Francis , was slain, happily unknowing of the misfortune.

THIS youth, and his elder brother Edward Lord Russel , are represented in small, in two paintings, and so alike, as scarcely to be distinguished: both dressed in white close jackets, and black and gold cloaks, and black bonnets. The date by Lord Edward , is aet. 22, 1573. He is represented grasping in one hand some snakes, with this motto, Fides homini, serpentibus fraus ; and in the back ground he is placed standing in a labyrinth, and above is inscribed, Fata viam invenient . This young nobleman also died before his father.

His brother Francis has his accompaniments not less singular. A lady, seemingly in distress, is represented sitting in the back ground, surrounded with snakes, a dragon, crocodile, and cock. At a distance is the sea, with a ship under full sail. The story is not well known; but it certainly alludes to a family transaction, similar to that in Otway's Orphan , and gave rise to it. He, by the attendants, was perhaps the Polydore of the history. Edward seems by his motto, Fides homini, serpentibus fraus , to have been the Castalio , conscious of his own integrity, and indignant at the perfidy of his brother. The ship alludes to the desertion of the lady. If it conveyed Sir Francis to Scotland , it was to his punishment; for he fell there on July 27th, 1585, in a border fray.

FRANCIS RUSSEL, third son to the fourth Earl Bedford, in armour.

His brother Colonel John Russel .

A HEAD of Catherine ,34 youngest daughter to the Treasurer, Earl of Suffolk , and wife to William Earl of Salisbury . She is in a flowered dress; her ruff worked with gold, and her breasts naked.

HEAD of the fair Geraldine , the third wife of Edward Earl of Lincoln . Her hair yellow; her face a proof how much beauty depends on fancy; her dress far from elegant.


J. Caldwall sculpt .

MARGARET, COUNTESS OF CUMBERLAND.
From the Original Picture at Woburn.

Published May 1811 by White & Cochrane, &c.

MARGARET Countess of Cumberland ; she was youngest daughter to the first Francis Earl of Bedford , and wife to the celebrated George Clifford Earl of Cumberland .35

LORD Treasurer Burleigh , the able statesman of Elizabeth ; a favorite, whom she chose, as she expressed it, not for his bad legs, but for his good head.36 His maxims did not quite agree with those of the ministers of later days; for he held, That nothing could be for the advantage of the prince, which makes any way against his reputation; wherefore he never would suffer the rents of lands to be raised, nor the old tenants to be put out.37 This great statesman is represented sitting. His countenance comely, his beard grey, his gown black and furred, and adorned with a gold chain. His mistress lost this faithful servant in 1558, aged 77.

Edward Clinton , first Earl of Lincoln , sitting: a half-length in black, a short ruff, bonnet, and with his George, by Cornelius Ketel , the whimsical artist, who took it into his head to lay aside his brushes, and paint with his fingers only; and at length, finding those tools too easy, undertook to paint with his toes.38 This nobleman was one of the most distinguished persons of his age, and shone equally as a soldier and a sailor; for, during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary and Elizabeth , there were scarely any expeditions in which he did not signalize himself. He was Lord Great Admiral for thirty years, counsellor to three princes, and of unspotted reputation. In an advanced age he married for his third wife the fair Geraldine , the subject of the gallant Earl of Surry's affection, and of his amorous muse. Their union never took place. It is probable that she deserted him; for soon after his sonnet, descriptive of the fair,

From Tuscane came my ladies worthy race,

follow several others, complaining of his hard lot, in experiencing the scorn and inconstancy of his mistress; but what affects him most is, the giving the preference to a lover of meaner rank.

I know (though she say nay, and would it well withstand)
When in hir grace thou yeldest the most, she bare thee but in hand.
I see her pleasant cheere in chiefest of thy suite,
When to art gone I see him come that gathers up the fruite;
And eke in thy respecte, I see the base degree
Of him to whom she gave the heart that promised was to thee.39

NEAR him is the head of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk , son of Sir William Brandon , standard-bearer to Henry VII., slain in the battle of Bosworth . His dress is black, with red sleeves, with the collar of the Garter and the George. His beard is white, his countenance bluff, not unlike that of his master Henry VIII. Their qualities, happily for the favorite, were different; for the inscription with truth says, that he was

gratiose with Henry VIII.; void of despyte; most fortunate to the end; never in displeasure with his kynge.

He was brought up with his master, and justly beloved by him for his noble qualities, for his goodly person, courage, and conformity of disposition (I suppose only) in all his exercises and pastimes.40 He was a principal figure in every tilt and tournament. In his younger days (1510) he appeared at Westminster in the solemn justs, held in honor of Catherine of Arragon , in the dress of a recluse, begging of her highness permission to run in her presence; which obtained, he instantly flung off his weeds, and came out all armed. He signalized himself at the justs at Tournay , in 1511, instituted by Margaret Princess of Castile , in compliment to his royal master. The place was flagged with black marble, and the horses of the knights were shod with felt, to prevent them from slipping.41 He here won the heart of the fair foundress of the entertainment; but fortune reserved him for another princess.

IN 1514 he performed amazing deeds of arms at Saint Denys , at the coronation of the youthful Mary , sister to Henry , on her marriage with the aged and decrepid Louis XII. The good king, says Henault , forgot his age, and met with death in her arms in less than three months. This opened the way to his possession of the beautiful dowager. Her heart was lost to him at the preceding tournaments, in which she had an opportunity of comparing the feebleness of her bridegroom with the dexterity, the grace, and strength of her valiant knight, who, at single combat, overthrew man and horse. The French , envious of his prowess, introduced into the lists a gigantic German , in hopes of bringing the English hero into disgrace. He treated the Almain so roughly, that the French interfered; but in a second trial, Suffolk caught him round the neck, and pummelled him so severely about the head, that they were obliged to convey the fellow away secretly; who had been surreptitiously introduced in disguise, merely on account his great strength.42

MARY, on the death of her royal consort, proposed to Suffolk , and gave him only four days to consider of the offer.43 This seems to have been concerted, to save her lover from the fury of Henry , for daring to look up to a dowager of France , and, what was more, his sister. His master fortunately favored the match. He continued beloved by the king to the end of his life; after seeing the following knights and attendants on the conjugal festivities, the Earl of Devonshire , Lord Leonard Grey , Sir Nicholas Carew , and Anna Boleyn , sent headless to their graves. But Charles went off triumphant with his royal spouse; carried with him her jewels, to the amount of 200,000 crowns; the famous diamond le mirroir de Naples ; and secured her jointure of sixty thousand crowns.44 He married almost as many wives as Henry , leaving his fourth to survive him. He died universally lamented, in 1545, and was buried magnificently at the expenceof his master; his loss being one of the few things that touched his hardened heart.

QUEEN Elizabeth , full length, with a rich gown, white, embroidered with flowers, and a fan of feathers in her hand. I find that her majesty would condescend to accept of the smallest present, as a mark of her subjects' love; for, in passing through a Doctor Puddins house in her way to the celebrated wedding of Mrs. Anne Russel with Lord Herbert , she did the Doctor the honor of acceptingfrom him a fan en passant.

HEAD of Sir Richard Bingley .

ANOTHER of Sir Edward Gorges?

SIR Joscelyn Percy , seventh son of Henry eighth Earl of Northumberland , closes the list. He and his brother Charles were concerned in the Earl of Essex' s insurrection. Both received their pardons: and Joscelyn survived till 1631.

THAT gloomy45 insipid pair, Philip II. and his consort Mary , are painted in small full-lengths by Sir Antonio More . The first of these ungracious figures is dressed in a black jacket, with gold sleeves and hose; the Queen sitting in a black and gold petticoat, and furred sleeves. Her black conic cap is faced with gold and jewels. A rich chain of great pearls and small vases, red and gold, are other ornaments to our bigotted sovereign. The date is 1553. Sir Antonio was sent from Spain to draw her picture; so has placed her and Philip in a scene of aukward courtship; for they were not married till the following year.

ISABELLA, daughter to Henry Bennet , Earl of Arlington , and wife to the first Duke of Grafton , is represented a half length in white, with long flowing hair, very handsome.

A large family picture, by Jervis , of Elizabeth Rowland , Dutchess to the first Wriothesley Duke of Bedford , in her weeds, with her four children. Above her, in the back part of the picture, hangs the portrait of her lord; the same who built Covent Garden church, and was called the good Duke.

IN another apartment is a large picture, representing Gertrude , Dutchess of Bedford , presenting her daughter (the Dutchess of Marlborough) to Minerva , the sciences and graces painted by Hamilton , an artist settled I believe at Rome .

A FULL length of a nobleman in a hat with a red crown and feather, square black beard, red earrings and stockings: in his robes, with a white rod in his hand. This was brought from Thornhaugh , a seat of the family in Northamptonshire .

PORTRAIT of a lady in black, a red and white petticoat, flat ruff, and a great string of pearls across her breast.

TWO children in one piece, Lady Diana and Lady Anne Russel , daughters of William first Duke of Bedford . They had the misfortune of being poisoned, by eating some noxious berries which they met with. Lady Anne died; Lady Diana survived, and is again painted, in more advanced life, by Sir Peter Lely .

A MAN in a grey jacket, red breeches, short hair, and small beard; a stick in his hand, and helmet by him. Date 1592, aet. 28.

ELIZABETH Bruges , or Bridges , aged 14, 1589, painted in a flat stile, by Hieronymo di Custodio , of Antwerp . She is represented in black, flowered with white, with full sleeves, a gold chain, great pearl set in gold on one shoulder, and a gold ornament on the other. This lady was eldest daughter to Giles , Lord Chandos , and wife to Sir John Kenneda , knight:46 she dying childless, the whole fortune of her family devolved to her second sister, Catherine , Countess of Bedford .

A FULL length of that fantastic lady, Lucy , Countess of Bedford , in a dancing attitude, dressed in a fantastic habit, with an immense transparent veil distended behind her.

PRESENT Dutchess of Marlborough .

LORD Francis Russel in a black dress, a miniature.

A FEMALE, dwarf to Catherine , Queen to Charles II.

CATHERINE Countess of Bedford , wife to Francis Earl of Bedford , and daughter to Giles Bruges , third Lord Chandos . Her dress a pearl coronet, and hair flowing below her waist, a worked gown, and red mantle: a fine full length.

ANNE, daughter of that infamous pair, Robert Car , Earl of Somerset , and his Countess, is painted by Vandyck , in blue, drawing on a glove: a most beautiful half length. She was the wife of Sir William Russel , above mentioned, married to him in the year 1637. She proved worthy of the alliance she made. It is said that she was ignorant of her mother's dishonor, till she read it in a pamphlet she found accidentally left ill a window. It is added, that she was so struck with this detection of her parent's guilt, that she fell down in a fit, and was found senseless, with the book open before her. She died on May 10, 1684. The anecdote is omitted in the histories of the family, probably to avoid the revival of a disgraceful tale. Francis Earl of Bedford , was so averse to the alliance, that he gave his son leave to chuse a wife out of any family but that. Opposition usually stimulates desire: the young couple's affection were only increased. At length the king interposed, and, sending the Duke of Lenox to urge the Earl to consent, the match was brought about. Somerset , now reduced to poverty, acted a generous part; selling his house at Chiswick , plate, jewels, and furniture, to raise a fortune for his daughter of twelve thousand pounds, which the Earl of Bedford demanded; saying, that seeing her affections were settled, he chose rather to undo himself than make her unhappy.47

HER father in law, the second Francis Earl of Bedford , by Vandyck , is in the drawing room. A full length in black, with light hair and , short peaked beard; painted in 1636, aged forty-eight. He died in 1641, and left behind him a distinguished character. He was of the popular party, but of such an excellent understanding, so good a heart, and of such great moderation, that it is supposed, if he had lived, his influence with his friends would have been exerted to have composed the unhappy violence of the times. This was the nobleman who undertook and succeeded in the arduous attempt of draining the vast fen in Cambridgeshire , called the Great Level , containing three hundred and six thousand acres.48

GERTRUDE late Dutchess of Bedford .

A FINE full length of her worthy husband, John , Duke of Bedford , represented sitting in his robes.

THE late Lord and Lady Tavistock . His lordship in a red gown, furred. He is again represented in another room, in the uniform of the Dunstable hunt.

LADY Russel , wife of Sir William Russel , lord deputy of Ireland , is painted in great sleeves. She was daughter to Edward Long , Esquire, of Thingay , in Cambridgeshire , and died two years before her lord.

HER son Francis , afterwards Earl of Bedford , is painted in his childhood, in white, with green hose; with a hawk in his hand, and two dogs in couples near him.

A FULL length of Catherine , wife of the second Francis Earl of Bedford , in black, with roses in her hand.

FRANCES Lady Chandos , daughter of the first Earl of Lincoln , in a great ruff, a black dress rich in pearls, aet. 37, 1589: lived till the year 1623.


1 Tyringham is now in the possession of William Praed , Esquire, in right of his wife Elizabeth , sister and heiress to Tyringham Backwell , Esquire. The old mansion was pulled down in the year 1800, at the time an elegant modern house, built by Mr. Praed , was finished. ED.

2 In 1322, or the fifteenth of Edward II., Roger de Tyringham was appointed to superintend the estates forfeited in this county, on the Earl of Lancaster's rebellion. Rymer , iii. 963.

3 Dugdale Baron , i. 431.

4 Leland Itin . i. 26.

5 Dugdale Baron , i. 612.

6 Dugdale , p. 613.

7 Madox Antiq. Exch . i. 418.

8 Dugdale Baron , ii. 46.

9 Whitelock , 167, 236.

10 Tanner , 33.

11 Neque enim pigebit hanc quoque partem attingere, cum lex Metella extet fullonibus dicta, quam C. Flaminius, L. AEmilius , censores dedere ad populum ferendam. Adeo omnia majoribus curae fuere. Ergo ordo hic est: primum abluitur vestisSarda , dein sulphure suffitur: mox desquamatur Cimolia quae est coloris veri. Plinii Hist. Nat . lib. XXXV. c. 17.—The finest foreign earth of this kind, is what the prince of Biscari sent me from Sicily , under the title of Terra Chiamata saponara della quale si servono quei Paesani per lavare i pannilini .

12 Plin. Hist. Nat . lib. xxxv. c. 17.

13 Malachi iii. 2.

14 Willis , ii. 4.

15 Ecton , 211.

16 These two particulars I collect from Mr. Cole's papers.

17 Dugdale Monast . i. 829.

18 Willis , ii. 4.

19 Tanner , 4.

20 Considerable additions were made to Woburn by its late noble owner, and the grounds greatly improved; the detached pieces of water are united so as to form a sufficient expanse bounded by flourishing plantations. To pass unnoticed the laudable attention of Francis Duke of Bedford to agriculture, would be invidious, but to particularise the perfection to which he brought it, and the patriotic endeavours he exerted in its diffusion, requires a space incompatible with the tendency of this work. ED.

21 The editor here, as at Gorhambury , has preserved the description of the whole of the portraits mentioned in the first edition of this work, arranging them in the order in which they are placed at present. The late Duke of Bedford added several valuable paintings of the Flemish school, and the very interesting series of the portraits of artists which adorn the elegant library. A general catalogue of the pictures at Woburn is given in the Appendix. ED.

22 This bears so little resemblance to the print by Passe , of the same infamous character, that the editor is inclined to doubt its being the portrait of the person it is said to represent. The inscription formerly called it Anne Countess of Somerset , a misnomer which has been corrected. The head of her sister Catharine Countess of Salisbury , which occupies a place in the gallery, is admirably painted, and in the stile of dress and features, though much embellished, is a striking likeness of the above mentioned engraving. ED.

23 Dugdale Baron, ii. 426.

24 Reliquia Wottoniae, 3d. ed. 170.

25 Ibid. 165.

26 This and eleven other heads of the same size, are copies by a painter of the name of Russel .

27 Communicated to me by Mr. Walpole ; who is in possession of this very scarce book: a thin small quarto, published in 1660. It consists of the Earl's poems, and responses by Sir Benjamin Rudyard ; and other poems, by both, on other subjects. See Royal Authors , i. 192, for a further account of this noble poet.

28 Walpole's painters, i. 20.

29 It is now considered as the portrait of Henry Earl of Northumberland , who came to the title in 1585. ED.

30 It certainly was. ED.

31 Dugdale's Baron , ii, 416.

32 Wood's Hist. Oxon . lib. ii. 45. and Dugdale as above.

33 This is probably not the portrait of the nobleman of whom so full an account is given in the Tour of Scotland , but of his son who married Catherine , daughter to Francis fourth Earl of Bedford .

34 This is the portrait alluded to above, in the note relative to the Countess of Somerset . ED.

35 For an account of both see Tour in Scotland , vol. iii. 355.

36 Lloyd's Worthies , i. 360.

37 Camden's Elizabeth .

38 Walpole's Lives of Painters , i. 138, 139.

39 Fol. ii. edition 1585.

40 Herbert's Henry VIII. 35.

41 Ib . 41.

42 Halle , xlix. Holinshed 833.

43 Herbert's Henry VIII. 54.

44 Herbert's Henry VIII. 55.

45 This curious picture, and some of the portraits mentioned below, are removed to a room destined to receive the overflowings of the house; others have gradually disappeared from Woburn , are placed in the attics, or are no longer shewn. ED.

46 Dugdale's Baronage , ii. 395.

47 British Biogr . v. 3534.

48 Dugdale on embanking, 344.

Thomas Pennant, The Journey from Chester to London (London: Wilkie and Robinson, 1811)

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