1881 Census of England and Wales, Tables: Ages, Condition as to Marriage, Occupations and Birthplaces of people, Table 10 : " Occupations of Males and Females in the Division and its Registration Counties".

List Manchester PLPar/PLU/RegD Newton Ch/CP  
OCCUPATIONS. Males.
[1]
Females.
[2]
1. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE GENERAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 71 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Civil Service (officers and clerks) 9 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Civil Service (messengers, &c.) 19 Show data context -
  Prison Service, &c. 2 Show data context -
  Police 18 Show data context -
  Municipal, Parish, Union, District, Officer 20 Show data context -
  Other Local or County Official 3 Show data context -
2. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY. 11 Show data context -
  Soldier and Non-commissioned officer 3 Show data context -
  Militia, Yeomanry, Volunteers 2 Show data context -
  Army Pensioner 4 Show data context -
  Navy Pensioner 2 Show data context -
3. PERSONS ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS (WITH THEIR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES). 148 Show data context 108 Show data context
  Clergymen (Established Church) 7 Show data context -
  Roman Catholic Priest 4 Show data context -
  Minister, Priest of other religious bodies 3 Show data context -
  Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant preacher 2 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Theological Student 2 Show data context -
  Church, chapel, cemetery - officer, servant 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Barrister, Solicitor 4 Show data context -
  Law Student 1 Show data context -
  Law Clerk, and others connected with the law 23 Show data context -
  Physician, Surgeon, General Practitioner 7 Show data context -
  Dentist 1 Show data context -
  Medical Student, Assistant 2 Show data context -
  Midwife - 5 Show data context
  Subordinate Medical Service 1 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Schoolmaster 31 Show data context 66 Show data context
  Teacher, Professor, Lecturer 1 Show data context 6 Show data context
  School Service, and others connected with teaching 3 Show data context -
  Reporter, Short-hand Writer 5 Show data context -
  Persons engaged in Scientific Pursuits 1 Show data context -
  Civil Engineer 7 Show data context -
  Mining Engineer 3 Show data context -
  Land, House, Ship, Surveyor 5 Show data context -
  Painter (artist) 4 Show data context -
  Engraver (artist) 7 Show data context -
  Architect 5 Show data context -
  Musician, Music Master 9 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Art Student 1 Show data context -
  Photographer 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Performer, Showman, Exhibition, Service - 1 Show data context
4. PERSONS ENGAGED IN DOMESTIC OFFICES OR SERVICES. 71 Show data context 872 Show data context
  Domestic Coachman, Groom 15 Show data context -
  Domestic Gardener 14 Show data context -
  Domestic Indoor Servant 7 Show data context 688 Show data context
  Lodge, Gate, Park Keeper (not Government) 3 Show data context -
  Inn, Hotel Servant 21 Show data context 25 Show data context
  College, Club Service 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Office Keeper (not Government) 1 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Cook (not domestic) 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Charwoman - 75 Show data context
  Washing and Bathing Service 2 Show data context 64 Show data context
  Hospital and Institution Service 1 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Others engaged in Service 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
5. PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 495 Show data context 15 Show data context
  Merchant 6 Show data context -
  Broker, Agent, Factor 49 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuer, House Agent 9 Show data context -
  Accountant 14 Show data context -
  Salesman, Buyer (not otherwise specified) 14 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Commercial Traveller 57 Show data context -
  Commercial Clerk 308 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Bank Service 7 Show data context -
  Life, House, Ship &c., Insurance Service 31 Show data context -
6. PERSONS ENGAGED IN CONVEYANCE OF MEN, GOODS, AND MESSAGES. 926 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Railway Engine Driver, Stoker 132 Show data context -
  Railway Guard 31 Show data context -
  Pointsman, Level Crossing Man 15 Show data context -
  Other Railway Officials and Servants 194 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Toll Collector, Turnpike Gate Keeper 1 Show data context -
  Omnibus, Coach, Cab, Owner - Livery Stable Keeper 4 Show data context -
  Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 9 Show data context -
  Carman, Carrier, Carter, Haulier 225 Show data context -
  Tramway Companies' Service 3 Show data context -
  Inland Navigation Service 3 Show data context -
  Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 20 Show data context -
  Seaman (Merchant Service) 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 1 Show data context -
  Warehouseman (not Manchester) 145 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Meter, Weigher 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Messenger, Porter, Watchman (not Railway or Government) 125 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Telegraph, Telephone Service 10 Show data context 2 Show data context
7. PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 58 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Farmer, Grazier 18 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Farmer's, Grazier's - Son, Grandson, Brother, Nephew 5 Show data context -
  Agricultural Labourer, Farm Servant, Cottager 27 Show data context -
  Agricultural Student 1 Show data context -
  Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist 3 Show data context -
  Gardener (not domestic) 4 Show data context -
8. PERSONS ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS. 22 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Horse Proprietor, Breeder, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Groom, Horse-keeper, Horse-breaker 11 Show data context -
  Veterinary Surgeon, Farrier 3 Show data context -
  Cattle, Sheep, Pig - Dealer, Salesman 1 Show data context -
  Dog, Bird, Animal - Keeper, Dealer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Knacker, Catsmeat Dealer &c &c. 4 Show data context -
9. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN BOOKS, PRINTS, AND MAPS. 75 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Bookbinder 8 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Printer 50 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Others 1 Show data context -
  Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 6 Show data context -
  Map and Print - Colourer, Seller 1 Show data context -
10. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 685 Show data context 20 Show data context
  Engine, Machine Maker 116 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Millwright 27 Show data context -
  Fitter, Turner (Engine and Machine) 212 Show data context -
  Boiler Maker 66 Show data context -
  Spinning and Weaving Machine Maker 179 Show data context 14 Show data context
  Tool Maker, Dealer 6 Show data context -
  Cutler, Scissors Maker 2 Show data context -
  File Maker 32 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Saw Maker 3 Show data context -
  Pin Maker - 2 Show data context
  Watch Maker, Clock Maker 12 Show data context -
  Electrical Apparatus Maker 8 Show data context -
  Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Maker 14 Show data context -
  Gunsmith, Gun Manufacturer 2 Show data context -
  Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Type Cutter, Founder 2 Show data context -
  Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 2 Show data context -
  Toy Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
11. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN HOUSES, FURNITURE, AND DECORATIONS. 742 Show data context 28 Show data context
  Builder 19 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Carpenter, Joiner 231 Show data context -
  Bricklayer 93 Show data context -
  Mason 62 Show data context -
  Slater, Tiler 12 Show data context -
  Plasterer, Whitewasher 21 Show data context -
  Paperhanger 6 Show data context -
  Plumber 75 Show data context -
  Painter, Glazier 129 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Cabinet Maker 54 Show data context 12 Show data context
  French Polisher 6 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Furniture Broker, Dealer 7 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Locksmith, Bellhanger 3 Show data context -
  Gas Fitter 1 Show data context -
  House and Shop Fittings - Maker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 4 Show data context -
  Wood Carver 4 Show data context -
  Carver, Gilder 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Artificial Flower Maker 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
12. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CARRIAGES AND HARNESS. 384 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Coachmaker 201 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Railway Carriage, Railway Wagon, Maker 107 Show data context -
  Wheelwright 59 Show data context -
  Others 5 Show data context -
  Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 12 Show data context -
13. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN SHIPS AND BOATS. 1 Show data context -
  Sail Maker 1 Show data context -
14. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS. 150 Show data context 56 Show data context
  Dye, Paint Manufacture 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Ink, Blacking, Colour Substance Manufacture 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Fusee, Fireworks, Explosive Article Manufacture 25 Show data context 49 Show data context
  Chemist, Druggist 7 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Manufacturing Chemist 99 Show data context -
  Alkali Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Drysalter 6 Show data context 2 Show data context
15. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TOBACCO AND PIPES. 19 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Tobacco Manufacture, Tobacconist 6 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box &c. Maker 13 Show data context 3 Show data context
16. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN FOOD AND LODGING. 418 Show data context 136 Show data context
  Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 19 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Lodging, Boarding House Keeper - 27 Show data context
  Coffee, Eating House, Keeper 8 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Maltster 1 Show data context -
  Brewer 28 Show data context -
  Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 54 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Cellarman 1 Show data context -
  Wine, Spirit - Merchant, Agent 5 Show data context -
  Milkseller, Dairyman 10 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Cheesemonger, Butterman 1 Show data context -
  Butcher, Meat Salesman 62 Show data context 10 Show data context
  Provision Curer, Dealer 24 Show data context 27 Show data context
  Poulterer, Game Dealer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Fishmonger 11 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Corn, Flour, Seed Merchant, Dealer 7 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn Miller 9 Show data context -
  Baker 57 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Confectioner, Pastrycook 7 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Greengrocer, Fruiterer 26 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Grocer. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate Maker, Dealer 82 Show data context 23 Show data context
  Ginger Beer, Mineral Water Manufacturer, Dealer 5 Show data context -
17. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TEXTILE FABRICS. 1,207 Show data context 2,184 Show data context
  Woollen Cloth Manufacture 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Wool, Woollen goods - Dyer, Printer 1 Show data context -
  Worsted, Stuff, Manufacture 9 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Flannel Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Blanket Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, Blanket Dealer 12 Show data context -
  Silk, Silk Goods, Manufacture 58 Show data context 215 Show data context
  Silk Dyer, Printer 20 Show data context -
  Silk Merchant, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacture 525 Show data context 1,560 Show data context
  Cotton, Calico - Printer, Dyer, Bleacher 348 Show data context 40 Show data context
  Cotton, Calico - Warehouseman, Dealer 26 Show data context -
  Flax, Linen - Manufacturer, Dealer 12 Show data context 49 Show data context
  Lace Manufacturer, Dealer 10 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Fustian Manufacturer, Dealer 20 Show data context 27 Show data context
  Thread Manufacturer, Dealer - 5 Show data context
  Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Rope, Twine, Cord - Maker, Dealer 9 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Mat Maker, Seller - 1 Show data context
  Sacking, Sack, Bag - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Weaver (undefined) 6 Show data context 61 Show data context
  Dyer, Printer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer (undefined) 73 Show data context 43 Show data context
  Factory Hand (textile, undefined) 24 Show data context 85 Show data context
  Carpet, Rug Manufacture 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Manchester Warehouseman 16 Show data context -
  Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 19 Show data context 32 Show data context
  Fancy Goods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context 12 Show data context
  Trimming Maker, Dealer - 18 Show data context
  Embroiderer - 6 Show data context
  Others 2 Show data context 12 Show data context
18. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN DRESS. 218 Show data context 572 Show data context
  Hatter, Hat Manufacture 12 Show data context 22 Show data context
  Tailor 62 Show data context 129 Show data context
  Milliner, Dressmaker, Staymaker 6 Show data context 291 Show data context
  Shirt Maker, Seamstress 3 Show data context 100 Show data context
  Hosiery Manufacture 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Hosier, Haberdasher 1 Show data context -
  Glover, Glove Maker - 1 Show data context
  Button Maker, Dealer - 4 Show data context
  Shoe, Boot - Maker, Dealer 73 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Patten, Clog Maker 38 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 11 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Umbrella, Parasol, Stick - Maker, Dealer 11 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Old Clothes Dealer, and others - 1 Show data context
19. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 121 Show data context 14 Show data context
  Tallow Chandler, Candle, Grease Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Soap Boiler, Maker 11 Show data context -
  Glue, Size, Gelatine, Isinglass - Maker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Manure Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell - Worker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Others 3 Show data context -
  Furrier, Skinner 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Tanner, Fellmonger 57 Show data context -
  Currier 16 Show data context -
  Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c., Maker, Dealer 16 Show data context -
  Hair, Bristle - Worker, Dealer - 2 Show data context
  Brush, Broom, Maker 8 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Quill, Feather - Dresser, Dealer 1 Show data context 6 Show data context
20. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 247 Show data context 155 Show data context
  Oil Miller, Oil Cake - Maker, Dealer 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth Manufacture 40 Show data context -
  Japanner 5 Show data context -
  India Rubber, Gutta Percha - Worker, Dealer 21 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Waterproof Goods - Maker, Dealer 13 Show data context -
  Others 4 Show data context -
  Willow, Cane, Rush Worker, Dealer, Basketmaker 1 Show data context -
  Hay, Straw (not plait), Chaff, Cutter, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Timber, Wood - Merchant, Dealer 23 Show data context -
  Sawyer 48 Show data context -
  Lath, Wooden Fence, Hurdle Maker 5 Show data context -
  Wood Turner, Box Maker 22 Show data context 114 Show data context
  Cooper, Hoop Maker, Bender 26 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cork, Bark - Cutter, Worker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Paper Manufacture 6 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Stationer, Law Stationer 8 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Card, Pattern Card Maker 10 Show data context -
  Paper Stainer 2 Show data context -
  Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker 3 Show data context 22 Show data context
21. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 1,436 Show data context 63 Show data context
  Coal Miner 88 Show data context -
  Ironstone Miner - 1 Show data context
  Mine Service 2 Show data context -
  Coal Merchant 28 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Coalheaver 13 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Gas Works Service 26 Show data context -
  Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brick, Tile - Maker, Burner, Dealer 88 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Paviour 23 Show data context -
  Road Labourer 12 Show data context -
  Railway Contractor 3 Show data context -
  Platelayer 31 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Railway Labourer, Navvy 135 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Porcelain, Manufacture 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Glass Manufacture 109 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Waterworks Service 1 Show data context -
  Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweller 6 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Others 7 Show data context 22 Show data context
  [Iron Manufacture] 483 Show data context 3 Show data context
  [Steel Manufacture] 12 Show data context -
  Blacksmith 171 Show data context -
  Whitesmith 3 Show data context -
  Nail Manufacture 6 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Anchor, Chain Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Ironmonger. Hardware Dealer, Merchant 11 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Other Iron and Steel Manufacture 15 Show data context -
  Copper, Copper Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  [Coppersmith] 8 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 38 Show data context -
  Lead, Leaden Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Metal Refiner, Worker, Turner, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  Brass, Bronze Manufacture. Brazier 27 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Metal Burnisher, Lacquerer 1 Show data context -
  White Metal, Plated Ware, Manufacture. Pewterer 1 Show data context -
  Wire Maker, Worker, Weaver, Drawer 46 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Bolt, Nut, Rivet, Screw, Staple Maker 15 Show data context -
  Lamp, Lantern, Candlestick Maker - 2 Show data context
  Others 1 Show data context -
22. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN GENERAL OR UNSPECIFIED COMMODITIES. 914 Show data context 140 Show data context
  General Shopkeeper, Dealer 23 Show data context 42 Show data context
  Pawnbroker 17 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 34 Show data context 10 Show data context
  Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendant (undefined) 16 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Contractor (undefined) 1 Show data context -
  General Labourer 535 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not railway, marine or agricultural) 151 Show data context -
  Artizan, Mechanic (undefined) 62 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Apprentice (undefined) 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Factory Labourer (undefined) 66 Show data context 19 Show data context
  Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 5 Show data context 48 Show data context
23. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN REFUSE MATTERS. 10 Show data context -
  Town Drainage Service 1 Show data context -
  Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 3 Show data context -
  Scavenger, Crossing Sweeper 5 Show data context -
  Rag Gatherer, Dealer 1 Show data context -
24. PERSONS WITHOUT SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 70 Show data context 696 Show data context
  Persons returned by Property, Rank &c. and not special occupation 70 Show data context 696 Show data context
[UNKNOWN OCCUPATION] 58 Show data context 4,096 Show data context
  [Occupation recorded but of unknown meaning] 14 Show data context 10 Show data context
  [Blank field, or illegible] 44 Show data context 4,086 Show data context

Notes:

The following notes to the table appeared in the original report.

1 This table is a very special case: The original Table 10 as published by Division in the 1881 census reports was limited to data for Registration Divisions, their component Registration Counties, and just those Urban Sanitary Districts with populations of over 50,000. Data presented here for counties and higher-level units are taken from the published reports, as usual, but we also include in A Vision of Britain through Time data for Registration Districts, sub-Districts and Civil Parishes which never appeared in the original reports. These were specially created for us by the History Data Service at the University of Essex and derive from the complete transcription of the individual-level Enumerators Book data coordinated by the Genealogical Society of Utah.
2 In creating these data, each occupation listed in the enumerators books has been assigned as far as possible to the relevant category used in the published reports, but some additional categories with labels in square brackets unavoidably appear. Unlike the published statistics for higher-level units, these specially-calculated data for districts and parishes include persons under 15 or over 65. For these and other reasons, no attempt has been made to ensure that county totals for the districts or parishes match the published county totals. The remaining notes are those that appeared below the original published table.
3 NOTE.--Persons returned as engaged in more than one occupation have been referred to the one that appeared to be of most importance; or if there was no difference in this respect, to the one first given by the person in his or her return. In some cases special rules have been followed: e.g. "Clergyman and Schoolmaster" in combination has always been referred to "Schoolmaster"; a Member of Parliament or Peer engaged in any branch of commerce or industry has always been referred to this latter, not to "Peer, M.P.".
4 The numbers returned under any heading include Labourers, Apprentices, and Assistants, as well as Masters, but not Clerks, Messengers, Errand boys, Porters, or Watchmen, for which occupations there are special headings. Civil, Military, and Naval Clerks, Law, Bank, Insurance, and Railway Clerks, and Government and Railway Porters, are, however, exceptions to this rule. Many young persons, being Apprentices or Assistants, have therefore been referred to occupations usually followed by adults. Women also, chiefly widows or orphans carrying on the business of their deceased husbands or fathers, will sometimes be found under occupations commonly followed by men only.
5 Persons returned as retired from any business have not been referred to that business. Inmates of workhouses have been referred to their trades, unless their age or infirmities showed that they were past work. But persons who might be supposed to be only temporarily separated from their usual employment, such as Prisoners, and Patients in General Hospitals, have been classed under their usual occupations.
6 In some cases, for convenience of space, the male designation, e.g. "Schoolmaster", alone is given, instead of "Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress".

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This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.


Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to the following contributors. If you make use of the data in your own work, please follow any instructions given here on acknowledgment and re-use.

(1) Kevin Schurer (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)

(2) Matthew Woollard (UK Data Service, University of Essex). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)