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VII.—BIRTHPLACES.

Scope of the Inquiry. —The birthplace columns of the Census schedule were designed to show for every person:—

  1. If born in the United Kingdom, the name of the county, and town or parish.
  2. If born in any other part of the British Empire, the name of the dependency, colony, etc., and of the province or state.
  3. If born in a foreign country, the name of the country.
  4. Whether born at sea.

Persons born elsewhere than in England and Wales were asked to state whether they were residents or visitors in this country, and persons born in foreign countries whether:

  1. British subjects by parentage.
  2. Naturalised British subjects; or
  3. Of foreign nationality.

Naturalised British subjects were also asked to state the year of naturalisation, and foreigners the nationality to which they belonged.

The returns, as regards the total numbers born in the several parts of this country, in other parts of the United Kingdom, in the British Colonies, and in Foreign Countries, have been tabulated for each administrative county, county borough and other urban district of which the population exceeded 50,000 persons; the additional detail as to ages, etc., of persons of foreign nationality is presented only for England and Wales as a whole, for London, and for a few other counties in which large numbers of foreigners were enumerated. Ages and occupations have not been tabulated in relation to birthplaces in the case of British subjects; but for a few selected areas the ages of all persons born outside the area of enumeration, arid for some other areas the ages of persons born therein but enumerated in other parts of England and Wales have been abstracted. Some of the results of this experimental tabulation are discussed on pages 226 to 231.

Returns made at previous Censuses. —Rather more detail was asked for on this occasion than at former censuses, no question having previously been asked as to the county or town in the case of persons born in Scotland or Ireland, or as to the year of naturalisation in the case of naturalised British subjects, and no distinction having been attempted to be made between residents and visitors in the case of persons born elsewhere than in England and Wales. The additional information now afforded enables us (1) to show for the first time the parts of Scotland and Ireland that contribute most largely to the population of this country; (2) to obtain a more accurate return of naturalised British subjects; and (3) to give a rough approximation of the number of foreigners who were only temporarily present. Moreover, although it would have been possible from the returns at preceding censuses to classify the birthplaces of the native population according to the town as well as the county of birth, such classification was not attempted until this Census. The addition of the county boroughs and other large towns to the number of birthplace areas dealt with has materially increased the work of tabulation, but we believe it to have been justified by the value of the additional information afforded. The adoption of these towns together with the administrative counties as units of tabulation permits of a more accurate survey of the movement of population from place to place within the country than was possible when the figures for the natives of "ancient" counties only were given, though it is necessary in some cases to use the statistics of the administrative areas with caution on account of the vagueness of some of the returns, and the possibility of confusion owing to lack of precise knowledge of the limits of the several districts on the part of persons filling up the schedules.

At the successive Censuses from 1851 to 1901, the birthplaces of the English-born population have been classified according to the ancient or geographical county, which in some instances differs considerably from the corresponding administrative area, i.e., the administrative county together with its associated county boroughs. The birthplace statistics for counties are therefore not strictly comparable with those of former Censuses, but it is thought that the advantages of the present arrangement by which the same geographical unit is used for tabulation of birthplaces as of other matters outweigh the disadvantage of the breach in the continuity of the form of the tables.

Summary of Birthplaces. —Of the total population of England and Wales nearly 96 per cent, were born in this country (including 1 per cent, whose birthplaces were not stated), and a further 2j per cent, were born in other parts of the United Kingdom or in British Colonies, leaving only 1 per cent, born abroad. The percentage of males born outside England and Wales is higher than that of females, though in the comparatively small numbers born in the British Colonies, in the Isle of Man and Channel Islands, and on board ships at sea, the latter sex is somewhat in excess, as will be seen from the following table.

TABLE XCIV.—BIRTHPLACES OF PERSONS, MALES AND FEMALES, AND PROPORTIONS PER 100,000 OF THE TOTAL POPULATION OF EACH SEX, 1911.

The proportion of the native to the total population was greater in 1911 than at any other Census, and there was also an increase in the proportion of persons born in the British Colonies. The proportions of Scottish-born, which had been fairly constant at the three Censuses 1881-1901, showed an appreciable diminution at the last Census; and the proportion of Irish, which had successively declined from a maximum of 2,999 per 100,000 in 1861 to 1,311 in 1901, further fell to 1,041 per 100,000 in 1911; while the proportion of persons born in Foreign Countries, which had risen from 344 per 100, 000 in 1851 to 1,044 in 1901, decreased to 1,036 per 100,000 in 1911. It may be observed, however, that, although the proportional numbers of Scottish and of foreign-born persons declined, the actual numbers were about 5,000 and about 34,000 respectively in excess of the corresponding numbers in 1901; the Irish-born were actually fewer by more than 50,000 than was the case ten years earlier; while persons returned as born at sea showed a remarkable and inexplicable rise from 3,946 to 6,805. The proportion of the population born elsewhere than in England and Wales to the total population enumerated in the country at the seven Censuses 1851-1911, distinguishing persons born in Scotland, Ireland, other parts of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, are shown in the following table, and in the accompanying diagram. The relatively small number of persons born at sea consisted almost entirely of British subjects (seepage 217); in the diagram they are, for the sake of clearness, included in the section relating to other parts of the British Empire.

TABLE XCV.—PERSONS BORN IN THE SEVERAL PARTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND ELSEWHERE PER 100,000 OF THE POPULATION ENUMERATED IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 1851 TO 1911.

DIAGRAM XXXVIII.—PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION OF ENGLAND AND WALES BORN ELSEWHERE, DISTINGUISHING PERSONS BORN IN SCOTLAND, IRELAND, OTHER PARTS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES, 1851-1911.

Proportions born outside England and Wales at each census 1851 to 1911

Gain and Loss of population by migration in counties. —It has already been shown (page 47) that during the intercensal period 1901-1911 there was a net loss to the population, by excess of emigrants over immigrants, amounting to 502,219 persons. The Census returns do not enable us to state definitely which parts of the country have contributed most largely to this total loss, but by collating the enumerated populations at the two Censuses with the records of births and deaths during the period the net result on the populations of the several registration counties or districts of the internal movement of population combined with that between England and Wales and other countries is indicated. There were 17 registration counties which showed actual gains by migration and 38 which showed losses, which in 18 cases were upwards of 5 per cent, of the population at the beginning of the period. The birthplace statistics do not show precisely whence these gains and losses are derived, because in the first place they relate to administrative areas, and secondly because they include persons who migrated before 1901. The registration counties which gained population by migration and those which suffered the greatest proportional losses are shown in the following table which is derived from the figures given on pages 47 and 48.

TABLE XCVI.—GAIN AND LOSS BY MIGRATION IN REGISTRATION COUNTIES, 1901-1911.

The most striking features of these lists are the large influx of population into the metropolitan counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire, coupled with a large exodus from the county of London; the gains by migration in the South Wales mining counties; and the losses in the predominantly agricultural counties. The bearing of the birthplace returns on these phenomena is dealt with in the following paragraphs.

Proportions of natives in the total population enumerated in Administrative Counties. —The relative amount of migration into an area, without regard to the period during which it has occurred or to the counteracting effect of emigration," is most clearly indicated by the proportion which the population born within the area of enumeration bears to the total population. Thus, for example, we find among the administrative counties eleven cases1 in which more than 75 per cent, of the total population was born within the county; while on the other hand there were also eleven in which the proportion was less than 60 per cent. The figures for all the administrative counties are given in Table 85 of the Summary Volume, those for the counties referred to above are as follows:—

TABLE XCVII.—ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTIES WITH THE HIGHEST AND LOWEST PROPORTIONS OF NATIVE-BORN INHABITANTS IN THEIR ENUMERATED POPULATIONS.

Although, the counties named above do not correspond very closely with the registration counties showing losses and gains respectively by balance of migration in the intercensal period it will be seen that they have generally similar characteristics. The exclusion of the county boroughs tends to emphasise the agricultural aspect of the counties which have high proportions of natives and, therefore, appear to have attracted relatively few immigrants, the only anomalous case on this side of the table being Carmarthenshire, which, as a registration county, appears to have gained largely by the balance of migration in the ten years 1901-1911. On the other side of the table the counties in which immigrants are relatively most numerous naturally include the metropolitan counties and Glamorganshire; the presence of Warwickshire and Worcestershire in the list is apparently due to centrifugal movement from Birmingham, upwards of 130,000 persons returned as natives of that city being enumerated in the two counties; while Hampshire with a large military population is probably affected by the number of soldiers born outside the county; and the large proportion of immigrants in the population of Rutlandshire may be due in a great measure to the fact that its small size causes minor movements of population such as occur everywhere to lead to more crossing of county boundaries there than elsewhere. This consideration applies, mutatis mutandis, to all areas.

The five metropolitan counties, Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex and Surrey, together with the county boroughs of West Ham and Croydon, contained upwards of a million natives of London. Apart from the migration from London, the greatest contributions to the populations of these counties are derived from, those surrounding them. Thus for example, the administrative county of Essex contained, in addition to its 260,943 Londoners, 26,013 persons born in Suffolk, 22,723 born in Middlesex, 19,986 born in Kent, 10,747 born in Hertfordshire, and 7,121 born in Cambridgeshire; Middlesex contained 357,632 natives of London, 27,770 of Essex, 22,845 of Hertfordshire, 22,108 of Surrey, 20,640 of Kent, and 15,611 of Buckinghamshire. It is not necessary to go into detail with regard to the other counties, but the tables show that, as might be expected, it is quite a general rule for the immigrants to be drawn more largely from neighbouring than from distant areas. This rule holds good even for Glamorganshire in spite of the fact that the three adjoining counties have all attracted considerable populations from outside their borders, though large numbers have also gone into Glamorganshire from Cardiganshire, Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, Devonshire, Herefordshire, Wiltshire, London, and from Ireland.

TABLE XCVIII.—PROPORTION OF NATIVE-BORN TO TOTAL POPULATION IN COUNTIES (WITH ASSOCIATED COUNTY BOROUGHS).

The following map shows for the counties (including the associated, county boroughs) the extent to which the population, without distinction of sex, is recruited from without. The proportion of native to total population is stated in Table XCVIII, where the counties are arranged in order from the lowest to the highest proportions, and the figures for the two sexes separately are added. Comparison of Table XCVII with these figures will show how largely the inclusion of the county boroughs affects the proportions of immigrants within the geographical limits of the counties, and by reference to Table 85 of the Summary Volume it will be seen that the administrative counties and their associated county boroughs severally contain a smaller proportion of native-born than the same counties when considered as single areas, with the boroughs. The anomaly of a larger proportion of natives being found in the whole area than in any of its constituent parts is, of course, due to the fact of the considerable interchange of population among those parts; the result of such interchange being that the population affected is treated as migrant when considering the parts separately, and as native when considering the whole.

Proportion of the total natives of each county enumerated in their county of birth. —The number of persons enumerated in the area in which they were born may also be expressed in proportion to the total number born within the area but enumerated in any part of England and Wales in order to measure approximately the volume of migration from such area to other parts of the country. Of the administrative counties only ten retained more than 70 per cent, of such of their native population as were enumerated in the whole country, while in nine other cases the proportion fell below 55 per cent. The counties which thus showed respectively the least and the greatest losses of population by the emigration of their natives to other parts of England and Wales are as follows:—

TABLE XCIX.—ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTIES IN WHICH NATIVES WERE ENUMERATED IN HIGHEST AND LOWEST PROPORTIONS TO TOTAL NATIVES OF THE SAME COUNTIES ENUMERATED IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

Comparing Tables XCVII and XCIX, it will be seen that the figures for Cornwall, Cumberland, Carmarthenshire, and Carnarvonshire show but little immigration to these counties, and but little emigration from them to other parts of England and Wales. Cornwall and Cumberland have, however, lost a considerable percentage of their populations by migration in each of the three intercensal periods since 1881, and it appears, therefore, to be a fair assumption that the greater part of the emigration from these counties has been to places outside England and Wales, as for instance that of Cornish miners to the Transvaal. In Carnarvonshire the loss by migration of 3.6 per cent, during the past decennium followed a gain of 2.3 per cent, in the previous period; while in Carmarthenshire the relatively large gain of 8.6 per cent, in 1901-1911 did not much more than compensate for the loss of 7.1 per cent, in 1891-1901, and, coupled with the high proportion of natives enumerated in the county (Table XCVII), suggests that during the last intercensal period there has possibly been a return of persons who had previously migrated to other counties. On the other hand, Berkshire and Rutlandshire although showing a large influx of persons show a still greater volume of emigration to other parts of the country, and in both of these counties the balance of migration as indicated by the excess of natural over actual increase of population has been outwards in each inter censal period from 1881 onwards. The movement of population from these counties is mainly to the adjacent districts though, of course, a considerable proportion is attracted to London. Taking Berkshire as an example, it will be seen from the following statement to what a large extent there has been interchange between that county and neighbouring areas, the gain to the county being represented by the numbers of males and females born in the specified areas and enumerated in Berkshire, and the loss by the numbers born in the county and enumerated in the specified areas:—

Gain by immigration. Loss by emigration. Net gain or loss.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females.
Southampton and Isle of Wight
  Adm. Cos.
3,271 3,586 3,357 3,827 -86 -241
Wiltshire Adm. Co. 3,177 3,787 2,504 2,570 673 1,217
Oxfordshire Adm. Co. 3,632 4,206 3,370 3,796 262 410
Buckinghamshire Adm. Co. 2,474 3,066 2,524 2,904 -50 162
Middlesex Adm. Co. 1,140 1,344 4,264 5,587 -3,124 -4,243
Surrey Adm. Co. 1,882 2,001 4,049 5,157 -2,167 -3,156
London Adm. Co. 5,221 6,698 8,806 13,415 -3,585 -6,717
Reading C.B. 1,861 2,334 4,333 4,954 -2,472 -2,620

Of the total gain by immigration, 57 per cent, was derived from the areas named, while on the total loss by emigration within the boundaries of England and Wales 66 per cent, was absorbed by these areas, and no other county or county borough affected the Berkshire population to such a degree as any of the above. Generally speaking it appears that the amount of migration to and from distant areas is governed partly by their comparative remoteness and their relative size, as well as by such economic or other conditions as would tend specially to active migration. Without going into further detail it may be stated that examination of the figures for each of the counties shown in Table XCIX as having lost largely by emigration reveals somewhat similar features in their case also.

Natives of, and Residents in, the Large Towns .—In the county boroughs and in other towns with over 50,000 inhabitants the proportion of natives in the enumerated population is, on the whole, lower than in the administrative counties; in only six towns was the proportion as high as 70 per cent., while in 35 it was less than 50 per cent. The towns which thus appear to have attracted proportionately fewest immigrants are Stoke-on-Trent, Sunderland, Dudley, St. Helens, Sheffield, and Preston. It is remarkable that these should' all be manufacturing towns, but the fact harmonises with the deduction made on pages 73 and 74 from the age-distribution of their populations, of absence of attraction for labour in a number of such towns, including the first two of the six just mentioned. Those in which the immigrant population amounted to more than half the total included the 14 large towns in the metropolitan "Outer Ring"; Southend (which may also be regarded as a suburb of London); Smethwick, Aston Manor,2 Handsworth, and King's Norton and Northfield, all in the outer ring of Birmingham; and Bootle and Wallasey, which occupy a similar position in regard to Liverpool. They also include some seaside towns—Blackpool, Southport, Bournemouth, Brighton, Eastbourne, and Hastings; some naval towns—Devonport and Gillingham; and six others, namely, Bath, Canterbury, Lincoln, Reading, Rhondda, and Swindon.

Turning to the evidence of emigration from the towns we find 16 in which there resided at the date of the Census more than 70 per cent, of the total number of their natives enumerated in this country, and 21 in which the proportion was below 55 per cent. Among the 16 towns which retained a high proportion of their native population and therefore suffered but little loss by emigration to other parts of England and Wales are Sheffield, Stoke-on-Trent, and St. Helens which were also shown to have gained proportionally few immigrants. Four textile towns—Blackburn, Bolton, Burnley, and Bradford—are also found in this class, and, as an exception to the general rule, the proportion of the males born in them who were enumerated elsewhere is larger than that of the females. Among the 21 towns which suffered considerable loss by emigration are Bath, Brighton, Canterbury, Devonport, Handsworth, Acton, Ealing, Hornsey, Tottenham, Leyton, and Wimbledon, all of which are shown above to have attracted very large proportions of immigrants; while Dudley, which also appears in this class, was noted as a town with a low rate of immigration. These considerations suggest that the net gain or loss to the population of a place shown by the balance of migration forms but a very imperfect measure of the total movement of population. The figures for the towns showing respectively the highest and lowest proportions of immigrants and emigrants are as follows:—

TABLE C.—LARGE TOWNS; IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION.

Movement between counties and county boroughs .—The majority of the county boroughs gain on the balance of migration between them and the adjoining administrative counties in which they are geographically situated. The natives of the surrounding county area enumerated in 47 out of the 75 county boroughs outnumbered the natives of the boroughs enumerated in the counties, while in the 28 other cases the county gained at the expense of the borough. The 28 boroughs which have lost on the interchange of population with the surrounding county areas are on the whole more densely populated than those which have gained (25.3 persons per acre against 18.5), but in 12 cases, notably in Canterbury, Halifax and Merthyr Tydfil, their density is below the average; Birmingham, Brighton, Liverpool, Manchester, Salford, West Ham, Newcastle, Sunderland, and Cardiff, on the other hand, have a density in excess of the average and have all experienced the withdrawal of large numbers of their natives into the surrounding areas.

In most cases the gain to the borough by balance of migration from the county is greater among females than males—Devonport, West Hartlepool, Barrow-in-Furness, Burton-upon-Trent, Stoke-on-Trent, West Bromwich, Kingston-upon-Hull, and Middlesbrough being exceptions; while in 15 of the 28 boroughs which lost population by an outward balance of migration to the county the net loss of males was greater than that of females; the 13 boroughs in which the reverse was the case included Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Salford, and West Ham, and in all of these cases it is probable that the movement of population was mainly due to suburban development.

London.—The constitution of the enumerated population of London, and the distribution of Londoners throughout other parts of England and Wales may, perhaps, be held to require separate consideration. Of the total population of 4,521,685 persons, 1,436,686 were born outside the limits of the county, the proportion of natives being 682 per 1,000 of both sexes, 695 per 1,000 males, and 671 per 1,000 females. The extent to which the immigrants to London are drawn from other parts of England and Wales, from Scotland, Ireland, the British colonies, and from foreign countries is shown in the following table, which also gives the proportions at the Censuses 1861-1901. Owing to alterations in the boundary of the county of London the numbers for previous Censuses are not exactly comparable with those for 1911, but the changes were too small to make any appreciable difference to the proportions; the figures for the several counties relate to ancient counties, except in 1911, when they relate to the administrative counties with their associated county boroughs.

TABLE CI.—BIRTHPLACES OF THE POPULATION OF LONDON AT EACH CENSUS, 1861-1911.

The above figures show that the proportion of natives in the total population of London has risen at each successive Census since 1881, and it may be remarked that this diminution in the stream of immigration has been coincident with a decline in the rate of growth of the population. In the ten years 1871-1881 the population increased by 17.4 per cent, and in the next two intercensal periods by 10.4 and 7.3 per cent, respectively, while in the last period there was a decrease of 0'3 per cent.; and the proportion of immigrants decreased from 37.1 per cent, in 1881 to 34.5 in 1891, 33.5 in 1901, and 31.8 in 1911, the last figure including persons whose birthplace was not stated, a class which at previous Censuses was included among persons born in London.

The counties which contributed most largely to the population of London in 1911 were Essex (2,297 per 100,000), Kent (2,229), Middlesex (1,879), and Surrey (1,456); following these in order were Hampshire, Sussex, Devonshire, Suffolk, Norfolk, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Hertfordshire, Gloucestershire, Berkshire, and Somersetshire. Those from which the fewest immigrants were drawn were the Welsh counties (excepting Glamorganshire), Westmorland, Rutland, Cumberland, Monmouthshire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, Huntingdonshire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire. At previous Censuses back to 1881 the same counties are found to have supplied the largest numbers of immigrants to London as in 1911; though the numbers derived from Devonshire and Somersetshire are relatively smaller than formerly, while those from Lancashire have somewhat increased.

The number of Scottish-born persons in-London was approximately equal to the number of Irish at the last Census, and both showed a considerable falling-off from the numbers at previous Censuses, the Scottish having declined from 1,299 per 100,000 in 1881 to 1,127 in 1911, and the Irish from 2,114 to 1,143; the latter have continuously decreased since 1851 when their proportion in the total population of London was as high as 4,589 per 100,000. Persons born in foreign countries were proportionately more numerous in 1911 than at any preceding Census, although there was a marked decline between 1901 and 1911 in the proportion of British subjects born abroad. The proportion born in the British colonies and India showed a small continuous increase.

The outward movement from London to the surrounding counties has already been referred to (page 207), and it will be seen from the following statement that the proportion of the natives of London enumerated in these counties to the total enumerated in England and Wales has risen continuously since 1851, and that this, with one slight exception, is true also of the two counties of Sussex and Hampshire which—apart from the four metropolitan counties—contain the largest proportions of natives of London.

TABLE CII.—PERSONS BORN IN LONDON AND ENUMERATED IN CERTAIN COUNTIES IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 1851-1911.

Natives of Scotland. —Persons born in Scotland and enumerated in England and Wales in 1911 numbered 321,825, of whom 161,242 were males and 160,583 were females. Nearly three-quarters of this number were enumerated in the northern counties and in London and its suburbs; Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland contained upwards of 62,000, Lancashire and Yorkshire nearly 79,000, and London together with Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and the large suburban towns in Essex a further 90,000. The administrative counties and large towns which contained the largest numbers of persons of Scottish birth in proportion to their total populations were as follows:—

TABLE CIII.—ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTIES AND LARGE TOWNS WITH HIGHEST PROPORTIONS OF NATIVES OF SCOTLAND.

It will be noticed that in Cumberland and Westmorland, where the high rats of Scottish immigration is due to the geographical position of these counties rather than to any special industrial attraction, the female proportion is considerably higher than the male; while in Northumberland and Durham, where both causes are in operation, there is a slight preponderance of males. Among the towns, Barrow-in-Furness is conspicuous for a very high proportion of Scottish-born persons in its population. The towns on the rivers Tyne and Mersey appear to offer considerable attraction to Scotsmen, but they are not remarkably numerous in the inland manufacturing towns; in Manchester the proportions are 1.339 males and 1,205 females per 100,000, but in Birmingham they are as low as 443 for males and 390 for females. In the London suburbs the proportions vary very considerably, ranging from 3,081 males and 2,245 females in the borough of Hornsey, to 654 males and 491 females in the neighbouring urban district of Edmonton. The Scottish counties which contributed the largest numbers to the population enumerated in England and Wales were Lanark, Edinburgh, and Aberdeen, from which came 68,191, 45,542 and 26,731 persons respectively; it is not possible, however, to say what proportion of these came from the three cities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Aberdeen. The ratio of natives of these counties enumerated in England and Wales to the total population enumerated in the county was 4.7 per cent, in Lanark, 9.0 in Edinburgh, and 8.6 in Aberdeen, and among the other counties the percentage was as high as 16.4 in Wigtown, 17.2 in Kirkcudbright, 17.5 in Roxburgh, 22.5 in Dumfries, and 23.6 in Berwick; the counties which contributed least, in proportion to their population, to the number of emigrants to England and Wales were Dumbarton, Fife, Lanark, Linlithgow, Renfrew, and Stirling from each of which the proportion was less than 5 per cent. The county of birth of 7,515 of the 321,825 natives of Scotland was not stated, and 3,229 of the total, or about 1 per cent., were returned as "visitors" to this country.

The number of natives of England and Wales enumerated in Scotland was 165,102, and they were found chiefly in the counties of Lanark, Edinburgh, Renfrew, Fife, Aberdeen, Forfar, and Ayr. On the total movement between the two kingdoms there was a net gain to the population of England and Wales amounting to 156,723, and the net loss to the population of Scotland appears to have fallen most heavily on the counties of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Lanark, Forfar, Dumfries, and Ayr; only two counties, Dumbarton and Linlithgow, showed a gain (very small in each case) by interchange of population with England and Wales.

Natives of Ireland. —The number of Irish-born persons enumerated in England and Wales in 1911 was 375,325, of whom 191,862 were males and 183,463 females. A large proportion of the natives of Ireland in this country were enumerated in Lancashire and Cheshire, which together contained t29,587; in London, together with Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and the large suburban towns in Essex, 84,532; in Yorkshire, 32,459; in Hampshire, 16,538; in Durham, 16,074; and in Glamorganshire, 12,875. Altogether nearly 78 per cent, of the total were found in these areas. The highest proportional numbers in the several counties and the large towns were as follows:—

TABLE CIV.—ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTIES AND LARGE TOWNS WITH HIGHEST PROPORTIONS OF NATIVES OF IRELAND.

The large number of Irish in Hampshire may be partly amounted for by the naval and military population enumerated in the county, many of these being of Irish birth, and a similar explanation may be true of Dorsetshire, which contained a large naval population. The high proportions in Lancashire and Cheshire are probably due both to their direct communication with Ireland and to the attraction afforded by their industrial development. The highest proportions among the towns are found chiefly in those of Lancashire and Cheshire—Liverpool, of which Birkenhead, Bootle and Wallasey may be regarded as suburbs, being the principal centre. High proportions of both sexes are found in the three county boroughs in Glamorganshire; and in the naval towns—Devonport, Plymouth, Portsmouth and Gillingham; and in Middlesbrough, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Newport (Mon.), Southampton, and West Hartlepool. In the county of London the proportion of Irish approximates to that of Scottish, but in the large suburban towns it is uniformly lower in the case of males, and, with but a few exceptions, in that of females. The 375,325 natives of Ireland, of whom 2,944 were returned as "visitors," in this country included 122,713 from the province of Leinster, 88,064 from Munster, 81,793 from "Ulster, 59,210 from Connaught, and a further 23,545 whose county of birth was not specified. In proportion to the total population of the several counties the natives of Dublin, Kildare, Louth, Wexford, Cork, Waterford and Mayo enumerated in England and Wales exceeded 10 per cent., while those of Clare, Kerry, Antrim, Donegal, Londonderry and Leitrim were less than 5 per cent.

The number of natives of England and Wales enumerated in Ireland at the Census of 1911 was 90,237—a much larger number than at any previous Census. The proportion of English and Welsh in the total population of Ireland, which had been as low as 0.26 per cent, in 1841, had risen at each successive Census to 1.58 per cent, in 1891, 1.73 in 1901, and 2.06 in 1911; while the proportion of Irish-born persons in the total population of England and Wales, which had been 1.82 per cent, in 1841 and rose to 3.00 per cent. in 1861, has since declined to 1.58 percent, in 1891, 1.31 in 1901, and 1.04 per cent, in 1911. The Irish counties in which most of the English or Welsh people were found were Dublin, Antrim and Cork, which together contained 53,225 or 59 per cent, of the total; the numbers enumerated in the cities of Dublin, Belfast, and Cork were respectively 13,969, 15,446 and 3,244. The net loss to the Irish population on the balance of migration with England and Wales was greater in proportion to population in Connaught than in any of the other three provinces.

Natives of Islands in the British Seas. —The natives of the Isle of Man and of the Channel Islands enumerated in England and Wales numbered 15,519 and 21,243 respectively. It is not possible to give comparative numbers at previous Censuses for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands separately, but the combined total in 1911 showed a slight numerical advance over the number in 1901, and an increase in proportion to the total population of the Islands, although relatively to the population of England and Wales the proportion declined from 110 to 102 per 100,000. The largest numbers of persons from the Isle of Man are naturally found in Lancashire, which, including the county boroughs, contained no fewer than 8,902 out of the total of 15,519 for the whole of England and Wales; Liverpool contained 4,268, Manchester 957 and Barrow-in-Furness 653; in the last named they were proportionally more numerous than in any other area for which the figures are available. The number of natives of England and Wales enumerated in the Isle of Man amounted to 7,796, and of these 3,782 were born in Lancashire.

The natives of Jersey were not tabulated separately from those of Guernsey and the adjacent islands. They are not localised in England so distinctly as are the Manx, although the three southern counties, Hampshire, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire, which are most directly in communication with the islands, contained 5,400 of their natives out of a total of 21,243 in the whole country. The Channel Islands lost population on the balance of migration with England and Wales; 5,823 persons of English or Welsh birth were enumerated in Jersey, and 5,112 in Guernsey and the adjacent islands.

Only 276, or 0.8 per cent, of the natives of the Islands in the British Seas enumerated in this country were returned as "visitors."

Persons born in British Colonies or Dependencies. —The total number of persons born in the British Dominions beyond the seas and enumerated in this country was 161,502, of whom 73,911 were males and 87,591 females. This was an actual increase of 25,410 over the number recorded in 1901; in proportion to the total population of England and Wales the number has constantly risen since 1851 when it was 188 per 100,000 to 385 in 1891, 418 in 1901, and 448 per 100,000 in 1911. The total in 1911 included 2,980 males and 3,052 females who were returned as "visitors" to this country.

India and Ceylon.— To the total number of persons born in parts of the Empire outside the British Islands, India and Ceylon contributed 66,331, or 41 per cent., the same proportion as was recorded for 1901; 62,974 came-from. India, and 3,357 from Ceylon; of the whole total, 1,038 males and 842 females was returned as visitors. Among the several Indian Provinces, Bengal and Assam were returned as the birthplace Of the greatest number with 12,152, then Bombay with 10,422, and Punjab and North-West Frontier with 8,591. The natives of India and Ceylon of Asiatic origin have, as far as possible, been tabulated separately from those of European parentage, and comprised 3,891 males and 176 females, of whom 424 males and 28 females were returned as visitors. About two-thirds of the total came from the provinces of Bengal and Assam, Bombay, and the Punjab and North-West Frontier. The great majority of the males (2,531 out of 3,891) were Lascar seamen, and a further 931 were returned as students and scholars; no appreciable number was returned under any other occupational heading, except physicians, surgeons, registered practitioners," of whom there were 67. The students and doctors were found mostly in London, and the seamen mainly in the ports of London (but outside the county), Liverpool, Birkenhead, Cardiff, Hull and Southampton.

African Colonies. —The natives of the South African Colonies in this country numbered 17,819, of whom 7,698 were males and 10,121 were females. More than half this number (9,272) came from the Cape of Good Hope, 3,118 were born in the Transvaal, 2,578 in Natal, 752 in the Orange Free State, and 2,099 in other or unspecified South African colonies. The West African Colonies furnished 1,121 persons, and the colonies in the eastern and central parts of the continent, 1,327. In 1901 the total number present in this country from the African colonies was 12,706, but for obvious reasons the figure is of little use for the purpose of comparison.

Canada and Newfoundland. —The number born in these colonies and enumerated in England and Wales was 20,039 in 1911, against 18,829 in 1901, and 16,394 in 1891. Of the total Canadians, 6,230 were returned as born in Ontario, 3,646 in Quebec, 3,089 in Nova Scotia, and a further 3,101 in other or unspecified provinces. Natives of Newfoundland numbered 1,152—a somewhat high proportion of its population.

West Indies. —The numbers of persons from these colonies had been almost stationary at the two previous Censuses, 8,689 in 1891, and 8,680 in 1901. They rose, however, in 1911 to 9,189; a somewhat high figure relatively to the total population of the West Indian colonies themselves.

Australia and New Zealand. —The Australian Commonwealth was returned as the birthplace of 23,162 persons (9,979 males and 13,183 females) enumerated in England and Wales, and a further 5,966 (2,662 males and 3,304 females) came from New Zealand. Only 1,301 persons out of the total of 29,128 were stated to be visitors to this country. The greatest number of Australian-born persons enumerated here came from Victoria, which furnished 7,492, while New South Wales ranked second with 6,927. Natives of Australia and New Zealand have risen from 16,911 in 1891 to 25,999 in 1901, and to 29,128 in 1911.

European Possessions.— The number of natives of Gibraltar in this country in 1911 was 4,662, equal to nearly one-fifth of the present population of the colony; the number from Malta was 5,703, and from Cyprus, 208. The large numbers from Gibraltar and Malta are apparently due in a very great measure to the return to England of the families of soldiers who had been stationed at those places.

Persons born in Foreign Countries .—For the purposes of the Census, persons born in foreign countries, have been classified as (1) foreigners, (2) British subjects by parentage, and (3) naturalised British subjects. Under the heading British subjects by parentage are included wives who have acquired British nationality by marriage with a British husband, and with the naturalised British subjects are included all children under 21 for whom no statement as to nationality appeared on the schedule but whose fathers were returned as naturalised British subjects. In most cases the replies furnished in the schedules enabled the classification to be made with certainty, but where the statement as to nationality was omitted, persons with distinctly British surnames (natives of the United States excepted) were classified as British subjects in accordance with the practice adopted at all previous Censuses with the exception of that of 1891, On the present occasion a separate column of the schedule was for the first time, allotted to the subject of nationality, and a question as to the year of naturalisation was introduced; these precautions have probably lessened the number of cases in which the nationality was not stated. Except in the case of natives of India and Ceylon of Asiatic origin who have, as far as possible been tabulated separately from those of European parentage, no attempt to distinguish races has been made. The numbers of persons born in the several Asiatic and African countries include, therefore, all persons of European origin as well as those of the native races. The figures given for Russia and Turkey include the Asiatic as well as the European parts of the Russian and Ottoman Empires respectively.

In certain districts in London and in a few other large towns where foreigners were likely to be found in considerable numbers, enumerators who had some knowledge of the prevailing language were employed as far as possible, in order to be able to give assistance to those who would otherwise be unable to fill up the schedules. Special measures were taken, as in 1901, to ensure that the Jewish aliens should not, through ignorance of the objects of the census or from inability to understand the form of the schedule, fail to furnish the information required by the Census Act. A translation of the schedule printed in Yiddish and German, and a circular explaining the object of the Census were drawn up by the late Chief Rabbi, Dr. Adler, in conference with the President of the London Committee of Deputies of British Jews. That body was good enough to arrange for the establishment of centres where foreign Jews could obtain voluntary help in filling up the forms, and with the co-operation of the Federation of Synagogues, the subject of the Census was explained by ministers to their congregations. The Jewish Board of Guardians also rendered valuable assistance in the matter", and above 30,000 schedules printed in Yiddish and 12,000 in German were distributed principally in London, Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and Hull.

Increase of Persons, born in Foreign Countries. —The following table shows that there has been a continuous increase since 1851 in the number of persons born in foreign countries and enumerated in England and Wales, and the extent to which British subjects and foreigners respectively have contributed to the increase will be seen from the following table, though the figures for 1891 are not comparable with those for the other Censuses owing to the understatement of the number of British subjects for the reason given on page 216.

TABLE CV. —PERSONS BORN ABROAD, DISTINGUISHING BRITISH SUBJECTS AND FOREIGNERS, AND ENUMERATED IN ENGLAND AND WALES AT EACH CENSUS, 1851-1911.

British subjects born abroad. —These were not classified separately as naturalised British subjects and British subjects by parentage until 1901 when the former numbered 14,025 and the latter 77,653, as against 21,999 and 66,687 in 1911. It is probable, however, that in 1901 information as to naturalisation was omitted in a large number of cases.

British subjects by parentage. —Of the 66,687 persons who were returned as British subjects and were not stated to have been naturalised, 26,507 were males and 40,180 females, the great preponderance of females being partly due to the inclusion in this class of wives who have acquired British nationality by marriage with a British husband. By far the largest number of foreign-born British subjects by parentage came from the United States, which was the birthplace of 26,109 persons classified under this heading. From France there came 8,967, from Germany 5,447, from Russia (including Russian Poland) 2,896, from Belgium, 1,522, from Spain, Italy and Switzerland about 1,300 each, and smaller numbers from the other European countries amounting in all to 5,410. South America contributed 5,535, of whom 1,940 were born in Argentina, 1,506 in Brazil, and 2,089 in other South American States, and there were a further 769 from Mexico and Central America. From Asiatic countries there were 3,319, of whom 1,825 were born in China; and from Africa, 2,099. The 6,805 persons returned as "born at sea " were nearly all British subjects, only 230 being classified as foreigners.

British subjects from foreign countries were proportionally much more numerous in Cornwall, where they comprised 489 per 100,000 of the male and 620 per 100,000 of the female population, than in any other county, the next highest county proportions being 290 males and 447 females per 100,000 in Surrey, 244 males and 401 females in Sussex, and 237 males and 405 females in Middlesex, Among the large towns, however, some higher proportions were recorded and it may be observed from the following table that they are found mostly in the good residential centres.

TABLE CVI.—LARGE TOWNS WITH HIGH PROPORTIONS OF FOREIGN-BORN BRITISH SUBJECTS BY PARENTAGE.

British subjects born in the United States were most numerous in Cornwall, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Warwickshire, in London and the adjacent counties, and in the mining counties of Durham, Glamorganshire, and Staffordshire; and those born in European countries were found principally in London and the surrounding district.

Naturalised British subjects. —The 21,999 persons returned as naturalised British subjects included 14,242 males and 7,757 females, a sex-constitution which is in marked contrast to that of other foreign-born British subjects. The respective numbers of the two classes furnished by the several foreign countries also show notable differences; thus while those natives of the United States enumerated in this country who owe their British nationality to parentage or to marriage with a British subject numbered 26,109, those who acquired it by naturalisation amounted to only 599. On the other hand, Russia (including Russian Poland) furnished 9,082 naturalised British subjects (against 2,896 of British parentage), and together with Germany, from which there were 6,490, and Austria, from which there were 1,217, accounted for 76 per cent, of this class. The local distribution of the naturalised British subjects in the country is rather different from that of the British by parentage, as will be seen from the following list of towns in which the former were proportionally most numerous. The proportion for the whole of London is high, and it reaches quite an exceptional figure in Stepney and Hampstead; and in the provincial towns high proportions are found in some of the largest of the industrial towns and ports.

TABLE CVII.—LARGE TOWNS WITH HIGH PROPORTIONS OF NATURALISED BRITISH SUBJECTS.

County of Birth of Foreigners.— The 285,060 foreign residents and visitors in England and Wales at the date of the Census came principally from Russia (including Russian Poland), Germany, France , and Italy, these four countries together accounting for more than two-thirds of the total. The numbers, and the proportions per cent. of the total foreigners from each of the countries and groups of countries for which the figures have been tabulated separately in 1891, 1901, and 1911 were as follows:—

TABLE CVIII.—NUMBER OF FOREIGNERS OF VARIOUS NATIONALITIES, AND PROPORTION TO TOTAL FOREIGNERS, 1891, 1901, AND 1911.

Of the four European countries sending the largest quota to this country Russia furnished a much greater proportion in 1911 than in 1891, while the number of Germans showed a very large relative decrease during the same period; the natives of Italy increased from 5.0 per cent, of the total foreigners in 1891, to 8.2 per cent, in 1901, but declined again to 7.2 per cent, in 1911, while the French after declining from 10.5 8.3 per cent, rose again to 10.1 per cent, in 1911. Natives of the United States declined successively from 10.0 per cent, in 1891 to 6.7 per cent, in 1901 and to 4.8 per cent in 1911.

Local distribution of foreigners of various nationalities. —Foreigners of most nationalities are naturally more numerous in London than in other parts of England and Wales, but the various countries are very unequally represented in the several administrative counties and county boroughs as will be seen from the following summary, which shows the localities in which the largest numbers of foreigners of the principal nationalities were enumerated, the total in England and Wales being shown in italics opposite the country of birth.

TABLE CIX.—DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGNERS OF VARIOUS NATIONALITIES.

Foreigners in London.— Foreigners of all nationalities in London numbered 153,128, equal to 53.7 per cent, of the total in England and Wales, and of this number no fewer than 53,060 were enumerated in the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney. This borough contained 43,925 natives of Russia and Russian Poland out of the total of 63,105 in London, large numbers being also found in Bethnal Green (6,272), Hackney (2,252), City of Westminster (2,114), St. Pancras (1,063), St. Marylebone (1,055), and Kensington (987). Germans were found mostly in St. Pancras, which had 3,250, Stepney (2,095), Islington (2,092), City of Westminster (2,010), Lambeth (1,632), St. Marylebone (1,520), Kensington (1,482), Hampstead (1,223), Paddington (1,176), and Hackney (1,039). Natives of the United States numbered 1,049 in the City of Westminster, 538 in Kensington, 417 in Holborn, 380 in St. Marylebone, 343 in St. Pancras, and 295 in Paddington; the greatest numbers of natives of France were 2,486 in the City of Westminster, 1,580 in St. Pancras, 1,197 in St. Marylebone, 1,156 in Kensington, 990 in Lambeth, 828 in Paddington, and 709 in Holborn; Italians numbered 2,606 in the City of Westminster, 1,488 in Holborn, 1,267 in Finsbury, and 1,155 in St. Pancras; Austrians, 2,811 in Stepney, 876 in St. Pancras, 501 in the City of Westminster, and 423 in Hackney; Swiss, 927 in the City of Westminster and 718 in St. Pancras; natives of Holland, 1,073 in Stepney and 280 in St. Pancras; of Sweden, 232 in Poplar; and of the Balkan States, 1,522 in Stepney and 225 in Bethnal Green. The following statement shows the proportion of foreigners of various nationalities in the County of London per cent, of the total in England and Wales:—

Where born. Proportion
in London
per cent. of
total in
England
and Wales.
Where born. Proportion
in London
per cent. of
total in
England
and Wales.
Where born. Proportion
in London
per cent. of
total in
England
and Wales.
Austria 60.8 Russia (including
  Russian Poland).
66.1 Africa 36.1
  Hungary 63.6 Servia, Bulgaria, etc. 61.0 United States 39.2
Belgium 45.3 Spain 23.9 Mexico, Central
  America and W.
  Indies
32.7
Denmark 29.8 Sweden 26.7 Argentina 40.9
France 47.9 Switzerland 52.0 Brazil 38.0
Germany 51.2 Turkey 35.6 Other South Ameri-
  can countries
44.7
Greece 23.6 China 18.7 Born Abroad (country
  not stated)
56.3
Holland 54.3 Japan 42.3 At Sea 53.9
Italy 57.2 Other Asiatic
  countries
18.5    
Norway 19.0        
Portugal 26.5        

Local distribution of foreigners of all nationalities. —Apart from the County of London, in which foreigners form a far higher proportion of the population than elsewhere, it will be seen from Table CX that the largest proportional numbers are found mostly in the suburban districts, in a few of the largest industrial centres, in some of the principal sea-ports, and in some of the south coast watering-places. The proportions in the county areas were generally below those in the large towns and, outside the metropolitan district, were considerable only in the counties of Sussex, Cornwall, Glamorgan and Northumberland. The proportion of male foreigners generally exceeds that of females, the disparity being usually greatest in the seaport towns where it is mainly due to the inclusion of the foreign seamen on board vessels in port on Census night. The proportion of females exceeds that of males in only three of the large towns—Devonport, Gillingham and Exeter; among the counties the excess is greatest in Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire, Sussex, and Devonshire. The following table shows the areas in which foreigners of each sex are proportionally most numerous; the figures for all the counties and large towns will be found in Table 84 of the Summary Volume.

TABLE CX.—COUNTIES AND LARGE TOWNS WITH HIGHEST PROPORTIONS OF FOREIGNERS.

Sex, Age, and Condition as to Marriage of Foreigners .—Of the 284,830 persons of foreign nationality born in foreign countries and enumerated in England and Wales, 167,762 were males and 117,068 were females; males forming 58.9 per cent of the foreign, compared with 48.4 per cent of the general population. The sex proportions of the several nationalities represented in this country differ very considerable; among the principal nationalities (those of which there were upwards of 10,000 persons) the proportions of males were as follows:—Italians 71.0 per cent., Austrians 65.3, Germans 63.1, Swiss 59.2, Americans 55.6, Russians Poles 52.9, and French 44.6 per cent.

The age-distribution of foreigners is naturally different from that of the total population; children under 10 comprised only 3.3 per cent of the former, against 20.9 per cent of the latter, and those aged 10-15, only 3.8 per cent., against 20.9 at age 15-20 the proportions approximate being 8.9 and 9.3 per cent respectively. At each decennial age-group from 25-35 to 55-65 the proportions of males to the male population, and of females to the females population, at all ages are greater among foreigners, the maximum excess being shown at the age-group 25-35. The following table shows the details of sex- and age age-distribution for all foreigners and for the principal nationalities.

TABLE CXI.—MALES AND FEMALES OF VARIOUS NATIONALITIES AND AGES PER 100,000 PERSONS AT ALL AGES.

The condition as to marriage of the foreign population as compared with the total population is shown more accurately if the proportions of married and widowed among the persons aged 20 years and, upwards be taken in preference to the proportions at all ages. The figures are as follows:—

Proportions per 1,000 of each sex aged 20 years and upwards

Males. Females.
Total
Population.
All
Foreigners.
Total
Population.
All
Foreigners.
Unmarried 307 383 302 316
Married 633 582 579 562
Widowed 60 35 119 122

Detailed figures showing condition as to marriage at age-periods for the several nationalities will be found in Table 78 of the Summary Volume.

Occupations of Foreigners. —The occupations followed by the foreigners of various nationalities enumerated in this country are shown in Table 79 of the Summary Volume. Prom this table it will be seen that 145,622 out of the 167,762 males, and 43,036 out of the 117,068 females were returned as engaged in occupations, the chief of which were as follows:—

Tailors. —A much larger number of foreigners was returned under this occupational heading than under any other; in all, 22,640 males and 5,188 females are included, the majority being natives of Russia, from which country (including Russian Poland) there were 17,877 males and 4,180 females; large numbers came also from Germany (1,934 persons), from Austria (1,401), and from the Balkan States (589).

Waiters and Others in Hotel, etc., Service (including Domestic Servants). —The number of males so occupied was 12,811, of whom 4,635 came from Germany, 2,893 from Italy, 1,883 from Austria, 1,551 from Switzerland, and 833 from France. The number of females included in this group was only 1,616, of whom 429 were from Prance, 337 from Germany, 293 from Italy, and 167 from Switzerland.

Domestic Indoor Servants (not in Hotels, etc.). —Females in this class numbered 10,827 against 1,750 males. The principal nationalities represented were Germans (3,609 persons), French (2,615), and Swiss (1,829). There were also 661 females from Norway, 512 from. Russia (including Russian Poland), 435 from Italy, 372 from Sweden, 357 from Denmark, 342 from Austria, and 326 from the United States.

Commercial Clerks. —There were 6,171 male and 778 female commercial clerks, of whom 2,513 males and 235 females were born in Germany, 754 males in France, 685 males in Switzerland, and 176 males in the United States.

Teachers engaged either in schools or as private tutors or governesses comprised 1,643 males and 4,240 females. The males included 543 from Russia (including Russian Poland), 505 from France, and 236 from Germany ; and the females 2,133 from France, 1,032 from Germany, and 417 from Switzerland.

Seamen numbered 15,246 and included 8,359 who were classified as in the navigating service, 4,674 in the engineering, and 2,161 as cooks, stewards, etc. The largest numbers were furnished by Norway (2,598), Sweden (2,091), Germany (1,986), Denmark (1,259), Russia, exclusive of Russian Poland (1,124), Spain (1,098), France (903), and Holland (753); there were also 480 Chinese seamen (of whom 292 were in the engineering service), and 711 who were born in other Asiatic countries (exclusive of British territories), and were mainly lascars engaged in subsidiary services. The 15,246 foreign seamen enumerated at the Census comprise all those who were in English or Welsh ports on the night of the Census, or arrived on the following day, including those on Foreign as well as on British vessels. The total number of foreign seamen employed on British vessels, was returned by the Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen as 29,628 exclusive of lascars—see. Return of Nationalities, etc., of Seamen employed on 3rd April, 1911 (Cd. 6442), page xiii—the corresponding number in 1901 being 33,242, while the total number of British seamen on British vessels rose from 139,286 in 1901 to 160,735 in 1911. The several classes of occupations, and the occupations in which the largest numbers of foreigners were engaged in 1901 and 1911 are shown in the following table:—

TABLE CXII.—OCCUPATIONS OF FOREIGNERS, 1901 AND 1911.

A preference for certain occupations shown by foreigners of various nationalities is revealed by study of Table 79. Thus, in addition to the examples of the numerically most important occupations referred to in the preceding paragraphs, we find that among males of the 4,468 cabinet makers 3,217 came from Russia (including Russian Poland), and a further 436 from Germany; the 4,529 hairdressers and wigmakers included 1,916 Germans, 966 Russians or Russian Poles, and 416 Italians; of 3,432 boot and shoemakers, 2,550 were from Russia (including Russian Poland); the 3,561 cooks (not domestic) came almost exclusively from France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany; and the 4,844 bread, biscuit, etc., makers and dealers, and confectioners included 2,134 Germans (mostly bread makers), and 1,373 Italians (mostly confectioners). Two striking cases among the smaller occupations are furnished by the paviours, of whom 499 out of a total of 548 were Italians, and by the male laundry workers, of whom 348 out of a total of 469 were Chinese. Among females, there were 1,236 from Russia (including Russian Poland) and 1,107 from France, out of a total of 3,549 dressmakers.

Birthplaces not stated. —The birthplaces of 330,698 persons (147,135 males and 183,563 females) were either returned as "not known" or were omitted altogether from the returns; in addition there were 14,783 persons for whom the information furnished was not sufficient to allow of precise classification, but enabled them to be assigned to "England, county not stated"; there were also 10,896 who were tabulated as born in "Wales, county not stated"; and incomplete returns were made in respect of 7,515 persons born in Scotland, 23,545 in Ireland, 37 in British Colonies, and 916 in Foreign Countries.

The 330,698 persons whose birthplaces were not ascertained were equal to 917 per 100,000 of the population, the proportion among males being 843, and among females 986 per 100,000. The number of such defective returns at previous Censuses has not been recorded, and it is therefore not possible to state precisely to what extent, if any, the schedules have improved in this respect; though from, the decreasing numbers appearing under the indefinite headings in the birthplace tables it appears probable that some improvement has taken place.

The proportion of unstated birthplaces shows considerable variation among the several areas tabulated, the highest per 100,000 of each sex being in Wakefield (4,384 males and 3,664 females), Surrey (2,199 males and 2,420 females), Ilford (1,631 males and 2,951 females), Hertfordshire (1,548 males and 1,887 females), Aberdare (1,374 males and 1,663 females), King's Norton and Northfield (1,490 males and 1,339 females) Walsall (1,232 males and 1,476 females), and Southampton (1,549 males and 1,099 females); and the lowest proportions in Westmorland (186 males and 152 females), Rutlandshire (291 males and 239 females), Wallasey (240 males and 336 females), West Hartlepool (279 males and 330 females) and Huntingdonshire (283 males and 360 females). Altogether the proportion of males whose birthplaces were not stated exceeded one per cent, in nine of the counties and in twelve of the large towns, and the proportion of females exceeded the same standard in 22 counties and in 25 large towns; on the other hand, proportions of less than one-half per cent, were recorded among males in 5 counties and 22 large towns, and among females in 4 counties and in 6 large towns. Generally the proportions were higher among females than among males; but in three cases (Enfield, Southampton and Wakefield) there was a large excess among males.

The abnormally high proportions of unstated birthplaces in some of the areas are due to the presence of large institutions (chiefly lunatic asylums), in which the birthplaces of many of the inmates could not be ascertained by the institution officials who made the returns. Thus, for example, in Hertfordshire out of 2,301 males and 3,069 females whose birthplaces were not stated, 1,176 males and 1,769 females were inmates of the Herts County Lunatic Asylum, of the Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum, Napsbury, or of the Metropolitan Asylums Board's Imbecile Asylum, Leavesden; similarly in Wakefield, 1,030 out of 1,131 males and 845 out of 942 females were inmates of the West Biding County Lunatic Asylum, and the proportion of unstated birthplaces among the general population was considerably below the average. The excessive proportions in the administrative county of Surrey, in King's Norton and Northfield Urban District and in Ilford Urban District are also due mainly to defective information with respect to the inmates of the large lunatic asylums situated in these areas, though in the two urban districts other institutions also contribute to the result, the disparity between the returns for the two sexes in the latter urban district being partly attributable to the unknown birthplaces of many of the children in Dr. Barnardo's Homes for Girls, which are situated in the district; some cases, however, in which the proportions of unstated birthplaces are unduly high, for. example, Aberdare and Southampton, cannot be explained by the presence of institutions, and no alternative explanation which will meet such cases is apparent.

Age-constitution of Migrant Population. —It will be seen from Table 85 in the Summary Volume that in most of the counties and large towns the total recorded movement of population (total immigration and emigration to other parts of England and Wales) is greater for females than for males. For this the migration of young females as domestic servants is no doubt largely responsible (see pages 73 to 83). Exceptions to the general rule as to immigration are generally garrison towns, mining areas, or ports, where a preponderance of males is easily accounted for. The remaining exceptions, excluding Wales, consist of manufacturing towns—Stockton-on-Tees, St. Helens, Warrington, Wigan, Sheffield, Wakefield, Stoke-on-Trent, Coventry and Swindon—where it may perhaps be assumed that as in the case of the ports and mining areas the demand of industry for male labour outweighs that of domestic service for female assistance. In Wales as a consequence chiefly of the importance of the coal mining industry, the proportion of male to female immigrants is considerably greater than in England.

Some further information as to the constitution of these migrant populations is afforded by an experimental tabulation of their ages for certain selected areas. The ages of the immigrant population, i.e. , the total number of persons born outside the area of enumeration, has been tabulated for the Administrative Counties of Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Monmouth, for 11 large towns and for London; while for the emigrant population, the natives of London, Huntingdonshire, Somersetshire, Westmorland and Merionethshire who were enumerated in other counties of England and Wales have been selected for tabulation by age, and the results are shown in detail in Tables 12 to 15 in Vol. IX. The table on page 227 gives a summary of the age-distribution of the migrants for each of the several areas dealt with.

Immigrant population. —Allowing for the different lengths of the periods shown in the first two columns of the table it will be seen that the maximum proportions for immigrants of both sexes are at the ages 25-35, in marked contrast to the total population in which the maximum, is naturally at the earliest period of life. At ages above 45 the proportions among immigrants are almost invariably higher than the corresponding proportions in the total population; at the most advanced ages, however, some of the towns—notably Coventry and Rhondda—have proportions below the average, while on the other hand, Hastings has exceptionally high proportions of immigrants at these ages. In both cases the facts are precisely what might have been anticipated. Hastings was selected for tabulation as representative of the health resorts and residential areas to which as shown on page 79, immigration of elderly people retiring from business is directed; and Coventry and Rhondda are industrial areas which have undergone particularly rapid development of recent years and where therefore the number of young immigrant workers is out of proportion to those who, whether natives of these areas or not, have lived in them long enough to have attained the age in question. Immigration of elderly persons into mining or manufacturing centres is probably so slight that for present purposes it may be disregarded.

TABLE CXIII.—AGE-DISTRIBUTION OF MALES AND FEMALES (1) BORN OUTSIDE SPECIFIED AREAS AND ENUMERATED WITHIN THEM, AND (2) BORN WITHIN SPECIFIED AREAS AND ENUMERATED IN OTHER PARTS OF ENGLAND AND WALES; PROPORTIONS PER 1,000 OF EACH SEX.

An immigrant age-distribution somewhat similar to that of Hastings may be met with in an industrial town where a period of rapid increase in the past has been succeeded by recent stagnation, as in the case of Burton-upon-Trent. The population of this borough, after increasing 71.3, 50.6, 59.9,. 17.2 and 9.4 per cent, respectively in the five preceding intercensal periods, decreased by 4.2 per cent, in 1901-1911. The flow of immigrants being thus checked, the active immigration of earlier days is now represented by high proportions of immigrants of mature ages, while the proportions under 35 are low. The contrast between Burton-upon-Trent and Coventry, which happen to adjoin each other in Table CXIII is particularly instructive, and may be taken as indicating how the age-distribution of immigrants can throw light upon the period at which immigration has been most active. Precise information of the age at which migration takes place is, of course, not available in the absence of data as to the period of residence in the various areas, but it is unnecessary to assume any material variation in the age of industrial immigration to the various areas—variation in regard to the period of active expansion will explain the differences in age-distribution met with.

Immigrants to Monmouthshire. —As an example of the variations in the age-distribution of the immigrants from different places, the figures for persons enumerated in the Administrative County of Monmouth and born elsewhere are shown in Table CXIV. Immigration into this county has been active during recent years, and the age-distribution of the immigrants is such as to suggest the fact, the numbers at early ages being comparatively high, and those at later ages low (Table CXIII). It will be seen, however, from Table CXIV that the age-distribution of immigrants into the same area varies greatly according to the character and situation of the areas from which they come.

By far the largest number of immigrants to Monmouthshire came from Glamorganshire and their age-distribution shows, by the high proportions under 20 and by the similarity of the male and female proportions throughout life, that the movement from this area comprises whole families to a larger extent than from any other. On the other hand, the proportions under 20 coming from distant and from agricultural areas are low, indicating that emigration of families as such from these areas is much less common. The best example of this is afforded by the case of Ireland, though here the proportion of old people is so high as to suggest that the tide of immigration may have slackened of late years. Scotland displays the same feature in the table, as do Wiltshire, Somersetshire, and Devonshire, agricultural counties to some extent cut off by the Bristol Channel. Even from Hereford, adjoining Monmouth on the one side, the proportions of immigrants under 20 are less than half those from Glamorgan on the other side. This case seems to illustrate particularly well the tendency of those connected with the land to emigrate before rather than after marriage, and at an age therefore when they bring no children with them. Probably if the numbers under 15 years of age were available the contrast between Glamorgan and Hereford would be still more marked.

From most areas the proportion of female immigrants under 20 and at the advanced ages exceeds that of males, and falls below it in the middle periods. The reason for this is doubtless to be found in the high proportions of males at the working ages, at which the demand for male labour in the mines makes itself felt, and so lowers the proportion to the whole of immigrant males at other periods of life.

TABLE CXIV.—BIRTHPLACE AND AGE-DISTRIBUTION OF MALES AND FEMALES BORN OUTSIDE THE ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTY OF MONMOUTH, BUT ENUMERATED THEREIN.

Emigrants from London to various places. —The sex and age-distribution of the natives of London enumerated in other parts of England and Wales shows some very well-marked differences in various classes of areas. The four metropolitan counties, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey and Essex, with their associated County Boroughs, absorbed 66.1 per cent, of the male and 66.4 per cent, of the female emigrants. The age-distribution of this population shows a deficiency, as compared with the total population of London, both among males and females at the periods Under 20 and 20-25 and a maximum excess at 35-45; the males also show a deficiency after the age of 65 and the females after 75. Beyond the Outer King emigration is of a different character. Thus in a group of four rural counties (Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire and Norfolk) beyond the radius of the suburban influence, while the male emigrants approximate closely to the age-distribution of the London male population, the females show a much larger excess than in the Outer Ring counties at all age-periods above 35-45. The figures for two other classes of area (1) a group of three large industrial cities, Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham and (2) a group of southern residential centres, Brighton, Hastings, Eastbourne and Bournemouth have also been dealt with. The sex and age-distribution of the Londoners in these two groups respectively affords a complete contrast. In the former group comparison with the London population shows an excess of males over females at each age-period, while in the latter group the females are consistently in excess ; the series of differences is fairly regular in each case, but is much greater in the latter. As regards the age-distribution, while in the former group the proportions from 35 years upwards show but little progressive excess over those in the total population of London, in the latter the excess increases rapidly at the most advanced ages.

Emigrants from Somersetshire, Huntingdonshire, Westmorland and Merionethshire. — Comparison of the sex and age-distribution of the emigrants from these counties to various other places shows some facts which may perhaps be regarded as illustrative of the general movement of population. Thus the emigrants from Somersetshire to Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire show a great preponderance of males over females at the age 20-25, while those from Huntingdonshire to Nottingham and Leicester County Boroughs, and from Westmorland to Lancaster Administrative County show a great preponderance of females at the same age. The emigrants from each of the four counties to the adjoining areas show some similarity of constitution, the proportions at ages under 20 being in every case higher, and those at the later ages approximating more nearly to the general population than is the case among emigrants to more distant areas.

A complete investigation of the age and sex in relation to the birthplaces of the population has never been undertaken at any Census in this country. But the experimental tabulation on which the foregoing remarks are based, though insufficient in extent to lead to any very definite conclusions, does at least suggest the possibility of obtaining useful information from a more complete tabulation on the same lines. The advisability of further development in this direction at the next Census must be determined largely by the extent to which it may be found that interest attaches to the samples of such tabulation presented in this Report.


1 In the cases of Cambridgeshire, Hampshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Suffolk, Sussex, and Yorkshire the separate administrative counties into which each of them is divided have been taken collectively in dealing with the birthplaces of the population.

2 See note to Table C, p. 210.

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