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The occupations of the people have been regarded as forming a proper subject of inquiry at every census that has been taken in this country, though the method and scope of the inquiry have from time to time been modified in accordance with the cumulative experience of successive enumerations. It is scarcely necessary to review in detail the procedure followed on each occasion, but a brief summary of the leading features is essential in order to show how the present system has been developed.

1801-1831. —At the first census only a very broad classification of occupations was attempted. The form of question, however, by which it was sought to attain this object (see page 4) was found in practice to produce no valuable result. Thus the report 011 the census of 1831 states, in reference to the first census, that "in some cases a Householder seemed to understand that the females of his family, his children, and servants ought to be classed with himself; in some cases he returned them in the negative class, as being neither agricultural nor commercial; in some cases he omitted them entirely. Thus the failure of the question became manifest, and the worthless answers were entered without attempt at correction."

The form of question was therefore altered in 1811 so as to relate to families instead of persons , the returns still being made by the overseers. The report on that census indicates that the replies were generally satisfactory, but states that "in the answers respecting the families employed in Agriculture, a remarkable proof occurred of the difficulty of putting any question which shall be universally understood. In some places the Occupiers of Land, but not Labourers in Agriculture, are supposed to belong to that class; in other places exactly the contrary."

In 1821 and 1831 the question as to occupation was repeated in the same form as in 1811, but in 1831 several additional questions were put to the overseers. These additional questions related to males aged 20 years and upwards, who were tabulated in nine classes, viz.:—

  1. Agricultural Occupiers employing Labourers.
  2. Agricultural Occupiers not employing labourers.
  3. Labourers employed in Agriculture.
  4. Employed in Manufacture or in making Manufacturing Machinery.
  5. Employed in Retail Trade or Handicraft as Masters or Workmen.
  6. Capitalists, Bankers, Professional and other Educated Men.
  7. Labourers, not Agricultural.
  8. Servants.
  9. Others.

The fifth class was also returned in detail by means of a form containing "one hundred of the most usual denominations of Retail Trade and Handicraft," the list being extended by the overseers, where necessary, to meet local conditions. No attempt, however, was made to compile a classified list of occupations; and the alphabetical summary for England and Wales was defective on account of the lack of uniformity in making up the lists for the separate parishes, the overseers having made up their own lists on such different principles that the summary compiled from them was quite unreliable.

1841. —In 1841 advantage was taken of the recently established system of civil registration to remodel the whole machinery of the census. Instead of numerical summaries prepared by the overseer of each parish, particulars of individual persons were recorded on schedules furnished to every householder and collected by enumerators acting under the direction of the local Registrars of Births and Deaths. These schedules were copied into books which were transmitted to the Census Office, where the work of classifying the occupations from the information supplied by the people themselves was carried out under definite rules and on uniform lines for the whole country. Some idea of the sub-division of labour and of the difficulty of classification even at that early date may be gained from the fact, noted in the 1841 Report, that "the number of different titles under which the Various persons employed in cotton manufacture were returned, amounted to 1,255," which, for convenience of publication, were condensed under the general heading "Cotton manufacture, all branches." The codification of the various occupations was, however, by no means complete at that census, for the published figures for England and Wales related to no fewer than 877 occupational headings presented in alphabetical order without any further attempt at arrangement beyond a statement showing the numbers engaged in certain mining, metal, and textile industries, and in the manufacture of engines and machines, pottery, glass, and gloves, and (2) a rough grouping of the occupations under 16 large and, in some cases, very miscellaneous headings.

1851-1901. —The method of collecting and digesting the returns adopted in 1841 was found to be so successful as compared with that of previous censuses that the general procedure has been followed with more or less important modification on every subsequent occasion. The principal defect of the statistics of 1841 was the unsatisfactory manner in which they were arranged; for, as was stated in the Report on the Census of 1901 (page 73), "an unclassified return, arranged alphabetically, is of little value because kindred occupations are separated, although the line of demarcation between them is often indefinite or non-existent."

With a view to remedying this defect the occupational headings were in 1851 arranged under 17 "Classes," comprising 91 "Sub-classes," or, as they have been designated at later censuses, "Orders" and "Sub-orders." In 1861 a book of instructions to the clerks employed in classifying the occupations of the people was drawn up. This contained a list of occupational terms arranged under their appropriate "Orders" and "Sub-orders," as well as alphabetically for convenience of reference, the terms being copied mostly from directories of London and other large towns. In 1871 the list was revised from similar sources, but in 1881 a more extended compilation was made from information collected by means of circulars sent out to leading manufacturers and supplemented by a -preliminary examination of the census returns from the chief industrial centres. By this means books of instructions were prepared, and have subsequently been revised from time to time, with the object of obtaining uniformity of treatment of the returns at each census. These instructions have also served to promote continuity of treatment at successive censuses, so far as this has been found compatible with the need for increased precision and detail of tabulation, and with the changes necessitated by industrial development. Modifications of detail have, of course, been rendered necessary principally by the introduction of new occupations, and, to a less extent, by the elimination of terms that have become obsolete. Thus, of a list of 100 names of occupations published in the report on the 1881 census as being then in common use, but unfamiliar even to educated members of the general public, sixteen no longer appear in the list now published.

Another important alteration initiated in 1851 was the introduction of a more detailed grouping by ages. Instead of the two divisions of "under 20" and "over 20," the figures were shown for quinquennial groups. The sub-division, especially in the advanced ages, was, however, found to be of little practical utility; and some changes in the age groupings have been made at each of the later censuses, until in 1901 the figures were shown in the principal tables in ten groups of ages viz.:—10 and under 14, 14, 15 and under 20, 20 and under 25, decennial groups from 25 to 75, and in one group 75 and upwards; the occupations of children at each year of age from 10 to 14 were given in a supplementary table. In 1901, also, the tables distinguished for the first time the unmarried from the married or widowed females.

The general principles of classification adopted in 1851 were followed closely at the next two censuses, but in 1881 two important changes were effected. Up to 1871, persons described as "retired" from any stated occupation had been classed to such occupation. From 1881 onwards, such retired persons (with the exception of officers in the army and navy, and, until 1911, clergymen and medical practitioners) have been included with the "unoccupied"; as have also inmates of workhouses over 60 years of age, and inmates of lunatic asylums of whatever ages, on the assumption that such persons would probably be unable to resume their employment, supplementary tables being introduced to show, for the country at large, their ages and former occupations. Among other changes made at the census in 1881, clerks, porters, engine drivers, stokers, carmen, etc., who had formerly been classed to the separate manufacture or trade with which their work was connected, were collected under the headings "Commercial Clerk," "Messenger, Porter" etc. These changes, although tending to a more scientific classification of occupations, seriously reduced the value of comparisons between the figures for 1881 and those for earlier censuses. Such changes in classification as were made in 1891 and 1901 are shown in detail in the reports of those censuses (see Census of 1891, Volume IV., pages 133-5; and Census of 1901, General Report, pages 245-255); and for the latter census are also shown in Table 25, pages 524-539, of Vol. X., Part I., of the present report. It will be seen from the 1901 volume that there was considerable revision of the occupational headings on that occasion, and that some of the changes were made as the result of suggestions from the Home Office and the Board of Trade, and with the view of bringing the census statistics into line with those issued by the Departments concerned.


Previous to the recent census the whole subject was thoroughly reconsidered in consultation with the other Government Departments concerned, as well as with unofficial advisers; but having in view the importance of continuity, no serious modification of the classification of occupations adopted in 1901, and considered to have proved satisfactory, was found to be practicable, nor indeed advisable. Such changes as. were made were mainly in the direction of sub-dividing some of the headings, and providing for occupations of recent growth; altogether the number of separate headings in the tables, which was 347 in 1891 and 382 in 1901, has now been increased to 472.

No inquiry as to unemployment was made at this or at any previous census, and persons temporarily out of work on census day were on this occasion instructed in the schedule to state their usual occupation. Such persons have, therefore, been classified under the several occupational headings.

In one important respect, however, the inquiry in 1911 has been extended beyond that of former censuses. Hitherto only the personal occupation has been asked for, though from 1891 onwards a supplementary question as to status—i.e. , whether employer, working for an employer, or working on own account—had been added, and in 1901 persons carrying on trade or industry "at home" were required to state that fact also. The census classification based on these returns of personal occupation has related partly to definite personal occupations which may be common to several different industries, and partly to industries which may comprise many distinct occupations. Thus, clerks, messengers, porters, carmen, and engine drivers or stokers, who are engaged in occupations which are of very similar character in the many industries with which they may be connected, are classified according to their personal occupations; in most other cases persons are classified according to the manufacture, trade, or service with which they are connected, although some of the larger industries are sub-divided in the tables to show the principal personal occupations in those industries.

Both the personal and industrial classifications of occupations have their particular uses, the former being useful especially in connexion with questions of vital statistics and the latter in connexion with questions of economics. The classification which has been evolved in this country combines both these objects, but fulfils neither of them completely. At the censuses 1851-1871 the industrial classification was more closely followed than it has been from 1881 onwards, but it is quite certain that for a very large proportion of the workers following certain occupations common to many industries no statement was made in the schedule as to the industry with which they were connected, and the limited information derived from the single question as to occupation must be held to have given unsatisfactory returns both as to personal occupation and as to industry. This is clearly shown in the 1871 census tables by the numbers of clerks, carmen, messengers, and engine drivers, simply returned as such, but who, according to the rules in use at that date, should have been classified to the trade or manufacture with which they were connected. The large proportion which these numbers bore to the total engaged in these occupations is evident on comparison with the figures for 1881 and 1891, which were as follows:—

MALES. 1871. 1881. 1891.
Clerks (not Government, Army, Law, Bank,
     Insurance, Railway)
90,078 175,468 229,370
Carmen, Carriers, Carters, Wagoners (not Farm) 77,177 124,611 169,283
Messengers, Porters, Watchmen 94,109 129,561 175,553
Engine Drivers, Stokers, Firemen (not Railway,
     Marine, or Agricultural)
31,026 66,137 82,056

This consideration, no doubt, led to the alteration in the principle of classification in 1881, when personal occupation rather than industry was tabulated in certain cases.

Reasons have already been given (see page 12) for the opinion that, at least under existing conditions of enumeration, a purely occupational tabulation is impossible in England and Wales; but it has been found practicable at this census to secure consistently industrial tabulation by classifying the persons grouped under headings relating to personal occupations according to the industry or service with which they are connected, thus ascertaining the total numbers employed in various industries or groups of industries and services.

The two-fold information necessary for this double classification, by occupation and by industry, has been obtained by means of an additional column (Col. 11) on the schedule. The column in which occupation was to be entered related to "personal occupation" while for persons returned as working for an employer the industry or service with which they were connected, as indicated by the "nature of employer's business," was to be entered in the column provided for that purpose when this was not clearly shown by the description in the preceding column. By this means much better information has incidentally been obtained with regard to occupation, the addition of the industry often being useful in determining the nature of an imperfectly described occupation. In fact, the considerable reduction in the numbers returned under indefinite headings, such as "General Labourer," must be ascribed quite as much to the information supplied in the "industry". column as to improvement in the returns in the "occupation" column.


As at previous censuses, the first step in the process of tabulation was to train a staff of clerks in the responsible work of classification, and for this purpose each clerk was furnished with a book of instructions containing alphabetical and classified lists of occupational terms. This " dictionary " was based upon that used at the census of 1901, and its preparation involved a great deal of correspondence with large employers of labour and others, to whom we are much indebted for their willing co-operation in its compilation. The very extensive and detailed lists furnished by some of our correspondents were carefully digested and were embodied in the new issue of the dictionary, the revision of which was a laborious process, and resulted in a very considerable addition to the bulk of the volume.

The utility of this occupational dictionary, now containing upwards of 30,000 different terms by which the people of this country describe their occupations, is, however, not limited to the primary purpose for which it has been designed" It has, for instance, been found useful by the Board of Trade, copies having been supplied to that Department for disposal among the Labour Exchanges, which by this means were enabled to co-ordinate their returns with those of the census. With a view, therefore, to making the dictionary as widely accessible as possible, it has now been for the first time issued to the public as an appendix to the volumes of occupational statistics, and will permit anyone studying the tables to see exactly how they have been compiled and what, are the exact contents of the more composite headings in the census classification. It is hoped, also, that the publication of the dictionary may lead to increased interest in the classification, and that it may elicit suggestions for its improvement on a future occasion.

While, however, the preliminaries to the tabulation have not been materially altered at this census, the actual processes have been entirely changed in order to admit of greater detail in the tabulation. We have already referred in the preceding section of this Report (see page 59) to the increased detail in the published statistics of Ages rendered possible by the adoption of the system of tabulation by means of perforated cards which are sorted and counted by automatic electrical machinery, as described on pages 259 to 262.

The limitations of the old system of "ticking" were nowhere more severely felt than in dealing with occupations. The number of classified headings to be tabulated in relation to age and occupational status necessitated the use of an unusually large abstract sheet, which rendered the work of abstraction very laborious and increased the liability to error. It was considered, indeed, that no further extension of the particulars to be tabulated could be made with safety under the ticking system, and that the demands for additional details could only be met by the adoption of improved methods of tabulation. We have already referred to some of the additional details appearing in the tables at this census, viz., the increased number of classified headings, and the industrial analysis. Some other new features may now be briefly indicated.

One of the most important questions in regard to occupations is the employment of young persons, and in order to afford the fullest possible information on this subject, we have tabulated the ages of males and females in each occupation by single years from 10 to 21. This has involved a considerable extension of the work, but in view of the representations made to us by other government departments and by public bodies, we believe it to be fully justified.

The marital condition of occupied persons is another subject on which we have been enabled by the mechanical system of tabulation to give fuller information than would have been possible under the old system. In 1901, unmarried women had, as already stated, for the first time, been distinguished in the occupation tables, but on the present occasion figures for married and for widowed women as well have been obtained. Married males are also now distinguished from the unmarried and widowed.

The numbers of persons carrying on trade or industry "at home" are now tabulated according to occupational status, i.e. , whether employer, working for employer, or working on own account, whereas formerly they were grouped under a single heading.

In order to compile the detailed tables published for large aggregates of population, it was necessary to record the facts in the same detail for much smaller areas than the few for which they can be published in this form, and similarly in other cases tabulation has had to be carried out in greater detail than could be shown for populations of the size so tabulated. Many of the particulars which it has been found impracticable to publish may be of interest to Local Authorities and others concerned with the areas so dealt with. They are available in the form of manuscript records, copies of which can be furnished, at a nominal cost, under the provisions of section 9 of the Census Act. Thus, for instance, full particulars as published for England and Wales can be supplied for each Administrative County, County Borough, and other Urban District of over 50,000 population, and for the Urban or Rural aggregates in each county, and the full list of occupations— distinguishing married males, and unmarried, married, and widowed females, but without age-distribution—for all Urban Districts of 5,000 population or upwards.


In the Report on the Census of 1901 (page 89) attention was directed to the fact that the numbers classed under any occupational heading at successive censuses are affected by

"(1) Changes in the method of classification at the Census Office;
"(2) Changes in the mode of filling up the schedules, and
"(3) Actual changes in the numbers of people following an occupation."

To these must now be added two further considerations, viz.:—

(4) Changes in the form of the schedule, and
(5) Changes in the method of tabulation.

A list of the changes of the first kind is set out in Table 63 of the Summary Volume, where the headings adopted for the present census are compared with those adopted in 1901, and with a view to facilitating comparison of the numbers under the several headings, the figures for the four censuses 1881 to 1911 are given in Table 64.

As regards changes of the second kind, it has been the experience in the past that the schedules are more correctly filled up at each successive census, and the numbers included under indefinite occupational headings tend to be reduced by transfers to definite headings as the result of better information. The changes of the fourth and fifth kinds have also a similar effect. The addition to the schedule of a column for the industry or service with which the worker is connected, has, as already stated (page 98), led to improvement in the occupational classification, and it is believed that the revision of the instructions on the schedule has also been of assistance. As regards the changes in the method of tabulation, the fact that the classification 011 this occasion was made direct from the schedules, instead of, as formerly, from copies made by the enumerators, has also contributed to more accurate results by the elimination of errors and omissions in the copying process.

As a result of the improvements referred to, a great reduction has been brought about under some of the most indefinite headings in the list of occupations. Thus, warehousemen have been reduced by 34 per cent, as compared with the census of 1901; contractors, manufacturers, managers, superintendents, foremen, by 5 per cent.; general labourers by 28 per cent, (from 409,773 males to 295,343); artizans, mechanics, apprentices (undefined) by 40 per cent.; factory hands by 67 per cent., and machinists, machine workers by no less than 75 per cent.

Another consideration to be borne in mind in drawing comparisons between the figures for 1901 and those for 1911 is the absence from England at the former census of an abnormally large number of men owing to the South African War and the consequent understatement of the numbers engaged in those occupations from which these men were temporarily withdrawn; and further it should be noted that the age-constitution of the whole population changed appreciably between the two censuses, the proportion of males included in each age-group decreasing up to age 25, and of females to 35, while at higher ages these proportions increased.

Comparisons of the numbers at successive censuses in any area, and especially in the Urban Districts, must be made with caution, owing (1) to the numerous changes of boundaries that have taken place from time to time, and (2) to the fact that the numbers represent persons residing in a particular area and not persons who are actually working in that area. As regards (1) no fewer than 44 new Urban Districts were created, and 112 out of the total of 1,137 were altered in area between 1901 and 1911; these changes affected Rural Districts to a large extent, and, in the case of the 20 County Boroughs which were created or extended, reduced the areas of the Administrative Counties. As regards (2) it is inadvisable to compare the figures for London, for example, at different periods, without reference to the figures for the adjacent areas into which the population has overflowed.

I, General or Local Government of the Country. —The persons classified under the First Order as engaged in or in connexion with the General or Local Government of the Country numbered 299,599, of whom 248,624 were males and 50,975 females. Excluding 4,245 males and 6,093 females under the new heading" Post Office—Telegraphists, Telephone Operators," which was previously included in "Telegraph, Telephone—Service" (Order VI.), there were 244,379 males and 44,882 females, compared with 171,687 males and 26,500 females in 1901, the figures showing an increase of 46.0 per cent, in the total, or 42.3 per cent, for males and 69.4 for females.


Of the total civil servants (140,814 males and 31,5.38 females) nearly three-fourths are postal employees. These workers, now for the first time shown separately, might be regarded as belonging more properly to Order VI., the transport services, than to the government of the country. They have, however, always hitherto been treated as part of the civil service, and as administrative duties are being more and more added to the purely transport functions of the Post Office, it has been thought best to adhere to the previous practice. The figures exclude artizans and labourers, who are classified to their trades, and part-time employees, differing in both respects from those published by the Postmaster-General.

The numbers of civil servants have shown continuous increase in recent years, and have doubtless been largely added to, as a result of recent legislation, since the date of the census. The increases between the censuses of 1881 and 1911 will be seen from the following table:—


Additional Workers in Government Employment. —In addition to the 140,814 males and 31,538 females who are classified in the occupation tables under the sub-order "National Government" no fewer than 74,296 males and 2,551 females employed in the service of the government are classified in the occupation tables under the various headings appropriate to the kind of work on which they were engaged. These additional workers were not performing administrative or clerical duties, but were mostly employed either in government manufacturing establishments or in the maintenance of government property. With these additions the total number of persons employed in the service of the national government, excluding the army and navy, was 249,199, of whom 215,110 were males and 34,089 were females.


Police. —The police numbered 53,160, or 18.4 per cent, more than in 1901, when the number enumerated was 44,904. In 1911 there was one policeman to every 679 of the population, as against one to every 724 in 1901. The increase was very general throughout the country. In London, where there was one policeman in 1911 to every 318 persons, the increase amounted to 184 per cent., notwithstanding the decrease in population.

Poor Law, Municipal, Parish and other Local or County Officers. —The heading "Municipal, Parish, and other Local or County Officers" in the occupational classification of previous censuses has at this census been divided so as to show separately the persons engaged in "Poor Law Service" of whom there were 30,861 (13,030 males and 17,831 females), as against 43,226 persons (41,620 males and 1,606 females) in the service of other local public bodies. The following table shows how the numbers engaged in municipal and poor law service have increased at recent successive censuses:—

  1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. Increase per cent.
1881 to
1891 to
1901 to
Persons 20,985 24,930 36,870 74,087 18.8 47.9 100.9
Males 17,968 19,765 26,444 54,650 10.0 33.8 106.7
Females 3,017 5,165 10,426 19,437 71.2 101.9 86.4

It should be mentioned that these figures include the administrative staff, and the office staff in municipal undertakings other than tramways and docks; they do not include artizans, labourers, and other workers for whom separate headings are provided in the classification. The increase is doubtless largely due to the development of the activities, industrial and otherwise, of public authorities, and the consequent demand for more clerical assistance, but part of it may be due to the better information contained on the schedule owing to the introduction of Column 11, which enabled it to be seen, for the first time, when a clerk engaged in gas, water, or electricity supply service was in the employ of a municipality.

So numerous are the activities of Local Authorities at the present time outside the sphere of local government, that when the numbers employed in any capacity by all Local Authorities are aggregated, the total reaches no less than 588,951 persons. Of these 412,501 were males an-d 176,450 females, made up as follows:—

      Persons. Males. Females.
Police { in occupation tables 53,160 53,160 -
additional workers* 461 183 278
Poor Law { in occupation tables 30,861 13,030 17,831
additional workers* 2,692 2,589 103
Other Local Government Employees { in occupation tables 43,226 41,620 1,606
additional workers* 458,551 301,919 156,632
  588,951 412,501 176,450

The "additional workers" include educational, transport, gas, water, and electricity, sanitary, and other employees.

II. Defence of the Country .—The total number of males returned as "Officers or Men of the Army, Navy, or Marines," enumerated in England and Wales, was 205,817.

The number returned as officers of the army was 16,206, of whom 7,921 were classified as "retired," and the number returned as "soldiers and non-commissioned officers" was 104,231. It is probable, however, that the census figures include as "effective" some officers who should have been returned as "retired," as well as some soldiers who had left the army but were not following any occupation at the date of the census, for the numbers are in excess of those returned as on the regimental strength of the army in this country on the 30th September, 1911, as shown in the General Annual Report on the British Army for the year ending on that date. From the ordinary enumeration in the United Kingdom and from returns of the army abroad, furnished by the Military Authorities, it appears that the total strength of all ranks in active service at home and abroad at the date of the census was 264,041. This number shows a very large decrease from that returned in 1901 (which, however, was quite abnormal), and corresponds more nearly with the 222,859 returned ten years earlier. From the Report referred to above it appears that the occupations furnishing the largest numbers of recruits to the army were agricultural labourers, carmen, coal miners, domestic servants, shop assistants, clerks, porters, and builders' labourers. This fact is of importance in connexion with the age-distribution of some of the occupations.

The number of officers, men and boys of the navy enumerated in England and Wales was (exclusive of the 2,110 officers classified as " retired ") 72,341; and of the officers and men of the marines (exclusive of 174 retired officers), 10,755. The total number in the navy and marines, whether at home or abroad, derived from returns which the Admiralty has enabled us to obtain, was 130,575, and shows an increase of more than 19 per cent, over the number returned in 1901, and of 96 per cent, over the total in 1891.

III. Professional Occupations and their Subordinate Services .—The Third Order, which relates to Professional Occupations and their Subordinate Services, has a total of 714,621 (367,578 males and 347,043 females), or 108,361 (55,960 males and 52,401 females) more than in 1901. little value for statistical purposes can, however, be attached to the Order considered as a whole, having regard to the dissimilarity of the professional occupations which it comprises and to the fact that assistants and subordinates who would not ordinarily be regarded as professional persons are included. In addition to the assistants and subordinates classified in this. Order, there were also the "additional workers" shown by the tabulation of industry or service from the particulars furnished in column 11 of the schedule, of whom the doctor's chauffeur may be quoted as a typical example. It is probable, however, that these particulars were returned less fully in the case of persons employed in connexion with professional services than in the case of those employed either by public bodies or in connexion with trade or industry, as the question appears to have been held by some people not to relate to the professions.

Clerical Profession. —Clergymen of the Established Church, including, for purposes of comparison, the 941 who in 1911 were classed as retired, declined from 25,235m 1901 to 24,859 in 1911, or by T5 per cent. Comparison of the numbers at the different age-periods shows a considerable decrease at the ages 25-45, and a somewhat smaller increase at age-groups from 45 upwards. This alteration of the age-constitution necessarily results from the falling-oil in the numbers entering the profession, the increased proportion at the higher ages representing the survivors of the more numerous entrants in previous years.

Roman Catholic Priests, on the other hand, have increased from 2,849 to 3,302, or by 15.9 per cent., but nearly half of this increase is due to the greater number of foreign-born priests, who numbered only 277 in 1901, against 492 in 1911; the majority of the latter number coming from France. Ministers and priests of other religious bodies increased by 3.5 per cent., their number being 11,981, against 11,572 in 1901. The clergy of the Established Church are, speaking generally, most numerous in comparison with those of other bodies in the agricultural counties of England, and least so in the mining and manufacturing counties. Taken together the figures for clergymen (including the retired), priests and ministers of all denominations, show a slight increase from 39,656 to 40,142, or 1-2 per cent., the rates of increase in the two previous decennia having been 9-9 and 8-4 per cent, respectively.

Legal Profession. —Barristers numbered 4,121 and Solicitors 17,259, or together 21,380, compared with 20,998 in 1901. While, however, the total has altered but little, its distribution over the various age-groups has changed remarkably; here, as in the case of clergymen, a decline in the number of entrants to the profession is reflected in decreased numbers under 45 years. The Law Clerks, who between 1891 and 1901 had increased by 25'0 per cent., have since increased by only 5:3 per cent., from 34,433 to 36,265. Among the males the increase was negligible, but the number of females advanced from 367 to 2,159. In all age-groups under 35- the numbers of males have decreased, but from 15- upwards the decrease has been more than counterbalanced by increase of females.

Medical Profession, —The persons returned as Physicians, Surgeons, or Registered Practitioners numbered 23,469. Including the 1,579 classed as retired in 1911, in order to make the figures comparable with 1901, there were 25,048 (of whom 495 were women), against 22,698 (of whom 212 were women), the increase in the total being 10.4 per cent., against 19'2 per cent, in 1891-1901. The figures for the males at different ages exhibit the same features as have been observed among clergymen and solicitors—considerable decrease in numbers at the earlier ages, and an increased proportion of those who had attained age 45-55 or over. Practitioners shown in the industry tables as engaged in hospital, institution, Local Authority, and other services numbered 2,546 males and 132 females.

Under the heading "Dentists (including assistants)" there were classified 7,674 persons (7,424 males and 250 females), as against 5,309 persons (5,169 males and 140 females) in 1901, which would indicate an increase of 44.5 per cent. Lack of precision in filling up the schedule may, however, affect the figures for purposes of comparison, as the returns at each census have included a number of assistants and apprentices who, had their description been more definite, would have been classified under the heading "Surgical and Dental Instrument and Apparatus Makers" in Order XI., along with artificial tooth makers, dental apparatus makers, and dental mechanics.

The persons classed as Veterinary Surgeons numbered 2,612, or 329 fewer than in 1901. The rate of decline, 11.2 per cent., which these figures show, is, however, understated, as at the time of the census of 1901 a number of men who ordinarily would have been employed at home were serving in South Africa. At ages under 35 the numbers given in the tables were nearly 40 per cent, less than in 1901, but above that age there was a slight increase, the age-distribution showing in a marked degree the effects of diminished rate of entry similar to those already noted in the case of the clerical, legal, and medical professions.

The number of Midwives, which had been 2,646 in 1881, and 3,055 in 1901, further rose to 6,602 in 1911. Doubtless many women who practised midwifery were formerly entered as nurses, but now, since they have a definite qualification and can only act if registered under the Midwives Act, 1902, are returned as midwives. Such transfer is also probably indicated by the apparent decline in the recorded numbers of married or widowed nurses, the unmarried showing a considerable increase. Thus, while the total females returned as sick nurses, invalid attendants, increased from 64,214 to 77,060, or 20.0 per cent., the married or widowed decreased from 27,357 to 22,857, or 16'4 per cent. Midwives and female sick nurses and invalid attendants together increased by 24.4 per cent., the increase among the unmarried being 48.6 per cent., while the married or widowed decreased by 5.6 per cent. Only 1,257 males were returned as sick nurses, against 1,092 in 1901.

Teaching Profession. —The number of School Masters and Mistresses, Teachers, Professors and Lecturers employed in education of all grades (exclusive of teachers of music, who are classed with musicians) was 251,968, of whom 183,298 were females, and of these 48,138 males and 127,718 females were stated to be in the service of local educational authorities. In 1901 the number of teachers was 230,345, of whom 171,670 were females; there has thus been an apparent increase of 17.0 per cent, among males and of 6-8 per cent, among females. These figures, however, considerably understate the increase which has occurred, and is better represented by the growth of the numbers aged 20 years and upwards, 30.4 per cent, for males and 33'6 for females. Under this age the numbers show a great decline owing to changes in the method of entry into the profession.

At the census of 1871, which practically coincided with the introduction of compulsory elementary education, there were on the average 67 persons living at ages from 3 to 20 years to every teacher enumerated. At successive censuses since, there have been respectively 58, 56, 50, and 48.

Literary, Scientific and Political.— Under this heading are included 12,030 males and 1,756 females who were classed as "Authors, Editors, Journalists, Reporters"; 6,246 males and 145 females as "engaged in Scientific Pursuits"; and 7,223 males and 3,788 females as "Others connected with Literature, etc." (including political society service). There has been an increase since 1901 among the authors, etc., amounting to 22-6 per cent, for males and 40-6 per cent, for females, nearly all of which has occurred at ages above 35 years; about one-half of the males and two-thirds of the females were enumerated in London or the adjoining counties.

The "persons engaged in scientific pursuits" were apparently almost double the number so classified in 1901.

Engineers and Surveyors.—The Civil and Mining Engineers numbered 7,208, and the Land, House, or Ship Surveyors, 4,029. These numbers are considerably below those shown for 1901, but comparison cannot fairly be made owing to the number of cases in which the additional information now given for the first time in the "industry" column of the schedules has enabled many of the mining engineers to be more properly classified with other officials to the headings for "Mine and Quarry Owners, Agents, Managers." Better information has also shown a number of "Surveyors" to be more appropriately classed as auctioneers in Order V.

Art, Music, Drama. —The numbers included in this sub-order rose from 102,305 in 1901 to 125,006 in 1911, being an increase of 22.2 per cent.; among males the rate of increase was rather greater than among females—22-9 and 21.0 per cent, respectively. "Painters, Sculptors, and Artists" numbered 11,619; and "Engravers," classed along with them in 1901, 5,110, Putting the two headings together, the numbers appear to have increased from 13,949 to 16,729, but the real increase is probably greater than this on account of the inclusion in the former number of many persons who were classified to this heading because they were returned too indefinitely to allow of their being properly classified according to the industrial nature of their occupation. The persons tabulated as architects have decreased from 10,781 in 1901 to 8,921 in 1911, but the decline is accounted for by the transfer of draughtsmen and other assistants (2,215 males and 9 females) to the heading "Art, Music, Theatre —Service."

The increase in the number of persons earning a livelihood as public entertainers is one of the most striking features of the occupational tabulation. The number of "Musicians, Music Masters, and Singers," however, only rose from 43,249 in 1901 to 47,116 in 1911, the increase being at the rate of 10-9 per cent, among males, and only 7-2 per cent, among females; in the former sex there was an actual decrease of over 900 below 35 years of age, and in the latter of over 1,200 below 25. years of age, while above these ages the numbers increased by about 3,200 and 2,800 respectively. The number of foreigners under this heading declined from 2,440 to 2,228. Actors increased from 6,044 to 9,076, and actresses from 6,443 to 9,171, the rate of increase for the two sexes together being 46-1 per cent, in 1901-1911, against 70-6 per cent, in 1891-1901. In the subordinate services connected with art, music, and theatres the numbers shown in the tables have risen from 6,840 to 17,078, a good proportion of this large increase being due to the introduction and development of "picture palaces"; the increase under this heading is understated owing to the transfer of "organ grinders" to Order XXII., the number of Italians in art service being, mainly in consequence of the transfer, reduced from 1,348 in 1901 to 42 in 1911. "Exhibitions, Games, etc. Service" includes the performers, showmen, and other persons (except actors and musicians) engaged in exhibitions and music halls, persons engaged in racecourse service, sports ground service, and professionals and attendants in various games. In 1901 the numbers were 12,516 males and 948 females, and they rose in 1911 to 28,194 males and 4,021 females.

By means of the tabulation of industry or service an attempt has been made to show separately the numbers engaged in (1) theatres, (2) music halls and variety theatres, and (3) picture theatres. The total numbers employed in theatres were 14,989 males and 9,312 females; of these, 5,863 males and 6,726 females were classed as "Actors," and 5,295 males and 1,709 females under the heading "Art, Music, Theatre—Service." The total numbers employed in music halls were 6,497 males and 3,271 females, and in picture theatres, 4,301 males and 905 females.

IV. Domestic and other allied Services. —The number of persons classified in this Order was 2,121,717, of whom 387,677 were males and 1,734,040 females. These numbers include persons engaged in (1) domestic indoor service, whether in private families, in business establishments, or in hotels, lodging houses, etc., (2) domestic outdoor service, and (3) other allied services.

Certain changes in the scheme of tabulation, set forth in Vol. X. (Part I., pp. xxiv, and 525), have to a certain extent affected the comparability of these figures with those derived from the previous enumeration, but the following statement of totals in 1901 and 1911 for the three sub-orders, including "Bay Girls, Day Servants" in the first for purposes of comparison, probably conveys a substantially correct impression of the facts. The decrease in the number of male domestic indoor servants may be accounted for largely by change in classification involving transfer to hotel, etc. service.

1901 1911 Increase
per cent.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons.
1. Domestic Indoor Ser-
         vice (including Day
1,394,929 64,146 1,330,783 1,413,619 54,260 1,359,359 1.3
2. Domestic Outdoor
179,968 179,932 36 226,370 226,266 104 25.8
3. Other Service 420,020 60,117 359,903 481,728 107,151 374,577 14.7
Total 1,994,917 304,195 1,690,722 2,121,717 387,677 1,734,040 6.4

The average number of persons per family had declined from 4.62 in 1901 to 4.51 in 1911, and it was, therefore, to be anticipated that on this account the proportion of servants per 1,000 families would have tended to decrease. The following figures show that not only is this the case, but that there has also been an appreciable decrease per 1,000 population:—

  1881 1901 1911
Families or Separate Occupiers 5,633,192 7,036,868 8,005,29
Population 25,974,439 32,527,843 36,070,492
Females Domestic Indoor Servants 1,230,406 1,330,783 1,359,359
Female Domestic Indoor Servants per 1,000 Families 218 189 170
Female Domestic Indoor Servants per 1,000 Population 47 41 38

Of the 1,335,358 female domestic servants other than "day girls," 63,368 were employed in hotels, lodging houses, etc., and 12,164 in shops, schools, and similar establishments other than private families. The remaining 1,259,826 represent as closely as it can be ascertained the number in private domestic employment, though it is probable that some even of them, e.g. , in the case of servants in farm houses, were not wholly so employed. Increasing disinclination on the part of young women to enter indoor domestic service may perhaps be inferred from the fact that at all ages up to 25 the numbers have declined as compared with 1901, while at all higher ages they have increased. This decline, however, so far as ages 15-25 are concerned, is limited to the urban districts, the rural areas showing small increases at these ages, which, of course, are from this point of view of primary importance. The rural districts, moreover, show an increase of 5.5 per cent, in the total number of servants since 1901, as against 1.0 per cent, only in the urban districts. These facts are probably connected with the movement of the servant-keeping classes to the outer margins of large centres of population, which has been so marked a feature of the decade. In the urban districts the proportion of servants fell from 39 per 1,000 total population in 1901 to 36 in 1911, whereas in the rural districts it remained stationary at 45 per 1,000.

As might be expected, the residential counties, headed by Surrey, Sussex, and Berkshire, show the highest proportion of servants, and the same holds good of the towns, Hampstead, Kensington, and Weybridge heading the list. Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire returned lower proportions than any other county.

In Domestic Outdoor Service there were 226,370 persons, of whom 104 were females, The males were classified as follows in 1911, the numbers under the corresponding headings in 1901, except in the case of motor car drivers, who were not previously distinguished, being given for comparison:—

  1901 1911
Domestic Coachmen, Grooms 75,355 67,228
Domestic Motor Car—Drivers, Attendants - 23,151
Domestic Gardeners 87,900 118,739
Gamekeepers 16,677 17,148

The decrease recorded for domestic coachmen and grooms would appear to be unduly low (10-8 per cent.), compared with that recorded for non-domestic coachmen, etc. (33-6 per cent.), and suggests that there has been some transfer—probably owing to better returns at the later census—from the non-domestic to the domestic heading. The total number of motor vehicle drivers, whether in domestic service or not, was only 623 in 1901, but had risen in 1911 to 45,943, of whom 23,151 were classified as domestic; it is very probable, however, that the latter number is somewhat understated owing to the fact that only drivers stated to be in domestic service have been tabulated under this heading (see also page 111), and in view of the fact that the number of motor car licences issued during the year ending 31st March, 1911, was 95,015, it seems probable that this understatement may be considerable. If we examine the returns for a single section of the motoring population by way of illustration, it seems almost inconceivable that in 1911 only 741 chauffeurs, etc., were employed by medical practitioners, and only 42 by the whole of the profession in London (Vol. X., Part I., p. 600).

The increase of 35 per cent, shown in the number of domestic gardeners, probably due largely to increased interest in gardening, may also be due in part to more accurate statement than in 1901, whereby the domestic nature of the occupation is distinguished in a larger proportion of cases. Non-domestic gardeners have not increased in anything like the same degree.

In the third sub-order, "Other Service" the numbers under the several headings, excluding "Day Girls, Day Servants," were as follows:—

1901 1911
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
College, Club—Service 8,445 6,765 1,680 14,554 11,207 3,347
Hospital, Institution (not Poor
          Law), and Benevolent Society
36,994 10,653 26,341 59,033 17,394 41,639
Park, Lodge, Gate, etc.—Keepers } 30,604 17,290 13,314{ 2,300 1,897 403
Caretakers, Office Keepers 39,901 21,671 18,230
Cooks (not Domestic) 15,515 6,900 8,615 23,874 10,336 13,538
Charwomen 111,841 111,841 126,061 126,061
Laundry Workers; Washers,
          Ironers, Manglers, etc.
205,015 8,874 196,141 179,516 12,464 167,052
Bath and Wash-house Service } 11,606 9,635 1,971{ 3,565 2,366 1,199
Others engaged in Service 32,924 29,816 3,108

The great increase—63.3 per cent, for males and 58.1 per cent, for females— in domestics employed in hospital, institution, etc. service followed similar increases of 53.2 and 69.9 per cent, in 1901, and of 62.8 and 34.5 per cent, in 1891. These figures which are exclusive of the poor law service, show how great and continued has been the development of institutions for the care of the sick and for other objects. The total number of persons employed, including nurses, surgeons, teachers, mechanics, etc., as well as the 59,033 domestics, is shown in the industry tables to have been 89,965.

Charwomen numbered 126,061, an increase of 12.7 per cent, upon the number enumerated in 1901, against an increase of only 6.7 per cent, between 1891 and 1901. The unmarried women so employed increased from 20,378 in 1901 to 26 900 in 1911, or by only 6.0 per cent., while the married or widowed increased from 86,463 to 99,161, or by 14.7 per cent., the number of widows at the latter census being 61,720, or nearly half the total.

"Laundry Workers; Washers, Ironers, Manglers, etc.," form by far the most numerous class in the sub-order. They numbered 179,516 (12,464 males and 167,052 females), compared with 205,015 (8,874 males and 196,141 females) in 1901; thus the males increased by 40-5 per cent., while the females declined by 14-8 per cent., and the net decline in the total was equal to 12'4 per cent. The striking decline in the number of women workers and the displacement of female by male labour are associated with the reduction in the numbers working in small hand laundries, in the houses of private employers, or in their own homes, which has resulted from improved organisation of laundries and the extended use of machinery. This is indicated also by a considerable fall in the proportion of laundry workers returned as working at home. As a result, doubtless, of the change in the organisation of the industry, the proportion of young women and of unmarried women among the female workers has largely increased.

V. Commercial Occupations .—Under the Fifth Order there were enumerated 790,163 persons, of whom 663,316 were males and 126,847 females. "Merchants" are classed to this Order only when they are described simply by the country with which they trade, or when the commodities in which they deal are unspecified, and "Salesmen and Buyers" only when they are so indefinitely returned that they cannot be classified to any of the Orders IX. to XXII. in accordance with the nature of their business. Excluding the numbers under these two indefinite headings, the increase in this Order was from 583,016 to 783,223, or at the rate of 34.3 per cent., the males having risen from 523,639 to 656,617, or by 25.4 per cent., and the females from 59,377 to 126,606, or by 113-2 per cent.; the corresponding increases between 1891 and 1901 were 44-6 per cent, for persons, 36-6 per cent, for males and 200-2 for females. These increases are very much in excess of those met with in the case of the directly productive occupations,

Commercial Travellers increased from 64,322 in 1901 to 86,495 in 1911, or by no less than 34.5 per cent. The numbers were probably swollen at both, censuses by the inevitable inclusion of some members of the "hawker" class, but there is some evidence that this occurred to a less extent at the later date, and that the real increase in Commercial Travellers is therefore somewhat understated. The industries with which the male commercial travellers for whom the information was available were connected were as follows:—


Commercial or Business Clerks. —These numbered 477,535, of whom 360,478 were males and 117,057 females. The numbers, especially of males, would have been higher had not column 11 of the schedule enabled us to classify many clerks in banks, insurance offices, poor law and municipal service, etc. to the service in which they were engaged. As it is, the clerks show an increase of 31-3 per cent. (17.1 per cent, for males and 109.8 per cent, for females) upon the numbers returned under this heading in 1901. Between 1891 and 1901 the total increased by 47.1 per cent. the males by 34.2 per cent., while the females more than trebled in number. The ratio of female to male clerks, which was 7.8 per cent, in 1891, and 18-1 per cent in 1901, rose to 32.5 per cent, in 1911. The proportion of foreign clerks has remained stationary; in 1901 there were 5,195 male foreigners in this occupation, and iix 1911, 6,171, the ratio to the total males being 1.7 per cent, at each census.

The increase of male clerks since 1901 has been much greater proportionately at the higher ages, whence it may perhaps be inferred that the great increase in the number of females employed has tended rather to keep out young males who would, otherwise have entered the occupation than to replace males already so employed. The average age of male clerks is low in comparison with other occupations. Evidently many rise to higher things.

The increase in the number of clerks—much greater than in that engaged in most directly productive occupations—is the more remarkable in view of the great development of labour-saving devices in office routine.


Banking. —The Bankers, Bank Officials and Clerks increased from 30,292 to 40,379 or by 33.3 per cent.; female clerks are employed only to a small extent in banks "but their numbers increased from 223 to 476 between the two censuses.

Insurance. —Persons engaged in Life, House, Ship, etc. Insurance are distinguished in the tables as "Officials, Clerks, etc. and as "Agents"; the former were twice as numerous as in 1901, having increased from 21,961 to 45,897, while the latter increased from 34,427 to 54,031, or by 56-9 per cent. The clerks included 4,031 females in 1911, against 931 in 1901; and the agents, 595 and 244 respectively.

Grouping together all clerks in this Order, no fewer than 243,405 (186,643 males and 5O,762 females) out of a total of 563,811 (442,247 males and 121,564 females) were enumerated in London and the adjoining counties; and in this area they were in the proportion of 27-4 per 1,000 of the population, against 11.8 per 1,000 in the rest of England and Wales. The total number of clerks cannot be stated with any precision, because in many instances it is impossible to differentiate them from other workers, especially administrative officials. A rough approximation to the total may, however, be obtained by combining the principal headings under which clerks form the main body of the workers, viz.:—

  Males Females (1) Civil Service Officers and Clerks 61,213 22,034 (2) Municipal, Parish., etc. Officers 41,620 1,606 (3) Law Clerks 34,106 2,159 (4) Commercial or Business Clerks 360,478 117,057 (5) Bankers; Bank—Officials, Clerks 39,903 476 (6) Insurance Officials and Clerks 41,866 4,031 (7) Railway Officials and Clerks 84,802 1,120   663,988 148,483

In addition to the numbers included under the Fifth Order, many dealers in various commodities are grouped under the articles in which they deal. This is done because of the impossibility in many instances of distinguishing between dealers and makers. A table in Vol. X (Part I., page xxxvi.) singles out and groups dealers as far as possible, distinguishing the various commodities dealt in. It shows that, including only the Merchants, Salesmen and Buyers (commodity undefined) of the Fifth Order, the total number of males dealers amounted to 1,224,215 and of females to 570,566, or 23.8 and 54.2 per cent. respectively more than in 1901. The large increase in the case of females is in part artificial, greater completeness of statement having been obtained in the case of female relatives assisting in businesses.

VI. Conveyance of Men, Goods, and Messages. —The Sixth Order comprised an aggregate of 1,423,868 persons (1,399,394 males and 24,474 females), classified under the five sub-orders: (1) on Railways, (2) on Roads, (3) on Seas, Rivers, and Canals, (4) in Bocks, Harbours, and Lighthouses, and (5) in Storage, Porterage and Messages. In 1901 the total number of persons in this Order was 1,267,825 (1249000 males and 18,825 females), but this total included Post Office Telegraphists and Telephone Operators, who, in 1911, were included in Order I and numbered 4 245 males and 6,093 females; including these for the purpose of comparison, there has been an increase of 13.1 per cent., or 12.4 per cent, among males and 624 per cent, among females.

On Railways.— There were classified to this sub -order 400,626 persons (of whom only 2,636 were females), compared with 353,352 persons (of whom 1,441 were females) in 1901, the increase being equal to 134 per cent., as against an increase of 6.3 per cent, in miles of line open for traffic, and of 20-4 per cent, in total gross receipts. By excluding "Platelayers, Gangers, Packers, and Railway Labourers," a comparison of the numbers employed at each census from 1851 onwards can be made; the figures are as follows:—

Census Year. Numbers
per cent.
Census Year. Numbers
per cent.
1851* 25,236 1891 186,774 34.0
1861* 53,542 112.2 1901 276,930 48.3
1871* 84,900 58.6 1911 323,307 16.7
1881 139,408 64.2

* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

Notwithstanding the substantial increase of 16.7 per cent, in the numbers employed, there has been a diminution in the numbers of the younger employees, among officials and clerks up to 20 and in other branches of the service up to 25. This result probably follows as a natural consequence of the very much more rapid increases of former periods, for the slackening in the demand for fresh labour would be met rather by diminishing the number of youths entering the service than by discharging men already entered.

The occupational headings relating to persons employed on railways do not of course, represent adequately the total number in the service of railway companies" The industry tables show that when all the railway employees following the various occupations connected with railway service are added, and all the railway workers who are employed in connexion with other industries or services are deducted the net total in railway companies' service is raised to 542,965 persons (535 795 males and 7,170 females). This total includes, in addition to the 451,263 males and 3,763 females shown as the grand total under the heading railways in the industry table, 84,532 males and 3,407 females who could, from the returns, be definitely assigned to the following industries not classified under railways in these tables, viz., 4:1,538 males and 24 females who were employed in railway companies' engineering works; 26,291 males and 510 females in railway companies' coach and Wagon building; 9,555 males and 18 females in railway companies' harbour dock,, wharf service; 4,115 males and 61 females in railway companies' shipping and navigation service, and 2,927 males and 2,971 females in railway companies' hotel and catering service.

On Roads. —The persons included in this sub-order numbered 474,815 in 1911 against: 431,651 in 1901, the increase in the ten years being 10.0 per cent. In order however, to arrive at the total numbers engaged in road traffic, it is necessary to add the coachmen, grooms, motor car drivers and attendants who are classed in Order IV. (Domestic Service). With the addition of these the numbers are raised to 565,195 in 1911, against 507,006 in 1901, and show an increase of only 11.5 per cent., as against that of 38-3 per cent, in the preceding ten years. Very few females are returned in these occupations, and in the following comparative statement the figures relate to males only:—

    1901   1911
Livery Stable Keepers; Coach, Cab—Proprietors   12,479   10,989
Motor Garage—Proprietors, Workers     3,776
Coachmen (not Domestic); Cabmen } 113,465 { 29,847
Horsekeepers, Grooms, Stablemen (not Domestic) 45,514
Domestic—Coachmen, Grooms   75,355   67,228
Domestic—Motor Car Drivers, Motor Car Attendants } 623 { 23,151
Motor Car Drivers (not Domestic); Motor Cab Drivers 15,487
Motor Van, etc. Drivers 4,456
Carmen, Carriers, Carters, Wagoners (not Farm) } 272,300 { 278,443
Van, etc.—Guards, Boys 16,835
Others connected with Carrying or Cartage 12,091
Omnibus Service   11,974   11,442
Tramway Service   18,172   41,488
Others on Roads   1,452   1,626
Total   505,820   562,373

It will be seen from the above table that the workers engaged wholly or largely in the horse transport of persons, whether for pleasure or otherwise, have greatly diminished in numbers, whereas the great class of carmen, etc., engaged upon the horse transport of goods, shows a moderate increase. No doubt, however, the change to mechanical transport, at first most manifest in the case of persons, has since the census date been largely extended to goods also.

The great increase in the numbers employed on the tramways is very striking, especially in conjunction with the slight shrinkage in number of omnibus employees. Here again, however, the direction of development since 1911 may prove to have been very different from that of the previous ten years.

The tabulation by industry enables us to ascertain the industries by which the very large body of carmen and motor van drivers were employed. It appears that of 163,540 carmen and 3,168 motor van drivers working for employers other than those primarily concerned with road transport, over 22,000 were employed by the railways, 16,000 by coal merchants, 13,000 in the brewing industry, 12,000 on building and works of construction, and nearly 11,000 by local government authorities.

On Seas, Rivers, and Canals, and in Docks, Harbours, etc. — The number of persons returned as engaged in Sea, River, and Canal Transport Service was 133,233, while 123,045 were employed in Docks, Harbours, etc., making a total of 256,278, against 232,420 in 1901, the increase being equal to 10.3 per cent. The changes since 1901 in the numbers following the occupations in this group are shown below; part of the increase in the number of Harbour, Dock, etc.—Officials and Servants may be due to more definite returns at the later census.

Occupations. 1901 1911 Increase (+)
or Decrease
(-) percent.
Merchant Seamen ; Pilots ; Boatmen on Seas 97,881 99,804 2.0
Bargemen, Lightermen, Watermen 30,180 28,197 -6.6
Navigation Service (on Shore) 4,210 5,232 24.3
                    On Seas, Rivers, and Canals 132,271 133,233 0.7
Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse—Officials and
11,517 20,406 77.2
Dock, Wharf—Labourers 88,632 102,639 15.8
                    In Docks, Harbours, etc. 100,149 123,045 22.9
                             Total 232,420 256,278 10.3

The very slight increase of 2 per cent, in the number of men employed in the merchant service who happened to be available for enumeration on census day corresponds to an increase of almost 12 per cent, in the number of seamen returned by the Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen as employed at the same date on trading vessels registered in the British Islands. It is natural that as port and dock facilities are increased, the proportion of its time spent in home waters by our active trading fleet should decrease, and with it the proportion of total seamen enumerated at the census.

The number of Messengers, Porters, Watchmen (not Railway or Government), which showed an increase of only 3.6 per cent, between 1891 and 1901, rose from 185,487 to 231,746, or by 24.9 per cent, in the succeeding ten years; the males increased by 23.6 per cent, and the comparatively small number of females by 75.1 per cent. At ages under 15 the boys increased by 4.5 per cent., while boys of the same ages in all occupations decreased by 12.4 per cent. Of the males at all ages in this occupation, no less than 73.2 per cent, were under 20, against 71.4 per cent, in 1901; the corresponding figures for females were 93.9 and 95.5 per cent. The number of males employed at 20.25 is little more than one-eighth of those aged 15-20, but between 25 and 55 the decline is very gradual, probably owing in some degree to the employment as porters, watchmen, etc., of men who had served in the army.

Of the 223,008 males classified as "Messengers, Porters, Watchmen," 179,729 are tabulated according to the business or profession in which they were employed. A large proportion of them were returned as working for shopkeepers, and in these cases the majority would be errand boys.

VII. Agriculture .—The number of persons classified under this Order as engaged in Agriculture (on Farms, Woods, and Gardens) was 1,235,237, of whom 1,140,515 were males and 94,722 females; in 1901 the numbers so classified were 1,128,604 persons (1,071,040 males and 57,564 females). It may be stated at once that the increase of 37,158 in the number of females is probably due almost entirely to the more complete return in 1911, owing to the revised instructions and examples on the schedule, of farmers' and graziers' daughters and other female relatives assisting in the work of the farm; under this heading the numbers rose from 18,618 to 56,856. The increase by 69,475 in the number of males returned as engaged in agriculture is so remarkable, having regard to the fact that each census since 1851 had shown a decline, as to raise the question whether it is not fictitious and attributable to some change in classification or difference in method of return rather than to an actual increase of agricultural employment. Some part of it is undoubtedly due to improvement in the returns enabling many of the labourers, who in default of information at previous censuses as to the nature of their work had necessarily to be classed as ''General Labourers" (Order XXII.), to be assigned to their proper heading as Agricultural Labourers; the extent of this transfer, as between 1901 and 1911, must, however, have been much less than the total reduction of 18,079 in the number classed as general labourers in the aggregate of the Rural Districts. A further possibility of error exists in the difficulty, which has always been found, in regard to the classification of domestic gardeners as distinct from other gardeners, and in the separation of carters and wagoners on farms from those ordinarily working on roads, but an examination of the rules for coding and of the figures under the respective headings has failed to reveal any change which would have the effect of increasing the numbers classified under agriculture.

The numbers returned under the several headings in 1901 and 1911 are given in the following table. The totals as they stand cannot fairly be compared with those for the earlier censuses, and in order to carry the comparison back to 1851 they must be modified by the inclusion of domestic gardeners, and by the exclusion of farmers' sons and other male relatives under 15 years, and of female relatives of all ages who were returned as assisting in the work of the farm, since the procedure adopted included more of these persons at some censuses than at others. Having regard to the wide differences in the nature of the employment of workers under the heading "Farm— Bailiffs, Foremen," and to the fact that many farmers' sons and other male relatives are performing the same duties as ordinary agricultural labourers, these men are included under the heading of "farm workers (employees)."


The numbers of males and females engaged in agriculture at each census 1851-1911, and the proportion per cent, of these numbers to the total population aged 10 years and upwards, are given below:—

Census Year. Males aged 10
years and upwards
engaged in
Proportion per
cent. of total
males aged 10
and upwards.
Females aged 10
years and upwards
engaged in
Proportion per
cent. of total
females aged 10
and upwards.
1851* 1,544,087 23.5 168,652 2.4
1861* 1,539,965 21.2 115,213 1.5
1871* 1,371,304 16.8 85,667 1.0
1881 1,288,173 13.8 64,216 0.6
1891 1,233,936 11.6 51,045 0.4
1901 1,153,185 9.5 38,782 0.3
1911 1,253,859 9.2 37,969 0.3

* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

Grouping the figures in this way, and so avoiding any risk of error through possible changes in the method of return of Gardeners and of Farmers' Relatives, the males increased from 1,153,185 in 1901 to 1,253,859 in 1911, or by 8.7 per cent.; in each previous intercensal period there had been a decline, amounting in 1891-1901 to 65 per cent., in 1881-91 to 4-2 per cent., in 1871-81 to 6.1 per cent., and in 1861-71 to no less than 11.0 per cent. Thus the rate of decrease from the period 1861-71 onwards shows a constant tendency to diminution, interrupted only at the period 1891-1901, when an appreciable proportion of the decrease shown may well be attributable to absence from this country of an abnormal number of agricultural workers owing to the South African War.1

The females included in the above table declined from 38,982 in 1901 to 37,969 in 1911, or by 2.6 per cent., compared with a decrease of 23.6 per cent, in 1891-1901; the figures are, however, open to the suspicion of possible overlapping between Farm Servants and Domestic Servants on Farms.

Confining comparison with previous censuses to male and female farmers and graziers and male farm workers (excluding farmers' relatives under 15 years of age) we have the following figures:—

Census Year. Farmers,
Total. Increase or
per cent.
Males. Females. Males.
1851* 226,515 22,916 1,232,576 1,482,007
1861* 226,957 22,778 1,206,280 1,456,015 -1.8
1871* 225,569 24,338 1,014,428 1,264,335 -13.2
1881 203,329 20,614 924,871 1,148,814 -9.1
1891 201,918 21,692 841,884 1,065,494 -7.3
1901 202,751 21,548 715,138? 939437 -11.8
1911 208,761 20,027 757,552? 986,340 5.0

* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the retired.
? For the numbers under the several headings in this group, see Table on page 113.

These figures show an increase in the number of persons returned as Farmers and Graziers from 224,299 in 1901 to 228,788 in 1911, or 2.0 per cent., and in the number of Male Farm Workers from 715,138 to 757,552, or 5.9 per cent., the increase on the whole group being 5.0 per cent. Even if it be assumed that improvement in the return, as indicated by the reduction of "General labourers," is responsible for a transfer of as many as 10,000 men from "General Labourer" to "Agricultural Labourer" (leaving only 8,000 out of the total 18,000 reduction under this heading, referred to on page 113, for transfer to other industries, such as mining, carried on in rural districts), and that the number withdrawn from agricultural labour owing to the war amounted to as much as 40,000, there would be but a very slight decrease (about 1 per cent.) compared with those recorded in the four preceding intercensal periods. In the case of agriculturists as a whole , whether on farms, woods, or gardens, it may be seen that even on the above assumptions there has been an actual as well as an apparent increase during the past intercensal period. The returns issued by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries of area under crops and head of live stock cannot be said to afford any definite confirmation of increased agricultural development since 1901. They show a reduction of 1.0 per cent, during the years in the total area under crops and grass, but arable land was reduced by 6.8 per cent. This latter figure, however, is represented almost entirely by clover and grasses under rotation, the reduction in corn crops, which would have much more effect upon the amount of labour required, being very slight. On the other hand, the live stock returns show increases in the ten years in all cases except that of horses, the increase in cows in milk or in calf amounting to 10.4 per cent. The development of fruit farming and market gardening, moreover, has probably contributed in some counties to the arrest in the decline of the number of persons classified as farm workers.

The males classified as Farmers or Graziers increased from 202,751 to 208,761 while the females decreased from 21,548 to 20,027; for the two sexes jointly the number increased from 224,299 to 228,788, or by 2.0 per cent.

At the youngest ages there was a very considerable drop in the numbers between 1901, suggesting that at the earlier census some relatives who were only the work of the farm were classed as "Farmers," and if such were the case the actual increase in the number of farmers in that period would be greater than the totals indicate. At the most advanced ages also the numbers have declined, the large decrease above 75 years of age between 1901 and 1911 being probably due to more complete returns of the "retired" at the later census. Between 25 and 35, and strain between 55 and 65, the numbers were almost stationary, and the substantial increase occurred between 35 and 55, the greater part of the increase occurring at 35-45 in the period 1891-1901, and at 45-55 in 1901-1911.

The male Farm Workers numbered altogether 762,947, against 720,893 in 1901, showed an increase of 5.8 per cent.

The numbers between the ages of 10 and 14 decreased from 18,457 in 1901 to 9,158 in 1911—part of the decrease being due to the smaller number returned as farmers. relatives, which. declined from 2,147 to 1,267. At 14 there was also a decrease from 25,861 to 23,276, but this occurred in spite of an increase from 3,608 to 4,1.2s in the number of farmers' relatives. The numbers returned in 1911 at ages 1C and under 13 were quite inconsiderable, 544 in all; at age 13 the number was 8,614, and at age 14, where the principal influx takes place, it rose to 23,276. The 1891 figures for these ages separately are not available, but for the whole five years 10-15 the decline between 1891 and 1911 has amounted to 33,351. The considerable decrease in the totals between 1891 and 1901 affected every age-group, but, apart from the Influence of the restriction of juvenile labour, it was naturally greatest at the age period 15-25, youths commencing work seeking some other form of employment; the reduction was least apparent at the age group 35-45, but beyond that age the decrease became progressively greater. The increase in the totals between 1901 and 1911 was limited to the ages 15-55, Under 15 the number again showed a substantial reduction, and at the advanced ages, particularly over 75, there was a large falling off, possibly owing to a greater proportion having retired from active work on account of the provision of Old Age Pensions, Comparison of the numbers enumerated at successive ages in 1911 with those returned as ten years younger in 1901 gives the following result, and suggests that a good many of the younger men leave farm work, and that some probably return to it later in life, as on leaving the army,

1901 1911 Percentage in 1911 to
corresponding number
in 1901.
Age. Number. Age. Number.
15-25 233,215 25-35 148,081 63.5
25-35 130,757 35-45 111,843 85.5
35-45 106,476 45-55 97,071 91.2
45-55 83,979 55-65 67,991 81.0

The figures for female farm workers are unreliable for several reasons, including the tin. certainty as to the extent to which female relatives assisting in the work of the farm have been so returned, and as to the propriety of classing many workers as farm servants or as domestic servants on farms. Even so, however, they reveal extraordinary variations in different counties in the degree to which women are employed on farms (Vol. X., Table XXII.). The metropolitan counties, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, and Essex, return a proportion of farmers' relatives assisting on the farm which is much below the average, but a large excess of other female farm workers; while In Devon and Cornwall and in the north midland, northern, and Welsh counties generally, the position is reversed, except that in Northumberland and Durham the proportion of "other workers" is high. Evidently the nature of the crops, as well as local custom, has much influence upon the extent of female employment.

Agricultural Machine Proprietors and Attendants increased from 6,545 to 7,346, or by 12.2 per cent., as compared with 40 per cent, in the previous intercensal period. The figures do not represent the actual rate at which the use of machinery has increased, since many farmers use their own machines; they do, however, give some indication of the extent to which labour has been supplemented by the use of hired machinery and attendants.

Market Gardeners, Other Gardeners (not Domestic), Nurserymen, Seedsmen, Florists numbered 144,305 in 1911, against 128,229 in 1901, an increase of 12.5 per cent. The actual rate of increase for this class is, however, probably greater than the recorded rate. As shown on page 113, the numbers classified under the heading "Domestic Gardener" rose from 87,936 in 1901 to 118,842 in 1911, and some part of this apparent increase was undoubtedly due to more definite return at the later census. Taking the total number of persons working in gardens, whether in market gardens, nursery gardens, or in domestic service, the increase appears to have been from 216,165 to 263,147, or 21.7 per cent.

Proportion of Agricultural to Total Population. —The growth of the agricultural population relatively to that of the total population in the several counties has been alluded to on page 33, and in the following table we give comparative figures for males in each county, both as a whole (including any associated, county boroughs) and for the aggregate of the rural districts situated in it. A decreased proportion of agriculturists may, of course, not be due to any actual decline in agricultural employment'. The accompanying map (No. 3) shows the proportions of agricultural workers to total population of both sexes in each county.

MAP 3.
Distribution, by Counties, of Agricultural Workers.

map of agricultural workers as percentage of total population


In 1881 the number of (registration) counties having at least 30 per cent, of their males over 10 years of age engaged in agriculture was 18. This number fell to 8 in 1901, and to 7 in 1911, the 7, however, showing an increased proportion over that recorded for 1901.

VIII. Fishing —The fishermen enumerated either on shore or on vessels which were in port on census night, or arrived there the following morning, comprise the Eighth Order, numbering 25,239, as compared with 23,891 in 1901 and 25,225 in 1891. A complete statement of the numbers actually engaged in fishing cannot, however, be obtained by means of the ordinary census, owing to the prolonged absence from their homes of the crews of many of the fishing vessels. According to estimates made by Officers of Customs, in conformity with instructions issued by the Board of Trade (Annual Statement of Navigation and Shipping of the United Kingdom, 1911), the number of men and boys regularly employed in 1911 on sea-fishing boats registered in ports in England and Wales was 37,224; and the number of persons occasionally employed was 7,057; in 1901 the corresponding estimates were 31,583 and 7,983 respectively. The increase in the product of the industry—14 million cwts. of fish landed in 1911, as against 8 million cwts. in 1901—is out of all proportion to the increase in numbers employed, and indicates that, whether by substitution of deep-sea for in-shore fishing, or by the use of more efficient apparatus or otherwise, the effectiveness of the methods in use has been notably increased.

The census figures show increases in all the east coast counties, from the East Riding of Yorkshire southwards, and decreases in the south-western counties.

In addition to the 25,239 fishermen classed as such, 2,500 seamen on fishing boats were enumerated as well as 1,618 other males definitely engaged in the industry of catching fish.

IX. Persons Working in and about, and Working and Dealing in the Products of, Mines and Quarries. —The number of males included in this Order was 1,039,083, and the number of females only 5,511. The whole of the workers, as distinct from the dealers, are now shown in the first sub-order, and numbered 1,014,404 (1,010,834 males and 3,570 females, against 778,072 (774,187 males and 3,885 females) in 1901; the rate of increase for both sexes together was 30.4 per cent.

The following table shows the numbers of males working in mines, or mineral quarries from 1801 onwards, together with the percentages of increase or decrease in the intercensal periods ending 1891, 1901, and 1911:—


NOTE.—In comparing the figures under the several headings regard must be paid to the fluctuating numbers shown tinder "Other or Undefined Minerals"; and to the fact that the figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

Coal Miners. —The male workers in coal mines amounted to 874,304, of whom 92,086 were surface workers. This number shows an increase of no less than 36.4 per cent, over that returned in 1901—640,989. The small number of females employed on surface work—almost exclusively in Lancashire and Cumberland— also rose from 2,665 to 2,843.

MAP 4.
Distribution, by Counties, of Coal Miners.

map of coal miners as percentage of total males

As shewn in the accompanying map (No. 4), there were 23 counties in which the proportion of mine workers to total males aged 10 and upwards exceeded 5 per 1,000. In nearly all of these, Worcester and Cheshire being exceptions, the number employed was greater than in 1901, the greatest proportionate increase being in Warwickshire, 74-6 per cent., and the greatest actual increase in Durham, 45,528 workers. It will be seen from the map that in proportion to male population aged 10 or over, coal miners were most numerous in Monmouth, Glamorgan, Durham, Brecknock, Derby, Northumberland, Denbigh, Nottingham, and Carmarthen in the order named.

The output of coal is shown by the Home Office returns to have increased by 23-6 per cent, only between 1901 and 1911, as against the increase of 36-4 per cent, in coal miners. The decrease in relative output may be attributed partly to the reduction in the working hours effected by the Coal Mines Regulation Act of

Iron Miners— The number of males working in or about iron mines and quarries increased by 3-1 per cent, over that returned in 1901, this increase following upon decreases of 6-3 and 29-8 per cent, in 1891-1901 and 1881-1891 respectively The greatest increase was in the North Riding of Yorkshire, where 39 per cent of the workers were returned.

Summary of Mining Industries .—The numbers classified in the occupation Table as working in and about mines (including mine owners, agents, manager, etc.), together with the numbers of "additional workers" tables, are summarised in the following statement:—

As classified
in Occupation Tables.
Coal Mines 884,530 83,578 968,108
Iron Mines, Quarries 22,504 2,213 24,717
Tin Mines 7,299 1,116 8,415
Lead Mines 3,048 371 3,419
Copper and other Metalliferous
Mines (Including Undefined)
2,329 292 2,621
Total 919,710 87,570 1,007,280

Quarries. —Stone quarriers and dressers, as tabulated, declined by 16.1 per cent, from the 1901 total, the real decline being probably somewhat greater; slate quarriers and workers declined by 17-5 per cent.; but clay, sand, gravel; and chalk pit workers increased by 32.1 per cent.

Taking all the male miners, quarriers and other workers in minerals principally obtained from quarries (as grouped in 1901 under the sub-order "Quarries"), the total was 81,264, or less by 6.2 per cent, than the 86,620 returned under the corresponding headings in 1901. By the inclusion of all the additional workers shown-in the industry tables the total number of males in this group is raised to 89,322.

X. Metals, Machines, Implements, and Conveyances .—The number of persons comprised in this Order was 1,578,147 (1,477,097 males and 101,050 females), compared with 1,286,714 (1,221,208 males and 65,506 females) in 1901 the latter numbers include, for the purpose of comparison, electrical apparatus makers and fitters who at that census were classed in Order XI. Omitting dealers, the males increased from 1,189,923 to 1,434,289, or by 20.5 per cent., and the females from 62,321 to 95,069, or by 52.5 per cent. As it is not possible to compare some of the sub-orders with those at previous censuses, this order will be considered in four sections— (a) Metals, Machines, Implements, (b) Electrical Apparatus, (c) Ships and Boats, and (d) Vehicles.

(a) Metals, Machines, and Implements.— The first section comprises the sub-orders numbered 1 to 3 and 5 to 8 in the present classification, and shows the lowest rate of increase, viz.:—13.7 per cent, for males and 38.0 per cent, for females. Between 1891 and 1901 the numbers in the same group (excluding lock and key makers and gas fittings makers) showed an increase of 26.6 per cent, for males and of 294 per cent, for females. Such comparison of relative increases is, however, rendered unreliable by changes in classification resulting from variation in the character of the returns. Thus, the increased information obtained as to the nature of the employer's business resulted in the inclusion under this heading of a number of labourers who would have had to be classed as undefined if their occupation had been described as on the 1901 schedule, while, on the other hand, a number of artizans, blacksmiths, moulders, fitters, and the like, have been transferred from general engineering to headings descriptive of the product of their handiwork. Changes of the latter kind are, it is true, often merely from one heading to another within the group at present under consideration, but they may also result in transfer to other sub-divisions of the Order. The question arises whether the second class of change is not of a retrograde nature in an occupational classification, since it results in the transfer of the smith, etc., from a heading descriptive of his handicraft to one descriptive of the industry in which it is exercised. The whole question is a very difficult one. A purely occupational classification appears under present conditions of census taking to be impracticable (see page 12), and the present list of occupations is probably even more of an industrial nature than it otherwise need have been because it closely adheres for the sake of continuity to the lists of former censuses. In these there was no opportunity of separate tabulation by industries, and therefore it seemed necessary to bring out facts relating to industry in the occupation tables which could now be more appropriately shown in those wholly devoted to industries.

The various groups of workers included in the sub-order have increased in very varying proportion, and in some cases even a decrease is shewn by the published figures, though, as indicated above, this may be of a fictitious nature.

Iron and Steel Manufacture.—The separation of the producers from the workers in. the metals was attempted for the first time in 1901, In the Report on that census it was stated that "the persistent efforts made, both before the census was taken and subsequently by local inquiry, to ensure completeness and accuracy of local returns have been only partially successful." The same may be said of the census of 1911, and further experience leads to the conclusion that complete separation cannot be attained, not only owing to incompleteness of description in the census schedules and to the general looseness of occupational nomenclature, but also to the way in which the industry is organised. In many cases the production of the metals and the manufacture of finished articles are carried on in the same works, and a distinction between the two classes of workers may therefore be impracticable.

Taking the figures as they stand, however, the increase in the number of males returned as engaged in iron and steel manufacture was from 85,902 in 1901 to 124,231, or at a rate of 44.6 per cent. Some of this increase is due to reduction in the number of undefined ironworkers and to the improved returns of labourers. If, however, all the undefined ironworkers were assumed to belong to this sub-order, the rate of increase would still be as high as 26.7 per cent.

Blacksmiths, Strikers showed a decline from 136,752 males in 1901 to 125,305 in 1911, or at a rate of 8.4 per cent., but the apparent decline is probably accounted for to a large extent by the transfer to other headings of smiths who were returned in such manner that they could be classified to the manufactures in which they were engaged. Of course, it must be borne in mind that changes of industrial technique such as the substitution of machine tools for hand labour, may lead to a decline in the numbers of important groups of workers, even at a time when the industry concerned is prospering. Some support for the theory that this cause may have contributed to the apparent decline in the number of blacksmiths may be derived from the United States census figures for 1900 and 1910. In the earlier year the number of male blacksmiths is returned as 226,284 out of a total of 899,139 working in iron and steel and their products, while in the latter year the figures were 247,342 and 1,627,830 respectively; thus the blacksmiths had increased by only 9 per cent., as compared with a rise of 81 per cent, in the total number of males engaged in these industries, and comprised only 15 per cent, of the total in 1910, against 25 per cent, in 1900. The substitution of machine tools for hand labour in this case is indicated by the relatively large increase of machinists, 63 per cent., as against the 9 per cent, increase of blacksmiths.

It may be noted that, apart from the ages 10-15, the greatest proportional decline in this occupation was recorded at ages 15-25. This probably indicates a real decrease in the numbers entering the occupation; at all age-groups 35 and upwards there was either an actual increase or a slight decrease, the latter of which may be wholly due to differences in the method of return.

Nails, Screws, Bolts, etc,—An excellent example of the effect the introduction of machinery has upon the numbers employed in an occupation is afforded by Nail Manufacture. The number of workers has in this case continuously declined as machinery replaced hand labour from 16,965 males and 9,975 females in 1851 to 2,925 males and 1,685 females in 1911. On the other hand, the numbers engaged upon the manufacture of screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, and staples, which have been little made by hand for many years, showed a very large increase in the intercensal period, rising from 12,181 to 17,838, or by 35.3 per cent, for males and by 65.7 per cent, for females.

Anchors and Chains.— Special interest attaches to this industry from the employment of female labour in it at Cradley Heath and its neighbourhood. The number of males has increased from 4,757 in 1901 to 5,194 in 1911, or 9.2 per cent., and the number of females from 1,911 to 2,129, more than two-thirds of whom were returned as working "at home," or by 11.4 per cent.

Boiler Makers. —This group of workers, which had grown very rapidly during the years 1881-1901, increased only by 5.1 per cent., from 46,432 males to 48,804. The decline in the rate of increase is probably due to the fact that replacement of lower by higher pressure boilers, which had been active during 1881-1901, was fairly complete by the latter date. The counties returning the largest number of boiler makers are Lancashire and Durham, and of these the former returned only the insignificant increase of 0.7 per cent., and the latter showed a decrease of 6.6 per cent. Other less important centres of the industry, on the other hand, showed very large increases indeed, notably Hampshire, Lincolnshire, and Kent.

Tools. —The workers classed under this sub-order increased from 53,905 in 1901 to 62,978, or by 16.8 per cent., as against a recorded increase of only 4.4 per cent. in the previous intercensal period. Saw-makers increased by only 10.6 per cent., while file-makers actually decreased by 15.9 per cent., as a result, probably, of the replacement of hand by machine methods. Makers of other tools increased by no less than 54.0 per cent.

Tinplate and Tinplate Goods Workers. —These two headings were combined previously to 1901, and in that year the joint returns showed a decline of 8-1 per cent. upon those of 1891. By separating the numbers for Glamorgan, Carmarthen, and Monmouth, to which counties most of the tinplate manufacture was limited, it was inferred that this had shewn a considerable decrease, the aggregate numbers in these counties having declined by 31.0 per cent., while in the remainder of the country, which contained practically all the tinplate goods makers, there had been an increase of 12.7 per cent. Since 1901, however, there has been the very large increase of 53.1 per cent, in the number of tinplate workers, while tinplate goods makers have increased by only 7.5 per cent., a decrease of 10.5 per cent, amongst males having been counteracted by increase of females from 5,376 to 9,764.

(b) Electrical Apparatus.- as follows in 1911:—Persons included in this sub-order were classified as follows in 1911:—

  Persons. Males. Females.
Electrical Cable Manufacture 5,813 4,858 955
Electric Lamp Makers 5,627 1,425 4,202
Other Electrical Apparatus Makers; Electrical Fitters 54,611 50,558 4,053
Electricians (undefined) 27,970 27,905 65
Total 94,021 84,746 9,275

In 1901 the corresponding totals, which were then shown under one heading ("electrical apparatus makers"), and were included in Order XI., were 49,518 persons (47,028 males and 2,490 females); the increase in the recorded numbers during the intercensal period was thus 89-9 per cent., the rate of increase being much higher for females than for males. As against 99,600 males employed in electrical apparatus making and electricity supply jointly in 1911, there were 49,916 in 1901, 12,135 in 1891, 2,496 in 1881, and only 408 in 1871.

(c) Ships and Boats. —The number of males engaged in building Ships and Boats increased from 86,524 in 1901 to 104,508 in 1911, or by 20.8 per cent.; in the preceding intercensal period the rate of increase was 24.4 per cent. The numbers returned under the several occupational headings in this sub-order cannot be compared in detail for the two censuses, but speaking generally it appears that the two headings relating specifically to workers in iron showed an aggregate increase of about 53 per cent., while the numbers under the two headings relating specifically to workers in wood increased by less than 6 per cent. The tonnage of shipping launched in England and Wales increased from 773,000 in 1901 to 797,000 in 1911, or by only 3.1 per cent.

(d) Vehicles. —In the construction of Vehicles 182,160 persons were returned as engaged in 1911, against 118,478 in 1901. The headings under "which they are classified at the two censuses and the rates of increase under each heading are shown as follows:—


XI. Precious Metals, Jewels, Watches, Instruments, and Games Apparatus .— The number of persons comprised in this Order was 123,594 (99;931 males and 23,663 females), which, compared with the 99,920 persons (83,703 males and 16,217 females) returned under the corresponding heading in 1901 (after excluding from Order XI. of that census electrical apparatus makers and fitters who are now classed in Order X.), showed an increase during the intercensal period of 23.7 per cent. (194 per cent, for males and 45.9 per cent, for females). The totals are affected to some extent for purposes of comparison by the inclusion of some dental assistants who, on account of less definite returns, were included in Order III. in 1901, and by the exclusion of a number of plated ware makers describing themselves as silversmiths, etc. (mostly in Sheffield), who can now be recognised by means of the industry column of the schedule as belonging to Order X.

The workers and dealers in Precious Metals, Jewellery, and Watches showed an increase of 1.7 per cent, on the numbers returned in 1901; the males decreased by 2.9 per cent., but the females increased by 26.3 per cent. They were classified under the following headings:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, Jewellers 28,900 23,730 5,170 26,977 19,665 7,312
Other Workers in Precious Metals
    and Jewellery
3,909 2,330 1,579 1,866 1,224 642
Watchmakers, Clockmakers 21,994 20,248 1,746 16,829 15,732 1,097
Dealers in Precious Metals, Jewellery,
    and Watches
4,763 3,855 908 14,906 12,077 2,829
Total 59,566 50,163 9,403 60,578 48,698 11,880

The separation of "dealers" from "makers" was held in 1901 to have been unsatisfactory, it being stated in the report on that census that "many persons, notwithstanding the instructions on the schedules, returned themselves as Watchmakers and Jewellers although engaged almost exclusively in dealing". Doubtless, some part of the large increase in the numbers recorded under the heading for "dealers" is due to improvement of the returns in this respect. For this reason, coupled with the probability of some overlapping among the other three headings, it is inadvisable to attempt comparisons in detail of the numbers under each separate heading.

The workers and dealers in Scientific Instruments, Musical Instruments, and Apparatus for Sports and Games showed marked increases under all the headings. The numbers so classified at the two censuses were as follows:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Scientific Instrument Makers;
5,954 5,420 534 8,186 7,398 788
Photographic Apparatus Makers 1,069 895 174
Weighing and Measuring Apparatus
4,661 4,199 462 9,328 8,427 901
Surgical and Dental Instrument and
    Apparatus Makers
4,489 3,267 1,222 9,155 6,870 2,285
Piano, Organ—Makers 14,089 13,747 342 14,427 14,115 312
Other Musical Instrument Makers 2,027 1,774 253
Fishing Tackle, Toy, Game Appa-
6,437 4,026 2,411 11,152 6,639 4,513
Dealers in lnstruments,Toys,etc. 4,724 2,881 1,843 7,672 5,115 2,557

Scientific Instrument Makers and Opticians, with whom were classed Photographic Apparatus Makers in 1901, increased by 554 per cent. (53.0 per cent, for males and 80.1 per cent, for females).

XII. Building, and Works of Construction. — The Twelfth Order is practically confined to males, of whom there were 946,127 in 1911, against 1,042,864 in 1901, a decrease of 9.3 per cent. Probably this percentage represents very fairly the actual decline in the Building Trades, though the totals themselves have been considerably affected by differences in the method of making the returns at the two censuses. The addition of column 11 to the schedule has led to more definite information being obtained, and this has resulted, on the one hand, in the inclusion in this Order of many labourers who—with the less definite information formerly obtained— would have appeared as undefined or general labourers in Order XXII.; the additions from this cause are most noticeable under the heading "Builders' Labourers," which is, however, also affected by transference of builders' excavators from the heading "Navvies, etc. "On the other hand, improvement in the data has led to the exclusion of many "Stone Quarriers, Stone Cutters, Dressers" (Order IX.), who would otherwise have appeared as "Masons"; and also to the exclusion of many "House and Shop Fittings Makers" and "Sawyers, Wood Cutting Machinists" (Order XIII.), who would otherwise have been classed as "Carpenters, Joiners."

House Building, etc.— The males included in this sub-order totalled 872,963. In 1901 the number was 945,184, so that, disregarding the changes in the method of return referred to above, there was a decrease of 7.6 per cent., while between 1891 and 1901 there was an increase of 36.2 per cent., following an increase of only 2.0 per cent, between 1881 and 1891, though the gradual reduction of the indefinite class of labourers at successive censuses makes it probable that the actual rates of increase between 1881 and 1901 were rather less than the figures indicate. The decline since 1901 appears to be confirmed by the decline in the numbers of brickmakers and of stone and slate quarriers, cutters, and dressers, and also by the great falling-off in the numbers of members of the trades unions connected with the building trades. A further index to the state of the building trades is furnished by the number of dwelling houses in course of erection at the date of the census, 38,178, as against 61,909 in 1901 (see page 200).

The most striking feature in the census figures is the decline in the numbers under nearly all the headings in this sub-order at ages under 25; in the age-period 10-15 the decrease was 53.6 per cent.; in the period 15-20, 51.8 per cent; and in the period 20.25, 37.8 per cent. The figures are significant of the general decline in these occupations. Comparison of the age-distribution in this sub-order with that for all occupied males between 15 and 65 shows that only 18.2 per cent, are under 25 years of age, against an average of 27.9 per cent, for all occupations. The variations between the two censuses are so remarkable that we give the numbers at ages for all the headings of the sub-order:—


Other Works of Construction and Roads. —This sub-order includes "Navvies, Railway, etc. Contractors' Labourers," who decreased from 41,645 to 23,125 "Paviours, Road Labourers," who decreased from 50,370, to 44,526; "Road, Railway, Canal, Harbour, etc. Contractors," who decreased from 2,747 to 2,317, and "Well, Mine—Sinkers, Borers," who increased from 2,918 to 3,196. The decrease in the number of navvies may be due in part to the transfer, to the first sub-order, of excavators who were defined in column 11 of the schedule as working in connexion with building, and were accordingly classified as "Builders' Labourers"; and the decrease in the number of "Paviours, Road Labourers," to the fact that in 1901 labourers in the employ of a sanitary authority were classified as "Paviours, Road Labourers" unless otherwise described, but in 1911 such persons were classed as "General Labourers."

XIII. Wood, Furniture, Fittings, and Decorations .—In the Wood Working and Furnishing Trades comprising the Thirteenth Order there were enumerated 283,986 persons, or 26,394 more than in 1901, the three headings relating to "Dealers" showing an increase of 12,382 on 31,062 persons in 1901, and the fourteen headings for "Makers" an increase of only 14,012 on 226,530. Some part of the increase in the "Dealers" was due to their more complete separation from the "Makers" in 1911 than in 1901, but any transfer from the "Makers" through this cause would probably be more than compensated for by additions to the headings "House and Shop Fittings Makers" and "Sawyers; Wood Cutting Machinists," due to extra information obtained through column 11 of the schedule (see page 123), so that there is some doubt whether the "Makers" have increased at even so high a rate as the figures denote, viz., 6.2 per cent.

Furniture, Fittings, and Decorations. —In the first sub-order the workers and dealers in furniture, fittings, and decorations increased only from 158,620 to 173,257, or by 9.2 per cent., as against 26.8 per cent, between 1891 and 1901. Excluding the headings for "Dealers" and that for "House and Shop Fittings Makers," to which reference has been made above, and which is now perhaps less allied to furnishing than to building, the numbers declined front 128,842 to 125,805, or by 24 per cent. A comparison of the numbers engaged in the various occupations comprising the sub-order is made in the following table:—


Wood and Bark .—The workers and dealers in Wood and Bark, as returned in the second sub-order, numbered 110,729, against 98,972 in 1901. This represents An increase of 11.9 per cent., but to some unknown extent the increase is due to change In the method of filling up the schedule already referred to under Order XII. (page 123). This will partly account also for so great an increase as 24.4 per cent. (from 32,325 to 40,225) in the heading for "Sawyers, Wood Cutting Machinists," and the decrease of 15.1 per cent. (from 10,208 to 8,665) in the heading for "Wood Turners," the wood turners described in column 11 as engaged in any manufacturing industry being usually classed to that industry instead of to the special heading for the occupation; thus, for example, wood turners engaged in making handles of tools or arts of musical instruments are classed to tool making or musical instrument making respectively.

XIV. Brick, Cement, Pottery, and Glass .—In the Fourteenth Order there was a falling-off between 1901 and 1911 in the total number of persons returned as engaged in the manufacture or sale of Bricks, Cement, Pottery and Glass from 175,513 to 173,838, or by 1.0 per cent.; the males decreased from 142,365 to 134,714, or by 5.4 per cent., but the females increased from 33,148 to 39,124, or by 18.0 per cent.

Brick, Plain Tile, Terra-CottaMakers. —The decline of 11,972 under this heading is responsible for the net decrease in the total of the Order, the number having fallen from 63,927 to 51,955, or by 18.7 per cent. This is associated with a large reduction in the numbers employed in Building and Works of Construction (see Order XII.). In 1901, when there was a substantial increase over 1891 in the numbers classified as brick, etc. makers, there was concurrently a large increase in the numbers in the building trades.

Plaster, CementManufacture. —The numbers engaged in the manufacture of Plaster and Cement reached 9,942, as against 9,661 in 1901, an increase of only 2.9 per cent, as compared with the very high percentage (77.9) of increase recorded at the last census; in Kent, where 4,946 of the workers were enumerated, there was a decline of 413, or 7.7 per cent.

Earthenware, China, PorcelainManufacture. —The number of persons engaged in the manufacture of Earthenware, China, and Porcelain was 69,863, an increase of 7,388, or 11.8 per cent., over the figures of 1901. Comparison of the numbers of males and females separately shows that the males have increased from 37,998 to 40,424, or by 6.4 per cent., and the females from 24,477 to 29,439, or by 20.3 per cent. This industry is very much localised in Staffordshire, and is tending to become more so, for in that county, where nearly 75 per cent, of the workers were returned, the rate of increase, 12.7 per cent., was above that for the country at large.

The proportion of female labour in earthenware manufacture has, since 1861, shown a continuous, though irregular, increase. It was stated in the Report on the Census of 1891 that "from evidence given before the Royal Commission on Labour it appears that the potters complain that the extensive introduction of labour-saving appliances in the last ten years has increased female labour at the expense of male labour. The successive census returns hardly corroborate this statement, so far, at any rate, as concerns the aggregate of all the processes in the manufacture; for while in 1881 there were 62 women employed to 100 men, the proportion in 1891 had only changed to 63 to 100. There had, it is true, been a greater change in earlier decennia, for the. proportion in 1861 was 46, and in 1871 was 55 to 100." In 1901 the proportion had only risen to 64, but at the last census it had reached 73 per cent.

It is also worthy of note that 7,601, or 25.8 per cent., of the females were married women, and it would appear that the number of married females engaged in the manufacture of earthenware, etc.; tends to increase.

Glass Manufacture.—As in 1901, the Glass Workers have again at this census been classified under three headings—"Sheet, Plate Glass Manufacture," "Glass Bottle Manufacture," and "Other Workers in Class Manufacture." Putting the three headings together, the number of persons returned as engaged in Glass Manufacture was 30,987, of whom 2,739 were females, as against 30,081 persons in 1901, of whom 2,363 were females. This represents an increase of 3-0 per cent., which is much smaller than the increase of 15.0 per cent, at the previous census. Sheet and plate glass manufacture is now almost entirely confined to Lancashire, and glass bottle making, which shows the greatest increase (15.3 per cent.) is mainly localised in the West Riding of Yorkshire and in Lancashire.

XV. Chemicals, Oil, Grease, Soap, Resin, etc .—In connexion with the manufacture and sale of chemicals, oil, grease, etc. there were returned 171,983 persons, of whom 135,113 were males and 36,870 females. In order to compare with the figures for 1901 it is necessary to add the 1,451 males and 2,326 females engaged in elastic web manufacture and the 1,008 male and 1,009 female celluloid makers; these were formerly classed to india-rubber manufacture, but are now included in Orders XVIII and XXII. respectively. With these additions there were 137,572 males and 40,205 females, as against 101,938 males and 26,702 females in 1901, the percentage of increase being 35.0 for the former and 50.6 for the latter, or 38.2 for the two sexes together. Excluding the headings for Dealers and for Chemists and Druggists, who are mainly dealers, there were 98,598 males and 33,246 females—increases of 32,530 males and 10,679 females—or 49.2 per cent, and 49.5 per cent, respectively. With the exception of the headings for Gunpowder, Explosive Substance—Manufacture, and Cartridge, Explosive Article—Manufacture, all of the headings show an increase in the numbers.

Explosives and Matches.— The numbers engaged in the manufacture of Gunpowder, Explosive Substance, etc., showed a decline of 1,029, or 28.7 per cent., the figures being 2,561 (of whom 2,322 were males) in 1911, and 3,590 (of whom 3,084 were males) in 1901. The numbers employed in Cartridge, Fireworks, etc. making also showed a decrease, having dropped from 7,379 to 6,718. It is, however, a reduction in the number of males that is answerable for this decline, the number of females having remained stationary, whilst the males numbered only 2,934, as against 3,613, a decrease of 18.8 per cent. The numbers under both these headings were, however inflated in 1901 owing to the South African War.

In Lucifer Match Making there were engaged 2,700 persons (of whom 1,957 were females), as against 2,406 persons (of whom 1,865 were females) in 1901, an advance of 294, or 12.2 per cent., in the total number.

Salt, Drugs, and Other Chemicals and Compounds. —The numbers returned under the headings Manufacturing Chemists and Alkali Manufacture were 28,610 and 11,952 persons respectively, as against 17,515 and 9,705 in 1901, the increases per cent, being 63.3 for Manufacturing Chemists and 23.2 for Alkali Manufacture. About one-fourth of the persons returned under the former heading were females, who showed an increase of over 80 per cent, since 1901. For purposes of comparison, however, it is advisable to group the two headings, the resulting totals for the whole country being 33,473 males and 7,089 females in 1911, and 23,293 males and 3,927 females in 1901, the percentage increases for the two sexes being 43.7 and 80.5 respectively. The number of chemists and druggists, 32,241, shows an increase of 13.3 per cent, over that returned in 1901. This is mainly due to increase in the number of females from 3,105 to 5,390, or by 73.6 per cent., the increase for males being only at the rate of 6.0 per cent.

India Rubber, Gutta PerchaWorkers, —The workers in India Rubber, etc. numbered 19,185 (13,718 males and 5,467 females), but in order to compare with the figures for 1901 it is necessary to add the Elastic Web Makers, now shown as a separate heading in Order XVIII., Sub-order 5, and the Celluloid—Makers, Workers, now in XXII. 3. The comparable figures are then 24,979 (of whom 16,177 were males and 8,802 females) and 12,264 (of whom 7,673 were males and 4,591 females), an increase of 103.7 per cent, in the total, or 110.8 per cent, for males and 91.7 per cent, for females.

Waterproof Goods Makers , numbering 4,225 males and 3,177 females, have increased by 21.6 per cent, for males and 14.4 per cent, for females, or 18.4 per cent, for both sexes together over the figures returned in 1901. Of 1,145 waterproof goods makers returned as employed in connexion with other industries, no fewer than 986 were in railway companies' service.

Colouring Matter, Oil, Grease, Soap, Resin, etc. —The remaining headings of the Order, which are more or less of a miscellaneous type, are presented in the following table:—

1901. 1911. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Dye, Paint, Ink,
6,903 5,613 1,290 11,110 8,450 2,660 60.9 50.5 106.2
  Refiners; Oil
  Cake Makers
5,477 5,400 77 10,556 10,419 137 92.7 92.9 77.9
Candle, Grease—
2,446 2,211 235 3,243 2,917 326 32.6 31.9 38.7
6,937 4,534 2,403 10,395 6,887 3,508 49.8 51.9 46.0
1,678 1,635 43 3,543 3,489 54 111.1 113.4 25.6
Glue, Size,
  Varnish, etc.
3,075 2,269 806 4,618 3,575 1,043 50.2 57.6 29.4

XVI. Skins, Leather, Hair, and Feathers .—The total number of workers and Dealers in Skins, Leather, Hair, and Feathers rose from 105,341 in 1901 to 113,680 in engaged in the occupation included in this Order; the males having increased by 2.0 per cent. and the females by 16.7 per cent. since 1901.

The aggregate number returned under the four headings, "Furriers Skinners," "Tanners," "Curriers," and "Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap etc. Makers," was 59,341, an increase of 21.8 per cent, over the number returned in 1901. The increase is least marked in the case of Tanners (10.4 per cent.) and greatest among "Furriers and Skinners" (45.9 per cent.); under the other two headings which were not separated in 1901, the increase was 17.6 per cent. The number of foreigners who were returned as "Furriers, Skinners" increased by 75.2 per cent and amounted to 2,067 out of a total of 14,199 in 1911, against 1,180 out of a total of 9,731 in 1901.

The manufacture of Saddlery and Harness, etc., employed 20.5 per cent, fewer persons in 1911 than in 1901—a fall from 30,684 to 24,388; distinguishing the sexes, the males have declined from 25,954 to 20,911, or by 19.4 per cent., and the females from 4,730 to 3,477, or by 26.5 per cent. In Walsall County Borough, where 4,133 males and 2,398 females were employed in this manufacture, the former have decreased by 6.8 per cent, and the latter by 24.9 per cent, from the exceptionally high numbers employed at the date of the 1901 census in meeting army requirements, but these decreases are practically balanced by increases in the numbers employed as Curriers and leather Goods, etc. Makers.

The numbers at the several ages show that the decline is practically confined to the ages below 35, and is most pronounced in the earliest years, the inference being that young persons are refraining from entering an occupation which has been adversely affected by the rapid increase in the use of motor vehicles.

The makers of Brushes and Brooms numbered 17,515 persons in 1911, against 16,264 in 1901. The increase of 7.7 per cent, shown by these figures is made up of increases for males of 6.0 and for females of 10.0 per cent. Although the proportion of females is still increasing in this occupation, their advance is less conspicuous than it was at the previous census, when their increase over the number returned in 1891 amounted to 13.6 per cent., while the males declined by 4.4 per cent. Quill and Feather Dressers have not maintained the high rate of increase (35.4 per cent.) recorded in 1901, the number of females, 3,372, being exactly the same in 1911 as it was ten years earlier, while the males have only increased from 458 to 494.

XVII. Paper, Prints, Books, and Stationery. —The workers and dealers classified under this Order numbered 340,960, of whom 219,651 were males and 121,309 were females. Some changes in the constitution of the Order have been made since 1901, which must be taken into account before the totals at the two censuses can be compared. Circular, Envelope—Addressers, etc." and "Bill Posters" have been transferred from the heading "Other Workers in Paper, etc." to Order XXII. in which they now form separate headings of the sub-order "Advertising which also contains the heading Advertising, Bill Posting-Agents," formerly included with Newspaper Agents, etc." in this Order. Further, the 2,771 "Stereotypes Electrotypers" shown as a sub-heading of " Printers" include a number of electrotype stereotype-founder, finishers, moulders, etc., who in 1901 would have been classified under the heading "Type-Cutters, Founders" in Order X If the numbers under the three headings in the "Advertising" sub-order, referred to males and 121,576 females), compared with the 278,957 persons (188,057 males and 90,900 females) comprised in the Order in 1901, the rate of increase on these totals being 24.8 per cent. (20.4 per cent. for males and 33.7 per cent. for females). Dividing the Order, as thus modified, into three groups—(1) Workers in Paper and Stationery, (2) Printers, lithographers, Bookbinders, and (3) Publishers and Dealers, the numbers at the two censuses were as follows:—

1901. 1911. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Workers in
  Paper and
74,967 29,980 44,987 92,883 37,927 54,956 23.9 26.5 22.2
Printers, Litho-
149,793 119,834 29,959 184,075 140,968 43,107 22.9 17.6 43.9
Publishers and
  Stationers and
54,197 38,243 15,954 71,069 47,556 23,513 31.1 24.4 47.4

Workers in Paper and Stationery. —In this group are included persons engaged in the manufacture of paper, cardboard, stationery, paper bags, cardboard boxes, and various other paper and cardboard articles. They were classified under the following headings:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Paper Manufacture 24,210 15,359 8,851 24,844 17,087 7,757
Paper Stainers 2,319 2,032 287 3,724 3,242 482
Stationery Manufacture 9,079 4,381 4,698 15,138 6,592 8,546
Envelope Makers 3,513 370 3,143 3,831 515 3,316
Paper Bag Makers } 28,519 3,310 25,209{ 5,869 583 5,286
Cardboard Box Makers 30,569 4,068 26,501
Other Workers in Paper, etc } 7,327 4,528 2,799{ 5,368 2,444 2,924
Circular, Envelope—Addressers, etc 267 123 144
Bill Posters 3,273 3,273  

It is probable that the real increase in the numbers engaged in the manufacture of paper (including cardboard and pasteboard) may have been greater than that shown in the table, the fuller information afforded in 1911 having enabled paper sorters, cutters, counters, etc. employed by stationers to be classified to the latter headings rather than to paper manufacture. Paper stainers increased by 60.6 per cent., and makers of stationery, including envelopes, by 50.6 per cent. Almost three-fifths of the latter workers were enumerated in London and its neighbourhood, which is also the most important seat of the cardboard box making trade.

Printers, Lithographers, Bookbinders. —The figures under the separate headings in this group at the two censuses were as follows:—

1901. 1911.
Males. Females. Males. Females.
    Hand Compositors } 96,488 9,693{ 37,281 602
    Machine Compositors 3,711 92
    Printing Machine Minders 7,773 209
    Stereotypers, Electrotypers 2,761 10
    Others in Printing (including undefined) 63,736 21,462
Lithographers, Copper and Steel Plate Printers 10,682 1,043 12,746 2,283
Bookbinders 12,664 19,223 12,960 18,449

The result of sub-dividing the heading "Printers" into the five headings shown above has been very disappointing, the line "Others in Printing" including a large number of persons returned indefinitely. In London, for example, where a large proportion of the trade is centred, considerably more than one-fourth of the male employees so classified were returned simply as "Printers" without any indication of the process in which they were engaged, and there was also a large number returned as "Printers' Assistants."

The male printers increased from 96,488 to 115,262, or by 19.5 per cent., while the females rose from 9,693 to 22,375, or by 130.8 per cent.; between 1891 and 1901 the rates of increase for the two sexes were 17.7 and 114.1 per cent, respectively. Some considerable portion of the increase among females, as compared with 1901, is due to the transfer from the heading "Bookbinders" of women who were returned by occupational names common to the bookbinding and printing trades, arid classed, to bookbinding in 1801, but were shown in 1911, by means of the industry column (column 11) of the schedule, to be engaged in the printing trade, and were classified accordingly.

This probably accounts for the actual decline of female "Bookbinders" from 19,223 to 18,449, but the fact that the rate of increase between 1891 and 1901 was 34.9 per cent, for females, and that the rate of increase for males for that period was 10.2 per cent., against only 2.3 per cent, between 1901 and 1911, seems to indicate a falling-off in the demand for labour in the bookbinding trade. The figures for "Lithographers, Copper and Steel Plate Printers" show an increase of 19.3 per cent, for males and 118.9 per cent, for females, following increases of 15.8 and 123.3 per cent, respectively between 1891 and 1901.

Publishers, and Dealers in Paper and Stationery. —This group comprises the following headings:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Stationers, Law Stationers } 22,335 12,652 9,683{ 22,334 10,898 11,436
Other Dealers in Paper 4,361 3,091 1,270
Book, Print—Publishers, Sellers 14,788 12,235 2,553 16,864 13,498 3,366
Newspaper Publishers } 17,074 13,356 3,718{ 2,880 2,781 99
Newspaper Agents, News Room Keepers 21,103 13,884 7,219
Advertising, Bill Posting—Agents 3,527 3,404 123

There is some uncertainty as to how persons in most of these occupations, which overlap in many cases, return themselves at successive censuses, but according to the figures tabulated it would appear that by far the greatest increase has been among the newspaper agents, etc., with whom must be associated, for purposes of comparison, the new headings for "Newspaper Publishers" and "Advertising, etc. Agents."

The number of persons returned as connected with the book, etc. publishing and selling trades was raised from 16,864 to 26,729 by the addition of the workers who are classified under other headings in the occupation tables; these additional workers included commercial clerks (3,934 males and 1,819 females), commercial travellers (1,253 males), messengers, porters, watchmen (1,152 males), bookbinders (168 males and 314 females), and printers and lithographers (289 males).

The numbers returned as connected with newspaper publishing included, in addition to the 2,781 males and 99 females classed under this heading in the occupation tables, 18,584 males and 1,206. females, of whom 7,956 males were printers; 4,900 males and 137 females were editors, journalists, reporters, etc.; 2,921 males and 712 females were commercial clerks, and 1,136 males were messengers, porters, watchmen. More than a third of the total number of persons engaged in this industry were enumerated in London and the adjoining counties.

XVIII. Textile Fabrics.—- The number of persons included in this Order was 1,317,565 (571,411 males and 746,154 females), of whom 1,126,426 (470,090 males and 656,336 females) were classified as engaged in textile manufacture or in textile bleaching, printing, dyeing, etc., and 191,139 (101,321 males and 89,818 females) as dealers, including 150,968 drapers (66,362 males and 84,606 females), who, as they have become to such a large extent dealers in dress, will be dealt with as in 1901 in combination with the Dress Order (XIX.). Excluding the persons engaged in "Elastic Web Manufacture," who were formerly classed with "India Rubber, Gutta Percha Workers" (Order XVI.), a comparison of the numbers returned in 1901 and 1911 as engaged in textile manufacture, and in textile bleaching, printing, dyeing, etc., gives the following result:—

1901. 1911. Increase per cent.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Textile Manufac-
934,639 350,467 584,172 1,038,738 399,023 639,715 11.1 13.9 9.5
60,029 51,469 8,560 83,911 69,616 14,295 39.8 35.3 67.0
  994,668 401,936 592,732 1,122,649 468,639 654,010 12.9 16.6 10.3

Before 1901 there were separate headings for "Cotton, Calico—Printers, Dyers, Bleachers" (including Calenderers and Finishers), "Wool, Woollen Goods—Dyers, Printers," and "Silk—Dyers, Printers"; bleachers, printers, dyers, etc. in all other textile fabrics were included with the manufacturers, and when the nature of the material was not stated were classed as "Dyers, Scourers, Bleachers, Calenderers (undefined)." In 1901, at the suggestion of the Home Office and the Board of Trade, and in order to bring the census classification into line with that of those departments, Bleachers, Printers, Dyers, Calenderers, Finishers, etc. were excluded from ^the headings relating to the manufacture of the fabrics and were shown together in a separate sub-order. The bleaching, printing, dyeing and finishing processes are largely carried on in works quite separate from the manufacturing processes, and the workers in the finishing processes cannot always be definitely associated with a particular fabric. If, however, it is desired to consider the number of bleachers, dyers, etc. in cotton or in wool and worsted in relation to the numbers engaged in the manufacturing processes, a rough approximation could be obtained by assuming that all those in Lancashire were connected with cotton and all those in the West Riding of Yorkshire with wool and worsted.

By adding the numbers of Dealers in Textile Fabrics other than the Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers, it is possible to compare the total and the rate of increase with those recorded at successive censuses since 1851, as shown in a table given in the 1901 Report, which is reproduced with the figures for 1911 added. The table also gives the numbers and rates of increase at ages 15 and upwards, as the total numbers have been considerably affected for purposes of comparison by changes in the proportion of children employed, which, has been considerably lower at the last two censuses than previously.

TABLE XLIII.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN TEXTILE FABRICS (excluding Elastic Web Manufacture, and Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers).

The above table shows that the rate of increase for persons of both sexes (14.0 per cent.) in 1901-1911 was higher than in any of the five preceding intercensal periods, and was higher in the case of males than of females. In 1891-1901 there had been a decline of 4.8 per cent., which, however, was accounted for mainly by restriction of child labour; and if comparison of the two periods is made on the basis of persons aged 15 years and upwards, the decline in the earlier period is reduced to 0.8 per cent., and the increase in the later period is raised to 15.5 per cent.

The following table shows that the only textile manufactures affording increased employment between 1891 and 1901 (apart from textile bleaching, printing, dyeing, etc., for which the figures are not strictly comparable), were lace and "rough textiles." Since 1901, however, a remarkable change has occurred, and almost all branches of the industry show an increase. All the headings which showed a decline between 1891 and 1901, showed either a reduced rate of decline or an actual increase between 1901 and 1911; but the rough textile group showed a slightly reduced rate of increase, the differences in the constituent headings varying very considerably. The table gives the numbers employed in the principal textile manufactures in 1901 and 1911, and the decennial rate of increase or decrease at the two censuses for persons of all ages and for those aged 15 years and upwards:—


Cotton Manufacture. —The manufacture of Cotton, which gave employment to 605,177 persons (233,380 males and 371,797 females), is, in respect of the numbers employed, the most important manufacturing industry of the country. It was a matter of serious concern that in 1901 for the first time the total showed a decrease of 3.1 per cent., and at ages 15 and upwards the number showed an increase of only 1.9 per cent. The quantity of raw cotton imported into the United Kingdom in the five years ending 1901 was, according to the Statistical Abstract of the Board of Trade, 1.9 per cent, lower than in the five years ending 1891, and the returns of the Chief Inspector of Factories had shown that the numbers of persons employed had decreased each year from 1895 to 1901. Since that date these returns have shown only a very slight increase in the numbers between 1901 and 1904 (0.8 per cent.), but a fairly large increase (10.3 per cent.) between 1904 and 1907—no later figures are available from this source. The census figures for 1911 show an increase in the ten years amounting to 14.4 per cent., which, as will be seen from the following table, was higher than that in any previous intercensal period since 1861, and, as is shown above, the increase was greater for workers aged 15 and upwards than for those of all ages.


Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-)
per cent.
Persons. Males. Females.
1861* 458,239 198,591 259,648      
1871* 468,938 188,644 280,294 2.3 -5.0 8.0
1881 487,777 185,410 302,367 4.0 -1.6 7.9
1891 546,015 213,231 332,784 11.9 15.0 10.1
1901 529,131 196,898 332,233 -3.1 -7.7 -0.2
1911 605,177 233,380 371,797 14.4 18.5 11.9

* The numbers for 1861 and 1871 include the "Retired."

Comparing the two years 1910 and 1911 with 1900 and 1901, there was an increase of 16.4 per cent, in the quantity of raw cotton imported into the United Kingdom, an increase of 26.7 per cent, in the quantity of cotton yarn and of 21.9 per cent, in the quantity of cotton piece goods exported, and an increase of 59.1 per cent, in the declared value of the exports of yarn and piece goods together.2

The age-constitution of the cotton operatives at the three censuses 1891, 1901, and 1911 reveals some striking differences in the rates of increase or decrease at the various ages. Thus, in 1891-1901, while the total number of males declined by 7.7 per cent., the numbers in each decennial age-period from 25 to 65 showed an increase. In 1901-1911, on the other hand, the males at each age-period (except 10-14) showed increases, the loss in numbers at ages 15 to 25 between 1891 and 1901 being converted into a substantial gain between 1901 and 1911; the rates of increase at the later ages were also remarkably high. Among females the most striking features are the great increase during the latter period at ages 25 and upwards, and the extent to which the rise at ages 25-45 among the married or widowed has exceeded that among the unmarried. In view of the general prosperity of the industry, as denoted by the increased numbers employed, the increase of married women may be due to a higher marriage rate among the female operatives and to married women re-entering the industry in greater numbers. It is notorious that employers have been put to great straits for lack of hands, and evidence of the extent to which all available labour has been drawn into the mills may be found in the remarkable rates of increase in the numbers of elderly spinsters employed. The younger unmarried women were presumably employed as fully as possible already, so their numbers have not greatly increased; but older women who were not formerly employed to nearly the same extent seem now to have been called up as a veteran reserve.

No less than 83.2 per cent, of the total persons engaged in cotton manufacture in 1911 were enumerated in Lancashire, and nearly all the remainder in the adjoining counties of the West Riding of Yorkshire and Cheshire.

Wool and Worsted Manufacture. —Following a decline of 13.5 per cent, between 1891 and 1901 in the numbers engaged in this manufacture, there was an increase of 6.2 per cent, between 1901 and 1911. The fluctuations in the numbers at the six censuses 1861 to 1911 are shown below:—


Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-)
per cent.
Persons. Males. Females.
1861* 220,892 119,502 101,390      
1871* 235,235 114,485 120,750 6.5 -4.2 19.1
1881 222,371 97,638 124,733 -5.5 -14.7 3.3
1891 242,334 107,237 135,097 9.0 9.8 8.3
1901 209,740 87,671 122,069 -13.5 -18.2 -9.6
1911 222,679 95,531 127,148 6.2 9.0 4.2

* The numbers for 1861 and 1871 include the "Retired."

The numbers of workers at the several ages as returned at the last three censuses show that, as in the case of the cotton operatives, the fluctuations in the totals have affected the different ages very unequally. Between 1891 and 1901 the decline in the workers in wool and worsted manufacture was proportionally greatest among children under 15 years of age; among males very large decreases were also shown at ages 16-25, but among females the decreases at these ages were much smaller in proportion to the total decrease at all ages. Between 1901 and 1911 there was a slight increase in the numbers of children under 15; among males at ages 15-25 there was a partial recovery of the large loss sustained in the earlier intercensal period, but this loss is reflected by a decline in 1911 in the numbers aged 25-35. Among females there was a continued decline at ages 15-25; and while, though the number of elderly spinsters showed a notable increase, the total number of unmarried women was practically stationary, that of married or widowed women increased by 21.6 per cent. The proportion of workers enumerated in the West Riding of Yorkshire was no less than 88.7 per cent, of the total.

Silk Manufacture , which occupied more than 120,000 persons in 1851, employed less than one-fourth of that number in 1911. The 9,087 males and the 20,556 females returned at the latter date were respectively 12.5 and 16.0 per cent, less than the numbers returned in 1901, which in turn had shown a decline of 36.1 and 24.9 per cent, from the numbers at the preceding census. In spite of the total decrease among males in 1901-1911, there was a considerable rise in the number at age 20-25, and smaller increases were shown at ages 15-20 and 45-55; among females every age-group showed decline.

Hosiery Manufacture , which had shown an increase of 21.6 per cent, between 1881 and 1891, and a decrease of 1.5 per cent, between 1891 and 1901, increased by 16.5 per cent, between 1901 and 1911. The increase during the last period was only 5.6 per cent, among the workers under 15 years of age, against 17.4 per cent, among those aged 15 and upwards. There has been at successive censuses an increasing preponderance of females in this occupation, the proportion gradually rising from 114 per 100 males in 1881 to 278 per 100 in 1911.

Lace Manufacture. —The number of persons employed in this manufacture was 61,726 in 1851, but decreased at each successive census until 1891, when 34,746 persons were so returned; in 1901 the number had risen to 36,439, or by 4.9 per cent., and in 1911 there was a further rise of 12.5 per cent, to 41,003. During the last period the males increased from 12,632 to 15,181, 20.2 per cent., against a decrease of 3.1 per cent, in the previous ten years; and the females showed an increase from 23,807 to 25,822, or only 8.5 per cent., as compared with an increase of 9.6 per cent. The varying proportion of females in this occupation at the several censuses will be seen in the table on page 162. It was shown in the Report on the Census of 1901 that in the two counties of Nottingham and Derby, where lace is made principally by machinery, there had been continuous increase since 1871, while in Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Northamptonshire, where lace is principally hand-made, and where the industry is practically limited to females, there had been continuous decrease; some lace-making by machinery is carried on in Devonshire and Somersetshire, and the figures for these seven counties show how the tendency of the one branch of the manufacture to increase and of the other to decrease has persisted in the last intercensal period.

The "rough textile" group , comprising the manufacture of Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre, Rope, Mats, Canvas, Sailcloth, etc., employed 26,714 persons in 1911, against 24,336 in 1901, the increase being 9.8 per cent., against 11.0 per cent, in the preceding ten years. The numbers of the two sexes, however, have varied widely, for while the males actually decreased by 7.2 per cent, in 1891-1901 and increased by only 1-6 per cent, in 1901-1911, the females increased by 39.2 per cent, in the former period and by 18.1 per cent. in the latter. As compared with 1901, the figures indicate a decline of about 50 per cent, in hemp, jute, and cocoa-fibre makers, little change in mat makers, and considerable increase in rope, twine, and cord makers (about 11 per cent.), and in canvas makers (about 32 per cent.).

Carpet, Rug, Felt Manufacture. —The number of persons classified under this heading was 15,302 (6,982 males and 8,320 females) in 1911, against 14,802 (7,150 males and 7,652 females) in 1901. The total increase of 34 per cent, followed a considerable decline in the previous ten years; and, as was the case at every census since 1861, the ratio of females to males showed an increase (see table on page 162). Textile Bleaching, Printing, Dyeing, and Finishing (including Garment Dyeing and Cleaning) gave employment in 1911 to 83,911 persons, of whom 69,616 were males; in 1901 the numbers were 60,029 persons, of whom 51,469 were males; thus the total increased by 39.8 per cent., males by 35.3 per cent, and females by 67.0 per cent. Some part of the apparent increase is due, however, to the more complete separation in 1911 of workers in these processes, which has been rendered possible in many instances by the fuller information afforded by the industry column (column 11) of the schedule.

Dealers in Textile Fabrics (not Drapers). —The number of persons returned as dealers in textile fabrics (excluding drapers, linen drapers, mercers) was 40,171 (34,959 males and 5,212 females), but with the addition of the employees in this business who were classed to other occupations the number is raised to 51,675 males and 6,834 females. The additional male workers included 7,410 clerks, 5,697 commercial travellers, 2,577 messengers, porters, etc., and 353 carmen, etc.; the additional female workers included 1,106 clerks.

XIX. Dress .—The number of persons classified in this Order was 1,195,079, of whom 439,115 were males and 755,964 females, against 1,125,598 persons (414,637 males and 710,961 females) in 1901. In considering the group of persons actually engaged in the making or selling of articles of dress, however, we shall follow the course adopted in the reports of 1891 and 1901, and while omitting, on the one hand, the "Wig Makers, Hairdressers" (who are for the most part hairdressers engaged in personal service, and as such are allied to Order IV.), we shall, on the other hand, include the "Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers," who usually deal in the finished articles of dress as well as in the various fabrics comprised in Order XVIII. The total so arrived at as engaged in making or dealing in articles of Dress increased from 1,225,599 persons (447,946 males and 777,653 females) in 1901 to 1,297,091 persons (461,208 males and 835,883 females) in 1911; the makers (as distinct from the dealers) increased from 1,026,142 to 1,047,105, but while the females rose from 689,956 to 716,039, or by 3.8 per cent., the males declined from 336,186 to 331,066, or by 1.5 per cent.

More than 91 per cent, of the males and nearly 94 per cent, of the females in the group of "makers" of articles of dress are shown under the following headings:—

Tailors (including Mantle Makers)
Dressmakers (including Costume Makers)
Stay, Corset—Makers
Shirt Makers, Seamstresses (including Underclothing, Collar, Tie etc. Makers)
Boot, Shoe—Makers
Slipper Makers, Patten, Clog—Makers

The low rate of increase, or the actual decrease, in the numbers under some of these headings is probably due in a measure to changes in the organization of the clothing trades tending to increased production on a large scale of ready-made articles by means of factory labour. In these industries there are, on the one hand, workers who make articles of dress simply to the order of the customer; they may work on their own account or may work for a retail or wholesale dealer in their own homes, or in workshops either of the firms selling the articles or of persons who take out work from the seller. There is, on the other hand, an increasing number of workers employed in factories, and engaged in producing in large quantities articles which are "manufactured with the advantage, so far as cheapness is concerned, of power-driven machines and minute sub-division of labour."3 It is, doubtless, the growth of the latter class which accounts for the smallness of the increase in the number of male tailors, the majority being engaged in the "bespoke" trade, for the decline in female dressmakers, and shirtmakers, seamstresses, and partly for the declining rate of increase in females engaged in boot making, though in this case, as will be shown later, some part of the falling-off is due to diminution in the rate of growth of factory production.

Drapers showed an increase of 11.3 per cent., but the gain was wholly among the females, whose numbers increased by 23.6 per cent., while the males declined by 1.3 per cent. Excluding Drapers, the Dealers in Dress advanced by 55.2 per cent., but, doubtless, a considerable part of the increase shown in most of the headings for dealers is due to more complete separation from "makers," and in the case of females the numbers are swollen by the inclusion of a larger proportion than formerly of relatives assisting in the business.

The number of persons shown by the industry tabulation as engaged in drapery businesses was 206,076 (94,196 males and 111,880 females), being 55,108 more than the number classified under the heading "Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers" in the occupation tables. The principal occupations of the 27,834 male and the 27,274 female additional workers may be summarised as follows:—

Messengers, Porters, Watchmen 11,198 Commercial Clerks 7,814
Commercial Clerks 7,067 Dressmakers 6,584
Commercial Travellers 5,953 Milliners 4,072
Carmen, Motor Van, etc. Drivers 1,029 Domestic Servants 5,365

It should be observed, however, that, on the one hand, many of these additional workers were probably connected with businesses which, not being concerned solely with the sale of drapery, might be regarded as coming more properly under the heading "Multiple Shop, Multiple Stores"; on the other hand, it is probable that many dressmakers, milliners, etc. employed in drapery establishments omitted to state that fact.

The decline in the number of male drapers was confined to those at ages below 35 years, who numbered 43,974 and 38,631 in 1901 and 1911 respectively; above that age the numbers increased from 23,246 to 27,731; among females there was an increase in every age-group, and the greatest proportional rise was at ages 35.55; the increase among unmarried females of all ages was 19.3 per cent., and was as high as 53.2 per cent, at ages 35.55; among married or widowed females the recorded increase was 60.8 per cent., though, for the reason stated above, the numbers at the two censuses cannot be regarded as strictly comparable, the difference in the method of return probably affecting married women to a greater extent than unmarried.

The numbers returned in 1901 and 1911, together with the rates of increase or decrease for all the headings in Order XIX. (except Wig Makers, Hairdressers), and for Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers, are shown in the following table:—


Straw Plait and Straw Hat Manufacture. —These trades, which are almost confined to Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, have, in the last fifty years, changed in character from hand production in the home to machine production in the factory. Concurrently with this change there has been a great increase in the proportion of male labour employed. This is especially so in the case of straw plait, the making of which employed 27,739 females in 1861 as against 162 in 1911. This material has recently been for the most part imported, but what is still made in this country is mainly produced on machines by male labour.

Manufacture of other Hats and Caps.— It would appear, from a consideration of the figures for the areas in which the different branches of this trade are situated, that the felt hat, having largely replaced the silk hat, is, with difficulty, holding its own against the increasing vogue of cloth hats and caps, the production of which appears to have increased considerably.

Milliners (excluding Dealers in Hats) have increased from 49,231 (of whom 472 were males) to 67,562 (of whom 984 were males), or by 37.2 per cent., notwithstanding the greatly increased number of females classed under the heading "Dealers in Hats. "The proportional increases at ages under 25 among female milliners, as in other rapidly increasing occupations, were remarkably high; at age 14 the number rose from 1,723 to 2,616, or by 51.8 per cent.; at 15-20 from 17,523 to 25,749, or by 46.9 per cent.; and at ages 20-25 from 12,139 to 17,582, or by 44.8 per cent.; at ages above 25 the increase averaged only 19.7 per cent. The unmarried at all ages rose by 39.8 per cent., while the increase for married and widowed was only 4.4 per cent. Comparison of the "status" figures for females at the two censuses indicates considerable change in the organization of this industry, a much larger proportion being employed in places of business; the number of employers showed a large increase in proportion to the total occupied, while there was a large reduction in the proportion of those returned as working on their own account.

Tailors , including Mantle Makers, numbered 249,467 (122,352 males and 127,115 females), against 237,185 (119,545 males and 117,640 females) in 1901. Thus, the total persons increased by 5.2 per cent., males by only 2.3 per cent, and females by 8-1 per cent.; the returns probably understate the actual increase owing to the less complete separation of dealers from makers at the earlier census. As regards the numbers at the several ages, children of both sexes showed a considerable decline, from 2,493 to 1,443, at ages under 14 years; but at the age-group 15-20 both males and females showed an increase. Among males there was an actual decrease, amounting to nearly five thousand, at ages 20-35, but a large increase—over 7,000— at ages 35-55. Among females the unmarried at all ages increased from 86,762 to 96,886, or by 11.7 per cent., the greatest proportional increases being at ages over 25, while the married or widowed at all ages decreased from 30,878 to 30,229, or by 2.1 per cent. The fact that the females now outnumber the males in this occupation, in spite of a decreased number of married and widowed women employed, and the falling-off in the numbers of both sexes returned as "working on own account" (14,794 in 1911, against 20,844 in 1901), point to the growth of production in factories and workshops at the expense of the trade carried on in the homes of the workers. Tailoring is the chief amongst occupations carried on by persons of foreign birth in this country, and of 22,640 males and 5,188 females so engaged, no fewer than 17,877 males and 4,180 females were born in Russia.

The number of Dressmakers was 342,055 in 1911, against 341,599 in 1901. This occupation is almost exclusively followed by females, but it is probably significant of the increasing amount of factory work that the small number of males engaged rose from 1,017 to 2,815, many of whom were either employers or supervisors, while the females actually declined from 340,582 to 339,240. further evidence of the production on a large scale in this, as in some other of the clothing trades, is furnished by the increased proportion of unmarried as compared with married or widowed women, the former having risen from 279,161 to 286,767, or by 2.7 per cent., while the latter declined from 61,421 to 52,473, or by 14.6 per cent.; the increased proportion of employers, the decreased proportion returned as working at home, and the large decline in the rural districts (14.9 per cent.) also point in the same direction.

Shirt Makers, Seamstresses. —The number classed under this heading includes 5,046 males and 80,338 females; the former showed an increase of 24.9 per cent, and the latter a decrease of 3.9 per cent., but the female totals are somewhat unreliable for the purpose of comparison. The heading comprises three classes:—

  1. Persons indefinitely returned as Button Holers, Hemmers, Sewing Machinists, Stitchers, Tackers, etc., who, if properly returned, would be classed under some other heading in this Order, or under a heading, such as hosiery or lace manufacture, in Order XVIII.
  2. Needle Women, Plain Workers, etc., either working on their own account or going to their employers' houses to work.
  3. Persons engaged in the manufacture of shirts, collars, ties, underclothing, etc.

The general decline in the number of females is doubtless due in a large degree to the reduction in the second of the above classes, but some part of the apparent decrease must also be ascribed to the smaller number of indefinite returns (class 1) at the later census.

Button Makers and Glove Makers both showed appreciable increase in number, following decreases at previous censuses.

Boot) Shoe, Slipper, Patten, ClogMakers and Dealers numbered 247,160 persons (191,285 males and 55,875 females) in 1911, against 251,143 persons (198,304 males and 52,839 females) in 1901; the decrease in the total was equal to 1.6 per cent., and in the males to 3.5 per cent., while the females showed an increase of 5.7 per cent. Between 1891 and 1901 there had been an increase of 0.9 per cent, in the total, and of 14.5 per cent, in the females, but a decrease of 2.1 per cent, in the males. This small increase between 1891 and 1901 followed a rise of 11.0 per cent, in 1881-1891, which in turn followed a decline in each of the two preceding intercensal periods.

It would appear from consideration of the figures that throughout this period the industry was changing both in character and in localisation. As it was gradually converted from a workshop to a factory trade it became more concentrated in certain areas, particularly Northamptonshire and Leicester. The change in method of production appears to have been continuous, and there can be little doubt that the actual decline now recorded in the numbers employed is the result of greater use of power machinery and of the speeding up of production owing to increased specialisation. Comparison of the exports and imports of the United Kingdom for the two years 1910 and 1911 with those for 1900 and 1901 certainly points to a greatly increased output. In the two later years there were 2,239,238 dozens of pairs of leather boots and shoes exported, and 337,879 dozens imported; the corresponding figures for 1900 and 1901 were 1,308,787 and 531,172.4

XX. Food, Tobacco, Drink, and Lodging .—The number of persons comprised in this Order as engaged in the preparation and sale of food, tobacco, and drink, and in providing board and lodging, was 1,388,248 (913,565 males and 474,683 females) in 1911, against 1,073,809 (774,291 males and 299,518 females) in 1901, the rate of increase thus being 29.3 per cent, for persons, 18.0 per cent, for males and 58-5 per cent, for females. The totals are, however, not strictly comparable owing to—

  1. Difference in the method of returning female relatives assisting the head of the family in business (to which reference has already been made);
  2. The more complete return of lodging and boarding house keepers in 1911; and
  3. Changes in the classification of waiters and others in Inns and Hotels, which resulted in their more complete separation from Order IV. (Domestic Service).

The large general increase in the number of persons employed in the food trades is widely distributed over the various headings in the list. The only occupation showing a decrease in the number employed is that of Slaughterers, and as this decrease is accompanied by a large increase in the number returned as Butchers and Meat Salesmen, the significance attaching to it appears to be doubtful. Mineral water manufacture also shows little increase, but most other branches of food preparation and manufacture record large increases in employment, notably creameries, chocolate and cocoa manufacture and condiment manufacture. Doubtless, these changes are dependent upon the alteration in social habits which is leading to increased dependence upon the purchase of food prepared for the table in place of preparation in the home. In this connexion it is interesting to note that employment in the preparation of grain by milling, which for many generations has ceased to be carried out in the home, shows an increase below that in the population generally, as a result probably of improvements in machinery and organisation. Other causes of increased employment in the food manufacturing trades appear to be increase of the purchasing power of the population, leading to greater demand for such articles as chocolate and sweetmeats, and alterations in organisation which have increased such headings as creamery workers, dairymen, and provision curers at the expense of agriculture.

The various headings under which the "Dealers" in Food are classified nearly all show increase in the number of males in excess of that among the general population (10.9 per cent.), the only exception being "Grocers" with an increase of 9.8 per cent. The numbers occupied at the several ages, however, show some very different rates of increase, as will be seen from the following table, which includes the principal occupations under these headings; in common with most other industries there has been a considerable falling-off in the numbers employed under 15; at 15-20 the increase is much greater than at 20-25 for butchers and grocers, and, to a less extent, for greengrocers, while it is much smaller among milksellers.


The large excess of males at age 15-20 over those at age 20-25 employed by grocers, 33,217, against 25,610 in 1911, is noteworthy as indicating a certain amount of "blind-alley" employment; the only other of the five headings in the table affording similar indication is that for butchers, under which the number at 15-20 was 23,885, against 20,042 at 20-25.

In all these trades, however, large numbers of errand boys are employed, and, being classified according to their occupation as messengers, are not included in the foregoing table. These boys, with the clerks and carmen, constitute the majority of the additional workers shown by the industry tabulation to be connected with the businesses referred to, and their numbers in relation to the total numbers employed are shown in the following statement, which includes also figures for the three other of the more important food dealing businesses, viz., provision dealers, corn merchants, and fishmongers:—

Grocers. Green-
(Makers and
Total in Occupation Tables:—                
        Males 46,700 123,252 165,981 51,813 122,421 18,448 17,946 36,999
        Females 10,271 11,881 53,638 20,476 76,129 6,119 2,222 7,685
Additional Workers:—                
        Males 7,711 12,710 51,048 10,463 14,556 10,348 13,856 5,026
        Females 1,345 3,941 5,514 510 2,544 1,986 659 883
Total (including
        Males 54,411 135,962 217,029 62,276 136,977 28,796 31,802 42,025
        Females 11,616 15,822 59,152 20,986 78,673 8,105 2,881 8,568
The Additional Workers include:—                
      Porters, Watchmen—
        Under 15 3,937 3,995 11,512 1,992 3,092 477 257 681
        15—20 2,050 3,882 11,405 2,222 3,023 786 351 1,169
        20 and upwards 76 300 4,038 691 382 527 565 407
      Clerks 522 2,051 7,227 1,677 1,928 4,086 3,813 1,115
      Carmen 694 979 7,868 3,467 1,677 1,568 5,211 976
    Females—Clerks 1,193 3,671 4,751 426 1,568 1,744 562 826

Tobacco. —Although the quantity of unmanufactured tobacco imported into the United Kingdom, less re-exports, was over 28 per cent, more in the five years ending 1911 than in the five years ending 1901, the number of persons employed in the manufacture of tobacco in England and Wales showed a decline of 1-1 per cent. The number of tobacconists, on the other hand, increased by 26 per cent.

The Makers of Spirituous Drinks , as classified in the third sub-order of Order XX., numbered 38,170, or 68 less than in 1901. Maltsters declined in number by 2.6 per cent., the quantity of beer made in the United Kingdom having been 6.9 per cent, less in the five years ending 1911 than ten years earlier. The number of males engaged in brewing showed practically no variation in 1911 from the number in 1901; between 1891 and 1901 there had been an increase of 7.3 per cent. In addition to the 27,905 persons shown under the heading "Brewers," no fewer than 47,443 other persons were returned as being employed in connexion with the brewing industry. The principal occupations followed by the male additional workers in this industry are summarised below:—

  Males   Males Blacksmiths; Erecters, Fitters, Turners
        (including labourers), and others in
       General Engineering 1,339 Commercial Travellers 2,824 Commercial Clerks 8,853 Horsekeepers, etc 1,330 Carpenters, Joiners, and their Labourers 1,021 Carmen, Motor Van, etc. Drivers 13,102 Painters, Decorators 559 Messengers, Porters, Watchmen 962 Coopers 3,145 Beer Bottlers 3,814 Maltsters 2,478 Cellarmen 1,923 Engine Drivers, Stokers, Firemen (not Rly., etc.) 1,687    

The female additional workers included 161 clerks and 1,578 beer bottlers.


Dealing in Spirituous Drinks. —Taking the first group of headings to represent occupations connected with the sale of spirituous drinks (though many of the workers in the next two headings also should be added), the males increased from 127,309 to 132,302, or by 3.9 per cent.—the rate of increase among the Inn, Hotel—Keepers, Publicans, and Wine Merchants being 4.8 per cent., against 2-2 per cent, among Barmen, Cellarmen, etc. In the case of the females, the great increase in the number classed under the heading, "Inn, Hotel—Keeper, etc.," is doubtless due to increased return of relatives as assisting in business. It is probable, however, that some female relatives of Inn and Hotel Keepers who were classified in 1901 as Barmaids or Bar Assistants were in 1911, on account of the difference in the method of return, classified as "Inn, Hotel—Keepers, etc."

As regards "Waiters (not Domestic " and "Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating, House— Service" it is not possible to make any satisfactory comparison of the numbers at the two censuses, for the following reason:—All Waiters in Inns, Hotels, Beershops, Restaurants, Coffee Houses, Eating Houses, and Clubs, and also Waiters in Colleges, lodging Houses, Boarding Houses, Temperance Hotels, and Hotel lodging Houses, if non-resident, have been classed under the heading "Waiter (not Domestic)" in 1911, and other persons returned as working at (but not residing in) all kinds of Hotels, lodging and Bating Houses were, as a rule, classed under the heading "Others in Inn, Hotel, etc. Service," but in 1901 the separation of such workers from the various headings in Order IV. (Domestic Service) was nothing like so complete. How much of the increase under these two headings is due to the more rigid classification in 1911 cannot be ascertained, but there is no doubt that this cause is not by itself sufficient to account for the whole of the very large increase shown by the recorded numbers, viz., 44,261 males and 38,994 females in 1911, as against 18,849 males and 21,106 females in 1901. Out of the total of 23,054 males who, at the latter census, were classed as "Waiters (not Domestic)", 7,888 were of foreign nationality, this number including 3,263 from Germany, 1,591 from Italy, 1,406 from Austria, 628 from Switzerland, and 446 from France.

The industry tabulation distinguishes the numbers of "Waiters" and of "Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating House, etc. Service" who were in the employ of Hotel Keepers and Publicans from those who were employed in Eating House, lodging House, and Boarding House Service. With the former, and with the further addition of persons in all other occupations employed in Inn, Hotel—Service and in Dealing in Spirituous Drinks, the total number in this service is raised to 185,187 males and 112,886 females. The following summary shows the more important occupations connected with the trade:—

  Males Females
Inn, Hotel—Keepers, Publications, Wine and Spirit Merchants,
   Beer Bottlers, Cellarmen, Barmen
132,302 82,159
   Waiters (not Domestic) 11,749 4,409
   Others in Inn, Hotel, etc. Service 12,338 2,929
   Domestic Indoor Servants in Hotels, etc 5,317 15,421
   Other Domestic Indoor Servants* 2,055
   Cooks (not Domestic) 3,979 2,900
   Performers, Showmen; Exhibitions, Games Service? 1,571  
   Commercial Travellers 1,768  
   Commercial Clerks 5,403 2,199
   Coachmen (not Domestic) and Omnibus Service 1,135  
   Horsekeepers, Grooms, Stablemen 3,364  
   Carmen, Motor Van, etc. Drivers 2,009  
   Messengers, Porters, Watchmen 1,899  
   Others 2,353 814
Total    185,187 112,886

* These are domestic servants engaged in attendance on the employees of hotels and public houses.
#8224;These are mostly billiard markers.

Coffee House, Eating HouseKeepers increased from 19,113 to 32,651, or by 70.8 per cent.—the males from 11,870 to 15,970, or by 34.5 per cent., and the females from 7,243 to 16,681, or by 130.3 per cent., the rate of increase for unmarried females being 121 per cent., against 135 per cent, for the married or widowed. Part of the increase under this heading is, no doubt, due to the inclusion of a greater proportion than in 1901 of the female relatives, but it is highly probable that much of the increase is real, and may be accounted for by the extension of catering for light refreshments, the managers or manageresses of such businesses being classed to this heading. The waitresses returned as employed in coffee and eating-houses numbered 17,890.

Lodging House, Boarding HouseKeepers. —The number of persons so classed was 83,816 (9,145 males and 74,671 females). In 1901 the numbers classified under this heading were 6,543 males and 43,527 females. The actual increase is, however, less than is indicated by these figures, for in 1911 persons for whom no occupation was returned, but who were apparently dependent upon income received from boarders, were classed as boarding house keepers, the rule being as follows:—

"In Schedules where the occupation of 'Boarding House Keeper' is not given, and the number of boarders exceeds the number of persons in the family, excluding servants, the establishment is to be taken as a Boarding House as regards the Servants. The code for 'Boarding House Keeper. is, however, only to be added when no statement is made in Column 10 (Personal Occupation) for the person in charge and the number of boarders exceeds three. These rules do not apply to houses in which business assistants are boarded by the firm."

The largest numbers of Lodging House and Boarding House Keepers in proportion to population are naturally found in those counties which contain popular seaside and other holiday resorts, and it is among such counties that some of the greatest rates of increase have been recorded, though, for the reason given above the recorded are in excess of the real increases.

XXI, Gas, Water, and Electricity Supply, and Sanitary Service .—The total number of workers classified to this Order was 102,355 (of whom only 116 were females), against 71,425 (of whom 141 were females) in 1901; the increase was, therefore, equal to 43.3 per cent. The numbers of males under each heading comprised in the Order in 1901 and 1911 were as follows:—

1901. 1911. Increase per cent.
Gas Works Service 47,028 54,526 15.9
Waterworks Service 5,701 8,565 50.2
Electricity Supply 2,888 14,854 414.3
Drainage and Sanitary Service 7,189 9,810 36.5
Scavenging and Disposal of Refuse 8,478 14,484 70.8

The numbers of males classified under the heading "Gas Works Service" were 4,714, 8,746, and 13,561 respectively at the censuses of 1851, 1861, and 1871 (when clerks employed in gas works were included in the numbers); in 1881 and succeeding censuses (when clerks were excluded from the heading) the numbers were 18,535, 30,729, 47,028, and 54,526 respectively. Thus the rate of increase, which had been as high as 65.8 per cent, in 1881-1891, and 53.0 per cent, in 1891-1901, fell to 15.9 per cent, in 1901-1911. The number employed in Local Authorities' gas works in 1911 was 18,237. Addition of 24,506 gas works employees classified under other occupational headings, chiefly gas fitters and commercial clerks, raises the total number of males employed to 79,032, of whom 23,436 were in Local Authorities' gas works.

Electricity Supply. —While there can be no doubt that the number of persons engaged in the supply of electric light and power has increased very largely between 1901 and 1911, it is evident that the recorded numbers do not furnish a true comparison.

Only 2,888 males were returned in 1901 as engaged in the supply of electricity, but the report on that census, commenting on this figure, stated that "there is reason to believe that this is less than the true number, many drivers of generating engines having described themselves as electrical engineers, and having been accordingly classified as electrical apparatus makers." There is still considerable looseness of description—nearly one-third of the males being classed under the heading "electricians undefined," which includes electrical engineers undefined—but the particulars now furnished as to industry with which connected have contributed to a more complete separation of persons engaged in the generation and supply of electricity from those engaged in making and fitting electrical apparatus. Rather more than half the total engaged in the supply of electricity were employed by Local Authorities.

XXII. Other, General, and Undefined Workers and Dealers .—This Order includes some miscellaneous occupations which do not come appropriately under any one of the foregoing Orders, as well as some which have been regarded as "General" or "Undefined," because, from want of precision in the returns; they could not be definitely assigned to their proper headings.

The first sub-order, "Advertising" is now shown for the first time; three of the four headings comprised in it were formerly included in Order XVII. (Paper Prints, Books, and Stationery), but were not separately distinguished in that Order. These headings relate to Circular, Envelope—Addressers (123 males and 144 females), Advertising, Bill Posting—Agents (3,404 males and 123 females), and Bill Posters (3,273 males). The fourth heading related to Sandwichmen, Bill Distributors, who in 1901 were included in the miscellaneous group, "Sundry Workers in other Industries "; the tables show only 1,174 persons under this heading, but probably many who should have been included returned themselves under some other occupational designation. The whole sub-order is mainly confined to workers in advertising businesses, and does not include to any extent persons employed by newspaper publishers or by the firms manufacturing or dealing in the articles advertised. In addition to the 7,972 males and 269 females classified under the four headings, there were 1,373 male and 494 female commercial clerks returned as connected with advertising, the total numbers in the industry, inclusive of all additional workers, being 9,924 males and 795 females.

In the second sub-order, "About Animals" are included the "Cattle, Sheep, Pig —Dealers, Salesmen," who, together with "Drivers, Lairmen," declined from 8,199 in 1901 to 7,848 in 1911.

The third sub-order, "Sundry Specified Industries," included the following headings, which were shown also in 1901:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box, etc.—Makers 2,017 1,347 670 2,323 1,630 693
Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoiseshell—
2,072 1,697 375 1,480 1,174 306
Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth—Manufacture 3,491 3,397 94 6,205 6,096 109
Japanners 2,596 964 1,632 781 293 488
Chimney Sweeps 6,855 6,801 54 7,726 7,694 32
Rag—Gatherers, Dealers 4,403 2,572 1,831 9,431 4,373 5,058

The great increase under Floor Cloth Manufacture was almost confined to Lancashire, where most than half the trade is centred. No comparison can be made between the figures at the two census for Japanners, those for 1911 relating only to persons employed in japanning works, and those who omitted to state the manufacture with which they were connected.

"Celluloid—Makers, Workers," who had not previously been distinguished in the tables, numbered 2,017, of whom 1,008 were males and 1,009 were females. This industry was carried on mainly in Essex and Suffolk.

Another new heading in this sub-order is that for " Receiving Shop, Receiving Office—Keepers, Assistants (Laundry; Dyers and Cleaners)," which includes 157 males and 1,660 females who were returned as in receiving offices in connexion with laundries, and 128 males and 1,581 females in receiving offices for dyeing and cleaning businesses.

The sub-order "Makers and Dealers (General or Undefined)" includes the six headings shown in the table below—those for "Multiple Shop, Multiple Store— Proprietors, Workers (general or undefined)," and "News—Boys, Vendors (street or undefined)," which have been introduced at this census, having been formerly classified to "General Shopkeepers" and "Costermongers, Street Sellers" respectively. Comparative figures are as follows:—

1901. 1911.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Multiple Shop, Multiple Store—Proprie-
       tors, Workers (general or undefined)
} 51,576 23,539 28,037{ 4,035 3,122 913
General or Unclassified Shopkeepers,
       General Dealers
86,042 38,697 47,345
Pawnbrokers 12,530 10,769 1,761 15,128 12,611 2,517
Costermongers, Hawkers, Street Sellers } 61,339 46,941 14,398{ 69,347 53,971 15,376
News—Boys, Vendors (street or undefined) 16,441 16,174 267
Contractors, Manufacturers, Managers,
    Superintendents, Foremen (undefined)
7,240 6,646 594 3,492 3,208 284

General Shopkeepers and their assistants, including shopkeepers and shop assistants not otherwise described, and a few in businesses not classified in any of the preceding Orders, appear to have increased considerably since 1901. Among the females some part of the increase is doubtless due to the more complete returns of relatives assisting in business, and among males the more precise classification at this census may have affected the comparability of the figures. The growth of "multiple shops or stores," i.e. , businesses embracing several departments of retail trade, made it advisable to attempt to separate them in the tables from ordinary general shops. The number of persons shown under this heading in the table above does not include the large number of workers in multiple shops who were classified according to the personal occupation in which they were engaged, e.g. , workers and dealers in food and in dress, clerks, and carmen., The total number of persons employed in multiple shops is 44,570, and it is probable that even this number considerably understates the facts.

Pawnbrokers and their assistants (exclusive of the small number of "additional workers" employed in this industry) appear to have increased from 12,530 to 15,128, or by 20.7 per cent., against 9.3 per cent, in the previous intercensal period. The distinction between persons classed as pawnbrokers and those classed as dealers in precious metals, etc., cannot always be made with certainty, but as there was also a very large increase under the latter heading between 1901 and 1911 (seepage 122), it would not be safe to assume that transfers from it accounted for the rise in the recorded number engaged in pawnbroking. The number of pawnbrokers' licences issued during the year ending 31st March, 1911, was 4,559, against 4,280 in the year ending March, 1901, this increase of 6.5 per cent, being, almost identical with that in 1901 as compared with 1891.

The number of "Costermongers, Hawkers, Street Sellers" including for comparison newsboys, etc., who were not shown separately in 1901, increased from 61,339 in 1901 to 85,788, or by nearly 40 per cent., the increase of males being 49.4 per cent, and that of females 8-6 per cent. Some part of the excess of the male over the female rate of increase apparently occurred among newspaper sellers. In. 1901 only 3,219 mates under 15 and a further 6,238 between 15 and 20 were classified as "coster-mongers, hawkers, street sellers"; but in 1911 this heading together with "News— Boys, Vendors" contained 10,766 under 15 and a further 7,526 between 15 and 20, the newspaper sellers at these ages numbering 10,174 and 3,075 respectively. At ages above 20, which include few newspaper sellers, the comparative figures were 38,484 in 1901, against 51,853 in 1911, showing an increase of 34.7 per cent. The increase was considerable at all age-periods, except 75 and upwards, but was much greater under 15 years than at any subsequent age. This enormous increase from 3,219 to 10,766 in the number of boys returned under these headings does doubtless represent a real increase in the number of newspaper sellers—which occupation is quite exceptional in this respect—but it is also probable that the returns for 1911 were more complete than were those of 1901. The 10,174 boys under 15 years classified as newsboys (street or undefined) included some who should have been returned as employed in newsagents' businesses, in addition to the 1,984 who were so returned.

The heading "General Labourers" comprises labourers who, partly owing to insufficient description in the returns, were not classified to the trade, manufacture, or service with which they were connected. The reduction in the numbers from 409,773 in 1901 to 295,343 in 1911 may denote, therefore, improvement in the returns, and may not imply any change in the number of labourers whose work was not of a specialised character, and who were, therefore, properly described by the term "General labourer." In the census classification labourers are, with few exceptions, assigned to the same headings as the other workers in the respective manufactures or trades. The industry tables show 55,971 General Labourers working in connexion with specified industries or services, but this number relates only to those who were not classified directly to the industry or to the particular branch of work in the service with which they were connected, and includes 8,214 in the service of the National Government, 35,009 in Local Government service, 1,978 in Shipping and Navigation service, 6,192 in Harbour, Dock, etc. service, and 3,306 in the employ of Contractors and Manufacturers (undefined).

The number of "EngineDrivers, Stokers, Firemen (not Railway, Marine, or Agricultural) " was 110,761, against 106,320 in 1901, and it is gratifying to be able to record the fact that the new question on the schedule as to the industry or service with which connected was so well answered by these men that 97,569, or 88 per cent., of them were classified accordingly in the industry tables. They are distributed over practically all the industries or services, as will be seen from Table 66 of the Summary Volume, those employing the largest numbers being given in the following list:—

Industry or Service. Number of
Industry or Service. Number of
National Government 1,208* Road, Railway, Canal, etc.
Local Government 4331* Chemical and Alkali Manufacture 1,586
Institution (not Poor Law) Service 1,045 Cotton Manufacture 4,532
Laundry and Washing Service 1,832 Wool, Worsted—Manufacture 2,413
Harbour, Dock, etc.—Service 2,656 Textile Bleaching, Printing, Dyeing,
Coal Mining 27,296 Corn Milling, Cereal Food Manufac-
Stone Mining and Quarrying 1,019 Brewing 1,687
Brick, etc.—Manufacture 1,629 Gas Works Service 1,959
Iron and Steel Manufacture 6,649 Waterworks Service 2,047
Engineering (including Boiler Making
    and Ironfounding)

*These numbers are exclusive of engine drivers, etc employed in those branches of National or Local Government which are classified separately in the industry tables.

XXIII. Persons without specified occupations or unoccupied. —This Order comprises all persons aged 10 years and upwards who are not classified in any of the foregoing twenty-two orders. It includes (1) persons who have retired from business or the professions (other than officers of the army or navy), (2) pensioners, (3) old age pensioners whose occupation or former occupation was not stated, (4) persons neither following nor having followed an occupation or profession, but deriving their income from private sources or allowances, (5) students, (6) children (over 10 years) attending school, and (7) the remainder of the population, consisting principally of wives wholly engaged in domestic duties at home. It was intended to classify the unoccupied under six headings, but it was found necessary to introduce a separate heading for (3), and to amalgamate the numbers recorded under (5), (6), and (7) on account of the incompleteness of the returns.

The numbers tabulated under these several headings, together with the corresponding numbers at the two preceding censuses, are given below, but in making comparisons due regard must be paid to the qualifying remarks following the table.


The "retired" include at each census not only those who had discontinued their industrial, commercial, or professional activity either on account of having accumulated the means of independence or of having reached an advanced age, but also those who by reason of physical or mental infirmity were assumed to have relinquished work permanently. Thus, all inmates of lunatic asylums, all insane inmates of workhouses, as well as all other inmates over 60 years of age whose former occupation was stated, are classed under this heading. The only change in classification in 1911 is the inclusion of retired clergymen of the established church and retired medical practitioners, who numbered 941 and 1,579 respectively, but this accounted for only 2,520 out of the apparent increase. The major part of the increase under this heading is due to the provision of Old Age Pensions, which have brought a large number of old people into the ranks of the retired. The former occupations of retired persons and of pensioners are dealt with below.

The heading "Pensioner" is restricted as far as the returns permit to unoccupied persons returned as living on or in receipt of pensions paid in respect of specific services rendered, including men of the army, navy, and marines. There is no doubt, however, that most of the large increase in the numbers shown under the heading is due to the fact that many old age pensioners were returned simply as pensioners, with the addition of their former occupation, and could not, therefore, be distinguished from persons properly coming under this heading; this is evident from the great increase at the age-groups 65-75, and 75 and upwards. The number of old age pensioners shown separately does not represent anything like the total number in receipt of such pensions, but only those who so described themselves and failed to return their present or former occupations, together with the small number of males and the considerable number of females who had never followed an occupation. The total number of old age pensions payable in England and Wales on the 31st March, 1911, is shown in the Annual Report of the Commissioners of Customs and Excise as 613,873. Persons who were stated to be following an occupation at the time of the census, and were also in receipt of pensions, such as army, navy, and police pensioners, as well as the majority of old age pensioners, are classified according to the occupation returned, and are, therefore, excluded from this Order.

Under the heading "Private Means" the numbers show a considerable decrease in 1911, but it is improbable that there has actually been a corresponding reduction in the number of persons deriving their incomes entirely from private sources. It was intended that the heading should not include any persons who had retired from an occupation, or who supplemented their private income by work of any kind. It was observed in the report on the census of 1901 that probably some persons who had retired and were unwilling to name their former occupations returned themselves as living on their own means. Possibly, with the general improvement of the returns, such defective statements may have been fewer at the later census, thus causing a transfer to the heading "retired," On the other hand, in 1901, persons neither following nor having retired from a profession or occupation, but deriving their incomes from private sources, were directed to return themselves as Living on own means," but in 1911 "persons .... deriving their income from private sources or allowances" were instructed to write "Private means" in the occupation column of the schedule. This may have led to the inclusion under this heading of persons who were dependent on allowances from relatives, and would not have claimed to be living on their own means. Presumably the effect of the former consideration has been greater than that of the latter.

An attempt was made to ascertain the number of students and of scholars over 10 years of age, but the returns were so incomplete that it would have been misleading to give the figures in the several tables, and they have, therefore, been added to the heading "Others" in this Order. The wording of the schedule was quite explicit in requiring an entry in the occupation column for all children over 10 years attending school and for all persons over that age who were attending colleges, evening schools, or other instructional classes, or were receiving instruction privately. The extent to which the returns were incomplete in this respect may, however, be judged from the fact that there were no fewer than 314,637 boys and 459,356 girls between the ages of 10 and 15 who were apparently neither receiving instruction nor following an occupation, and a further 53,321 males and 415,798 unmarried females between the ages of 15 and 20. The females exceeded the males at each year of age, but the differences are not large at the ages 10,11, and 12, when it may be presumed nearly all would be receiving instruction; after these ages the preponderance of girls is doubtless due to the numbers engaged in domestic duties at home. Above the age of 20 years, 24,866 males and 13,369 females were returned as scholars or students not following an occupation.

The last heading in the Occupation Tables comprises, in addition to the scholars and students included for the reason given above, all persons who omitted to state their occupations, and persons solely occupied in the duties of their own households.

By far the largest class included consists of wives without other than domestic occupation, and to a smaller extent of daughters and other female relatives similarly occupied.

Retired and Pensioners .—Up to age 55 the proportion of males classified as "pensioners" and "retired" per 100 occupied is almost exactly the same in 1911 as in 1901, but beyond that age the figures for 1911 are in considerable and rapidly increasing excess. The change may probably be attributed to the effect of old age pensions, a surmise confirmed by the fact that most of the increase occurred elsewhere than in workhouse establishments and lunatic asylums. In considering the proportions of retired to occupied under the several occupational headings it is necessary to bear in mind some of the principal causes of the wide variations. These were summarized in the report on the census of 1901 page 130) in the following words:—

  1. The statements in the schedules as to the former callings of the "Retired" are generally less precise than are those as to the callings of those still occupied.
  2. Persons who retire from an occupation may either retire altogether or may engage in other occupation.
  3. The prevailing ages of retirements vary considerably in different occupations.
  4. The fact of the numbers engaged in any occupation being greater or less than in former years would cause the retired from that occupation to bear a greater or less proportion to the occupied—in other words, as they are the remnant of a greater or a smaller number than are now engaged in the occupation.
  5. Many females who have been employed in occupations while unmarried retire from those occupations when they marry. The fact of such persons having previously had occupations is not stated on the Census Schedules, and that are, therefore, not classed among the Retired.

Other considerations, such as the occupational age-distributions, occupational mortality, and the state of trade, must, however, not be overlooked.

The figures for labourers may be taken as illustrating the effects of causes (1) and (2) above. Amongst the defined classes of labourers the proportion of pensioned or retired to occupied did not exceed 3 per cent. in any instance save that of agricultural labourers where it was 3.57. The proportion for undefined factory labourers, however, was 7.55, and for general or undefined labourers 9.21 per cent.

The excessive proportions in the undefined group indicate partly the want of precision in the statement as to former occupation; they may, however, also be regarded as indicating the inclusion of men who had for the greater part of their working life followed some more definite occupation but had drifted into casual labour before finally becoming unoccupied.

To follow out in detail the extent to which each of the above-mentioned causes affects the proportion of retired to occupied under the various headings is impracticable, but their combined effect may been seen in the following examples of some of the occupations in which large numbers of persons were employed; the proportions of retired" in workhouses and lunatic asylums being shown separately:—


Among the professions it is found that the proportion of clergymen of the Established Church who had retired was low, being only 3.93 per cent., and for the much smaller number of Roman Catholic priests was only 1.30, while among ministers of other religious bodies it was as high as 942 per cent.; for solicitors the proportion 7.25 per cent.; for medical practitioners, 6.79 per cent.; for engineers and surveyors, 11.92 per cent.; for artists, architects, and engravers, 4.60 per cent.; for authors, editors, journalists, 2.93 per cent; for musicians, 2.75 per cent., and for actors, 1.63 per cent.

The proportions of retired to occupied among females are, speaking generally, much lower than among males, chiefly on account of the large number of married women who, though formerly occupied, do not appear as "retired" in the tables. For all occupations the proportion of "retired" among unmarried females was equal to 1.19 per cent, of the "occupied"; among married females, 1.16 per cent., and among widows, 8.60 per cent. There is, however, nothing like a constant relation between the rates for unmarried and married in the several occupations, as will be seen from the examples of the more important female occupations given in the subjoined table:—


The rates for widows are, almost without exception, much higher than for the unmarried or for the married. At the several age-groups, however, the rates are consistently lower than for the unmarried, except for the smaller numbers below 35 years, while as compared with the married, the excess is not great at any age. The wide variation is, therefore, attributable to the different age-distribution of unmarried, married, and widowed women.

The age-distribution of persons classified under the heading "Private Means" shows that the majority were over 55 years of age, and suggests that there are still some persons returned under this heading who should have been returned as "Retired." Under the heading "Others" (including scholars and students) it may be observed that over 83 per cent, of the males and over 53 per cent, of the unmarried females were between 10 and 15 years of age; and of the eight million females over 15 years of age nearly three-quarters were wives.


Proportions Occupied. —The following figures indicate the proportions in which the population of both sexes aged 10 years and upwards was returned as engaged in gainful occupations, whether actually employed on the date of the census or not. This was the first census at which the inquiry as to occupation was restricted to persons over ten years of age, but at the censuses of 1891 and 1901 the numbers of children under ten years of age returned as engaged in occupations were so small that they were not considered to be worth abstraction. It must be remembered that women engaged in the duties of their own' households are treated as "unoccupied" in the census tabulation.

The total population aged 10 years and upwards and the numbers and proportions classified as occupied in the above sense and unoccupied (i.e. , without specified occupation or retired) are as follows:—

Aged 10 years
Males. Females.
Total. Married. Total. Unmarried. Married. Widowed.
  Occupied 11,453,665 6,200,734 4,830,734 3,739,532 680,191 411,011
  Unoccupied 2,208,535 295,052 10,026,379 3,122,493 5,950,093 953,793
    Total 13,662,200 6,495,786 14,857,113 6,862,025 6,630,284 1,364,804
Proportions per 1,000:            
  Occupied 838 955 325 545 103 301
  Unoccupied 162 45 675 455 897 699
    Total 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

In 1901 the proportions per 1,000 aged 10 years and upwards engaged in occupations were—for males, 837; for total females, 316; for unmarried females, 523; and for married and widowed females, who were tabulated together, 132.

The proportions for females, especially those for married and widowed, are affected for purposes of comparison by a new instruction on the 1911 schedule. In the 1901 schedule occupiers were requested to "State the Occupation, if any, of each person (whether man, woman, or child)," but this instruction left doubt as to what was required with regard to the occupations of women assisting their relatives in business or engaged in domestic duties at home. The ambiguity was removed at this census by the following instruction:—" The occupations of women engaged in any business or profession, including women regularly engaged in assisting relatives in trade or business , must be fully stated. No entry should be made in the case of wives, daughters, or other female relatives wholly engaged in domestic duties at home." The first part of the instruction has resulted in the inclusion in the returns of a considerable number of women who in the absence of such directions would have been returned as without occupation, especially wives and daughters assisting the head of the family in shops and other dealing businesses, and in boarding and lodging houses, and female relatives assisting in the work of farms.

Proportions of Males occupied at several ages.— The proportions of occupied persons vary greatly at the different age-periods, being naturally low at ages 10-15, and again at ages over 65. From 15-20 to 55-65 there are no great differences in the proportions, the maximum being reached at age 25-35, when 98-6 per cent, were returned as occupied. Although the proportion of occupied to total males aged 10 years and upwards was practically identical at the two censuses, viz., 838 in 1911, against 837 in 1901, there is a distinct difference between the ways in which this result has been attained, the proportions occupied under 15 and over 65 being considerably lower in 1911 than in 1901, a decrease somewhat more than compensated for by slight increase at ages 25-65. At the age-group 10-15 only 183 per 1,000 males were occupied in 1911, against 219 per 1,000 in 1901, and again at the two highest age-groups shown in the tables (65-75 and 75 and upwards) there was considerable reduction. A decline in the proportion occupied at 10-15 had been observed in 1901 as compared with 1891, when the proportion was 260 per 1,000; the proportion at ages over 65 has also been declining since the same date, the rate having fallen from 648 per 1,000 in 1891 to 606 in 1901 and 560 in 1911. The further decline in the last intercensal period is, therefore, to some extent a continuation of the tendency to enter occupations somewhat later in life than was formerly the case, and to discontinue them somewhat earlier; doubtless regulations as to school attendance have contributed to the continued falling-off among the children, while Old Age Pensions have accentuated the diminution of active employment among the aged.

The following table shows the proportions of occupied males at various ages in England and Wales and in the aggregate of Urban Districts and of Rural Districts 1901 and 1911:—

Ages. England and Wales. Aggregate of
Urban Districts.
Aggregate of
Rural Districts.
1901. 1911. 1901. 1911. 1901. 1911.
Total (aged 10 and upwards) 837 838 841 842 825 826
10 and under 15 219 183 215 183 229 182
15    "    20 918 917 918 918 919 913
20    "    25 974 974 975 974 969 970
25    "    35 983 986 985 988 975 979
35    "    45 978 983 981 986 968 971
45    "    55 961 967 963 971 953 955
55    "    65 890 896 883 893 907 903
65    "    75 689 645 650 617 768 714
75 and upwards 390 311 339 279 465 368

Comparing the urban with the rural rates, the table shows that very much the same features are apparent in the figures for 1911 as in those for 1901. On the whole, the proportion occupied was greater in the urban than in the rural districts (842 per 1,000, against 826 per 1,000). Under 15 the proportions in 1911 were practically identical in both areas, though in 1901 the rural districts had a distinctly higher rate. At all age-groups between 15 and 55 the urban rate was higher than the rural and increasingly so in the later groups. After 55-, however, the proportion of occupied men declined more rapidly in the urban than in the rural districts, and at both censuses proportionally fewer men above this age were occupied in the former than in the latter areas, though the contrast was less marked in 1911 than in 1901. When the administrative counties and towns of over 50,000 population are examined individually it is found, as might be expected, that residential areas have the lowest and industrial areas the highest, proportions of occupied to total males over 10 years of age. In the case of the towns, however, a good deal depends upon the existence within their area of lunatic asylums and workhouses by means of which unoccupied males may either be introduced from or transferred to other areas.

A table in Vol. X. (Part I., page cxxx.) shows that in the industrial towns where the proportion of occupied males is highest the demand for labour falls unequally upon the margins of the working period of life. Thus in Halifax, where the proportion employed at ages 10-13 (16-5 per cent.) is highest, the proportion (49-6 per cent.) at ages 65 and upwards is decidedly low for a town of this nature, and in the case of other textile towns the experience is similar. In the case of the coal mining and metal working towns, on the other hand, where the proportion of occupied elderly men is greater, boys under 13 are employed to a much smaller extent.

Age-distribution of Males in various occupations. —Reference has already been made in the course of the analysis of orders and sub-orders to the age-distribution of persons following various occupations. With a view to facilitating comparison among some of the more important headings, the age-distribution of the males over 20, which is shown for every heading in Table 58 of the Summary Volume, is, for several representative occupations, compared with that for all occupied males in the following diagram (No. XXX.) and table. As regards the earlier age-periods the diagram distinguishes clearly those occupations to which young people are attracted in comparatively high proportions from those which are either more generally taken up at a later period of life, or, owing to decreasing numbers, contain an undue proportion of elderly persons. In some cases transfer from one occupation to another is suggested by comparison of their curves, as, for example, in the case of commercial clerks and commercial travellers. At the later age-periods the possibility of actively continuing some occupations to a more advanced age than others is apparent; thus, for example, the low proportion of dock labourers and coal miners, as compared with the high proportion of farmers, agricultural labourers, and bootmakers, may be accounted for in that manner. The high proportion of general labourers over middle age is probably due in no small measure to the drifting of men from other occupations to the ranks of casual labour.

DIAGRAM XXX.—Age distribution of Males aged 20 years and upwards in certain occupations, compared with that of all occupied Males. (Note.—The proportion at each age-group per 1000 aged 20 years and upwards in each occupation is shown as a percentage of the corresponding proportion for all occupied males.)

age distributions of males in selected occupations


Numbers and Ages of Married Males in various occupations.— The numbers of married males in the various occupations, which have been ascertained for the first time at this census, are shown by age in Table 51 of the Summary Volume, and in table 58 these numbers are shown as proportions per 1,000 of the numbers occupied at all ages over 20 years and at six groups of ages in each occupation. From the table it will be seen that 645 per 1,000 of the occupied males aged 20 years and upwards were married, ,and that the proportion married rose from 145 per 1,000 at the age-group 20-25 to 825 at the age-group 45-55. After this age, owing to the increasing proportion of widowed, they fall to 661 per 1,000 at the age-group 65 and upwards. The proportions married aged 20 years and upwards vary from 104 per 1,000 in the case of Farmers' Relatives assisting in the work of the Farm to 892 per 1,000 in the case of Caretakers, Office Keepers (not Government), The following statement shows the principal occupations having the highest proportions and those having the lowest proportions of married males—occupations employing fewer than 10,000 males being excluded. It should be noted that, apart from any other consideration, the proportions are accounted for partly by the age-constitutions of the various occupations, Thus, most of the occupations showing high proportions of married men have lower proportions of males, married or otherwise, than the average at ages 20-35, and higher at ages 35 and onwards, the only exception among the occupations shown below being tramway service drivers, in which the proportions married at the younger ages are much in excess of the average. The converse is true of the occupations having low proportions of married men. Here the numbers at ages 20-35 were proportionally in excess of the average, with the exception of navvies, agricultural labourers, and general labourers. In order to show the effect of age-constitution in the several occupations on the proportions married, a standardized rate, calculated on the age-constitution of all occupied males, is also given. It will be seen that, on the assumption of a uniform age-constitution for all occupations, the high proportions are reduced without exception, and the low proportions are, with only two exceptions, raised. The exceptions are navvies and general labourers, the proportion of whom returned as married is remarkably low at all age-periods from 25 upwards.

High Proportions of
Married Males.
Per 1,000
aged 20
   Low Proportions of
Married Males.
Per 1,000
aged 20
        Agricultural Labourers 558 562
Caretakers, Office Keepers (not Govern-
892 805   Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers 657 590
Coffee House, Eating House—Keepers 863 787   Artizans, Mechanics, Apprentices (un-
551 560
Inn, Hotel—Keepers ; Publicans, etc. 863 770   Merchant Service ; Seamen—Navigating
539 541
Railway Guards 844 762   General Labourers 536 505
Civil Service Messengers (not Post Office) 830 720   Law Clerks 533 599
Railway Signalmen 825 762   Waiters (not Domestic) 506 586
Tramway Service—Drivers 822 769   Merchant Service—Cooks, Stewards, etc 494 547
Post Office Messengers 809 725   Commercial or Business Clerks 493 593
Builders 807 707   Navvies, Railway, etc. Contractors.
461 436
Farm Bailiffs 796 696   Bankers ; Bank Officials, Clerks 449 534
Gas Works Service 789 728   Men of the Navy 400 580
Ministers, Priests (not Church of England
    or Roman Catholic)
785 647   Domestic Indoor Servants (not in Hotels,
378 452
Harbour, Dock, etc. Officials and Servants 783 731   Men of the Marines 376 579
Farmers, Graziers 778 695   Barmen 340 432
Bakers, Confectioners (Dealers) 777 739   News—Boys, Vendors 325 372
Scavengers, etc. 776 739   Soldiers and Non-Commissioned Officers 244 546
        Van, etc.—Guards, Boys 210 587
        Domestic Indoor Servants in Hotels, etc 136 241
        Farmers. Relatives 104 144

Most of the occupations having high proportions of married males were consistently high at each age-period, but a few, e.g. , Civil Service Messengers, Builders, and Non-conformist Ministers, were lower than the average at the first age-period, while Scavengers were lower than the average at the higher age-periods. Similarly, the occupations with low proportions married were low at each age-period, with the exceptions of Bank Officials and Drapers, who were above the average at the higher ages. Marriage in these occupations has evidently to be long deferred.

In most occupations the proportion of married males was highest at ages 35-or 45-, the few exceptions including Officers of the Army and Navy, Clergymen of the Established Church, Barristers, and Solicitors, among whom the maximum proportion of married was at age 55-65. This may be taken to result from late marriage of middle-class men and low mortality of their wives.

When the proportions married are examined age by age in individual occupations it is seen that, as might be expected, early marriage is much commoner amongst manual workers than in the professional classes. A noteworthy feature of Table 58 of the Summary Volume, However, is the low proportion of agriculturists, and especially of agricultural labourers, married at each period of life.

Summary of Male Occupations, distinguishing those carried on in Urban and Rural Districts.— The distribution of particular occupations in urban and rural districts respectively can be studied in detail in Table 13 of the Report on Occupations (Vol. X., Part II.), but in order to show in convenient form the relative prevalence of certain kinds of occupations in the two classes of area the numbers under the several headings have been grouped in the following table and are expressed as proportions per 10,000 males aged 10 years and upwards, the corresponding proportions for 1901 being given for comparison.


The above groups of occupations may be further condensed into four main classes, so as to show the proportions engaged in (a) Agriculture, (b) Manufactures and Mining, (c) Commercial Occupations, and (d) Other Occupations. The first class, represented by Order VII., employed 8.3 per cent, of the male population over 10 years of age, against 8.8 per cent, in 1901, while manufactures and mining (represented by Orders IX.-XXIL, less the "dealers" in these orders) accounted for 42-3 per cent., against 43.9 per cent, in 1901. The decline in these two classes was balanced by an increase in both of the others. Commercial occupations, including transport services (represented by Orders V. and VI., and. the "dealers" from Orders IX.-XXIL) employed 24.2 per cent of the males in 1911, against 22.9 per cent, in 1901; and other occupations (represented by Orders I.-IV. and VIII.) employed 9.0 per cent, in 1911, against 8-1 per cent. Thus the numbers engaged in those occupations which may be regarded as definitely productive did not increase so much as the total population, while those engaged in distributive and other not directly productive occupations increased at a somewhat greater rate than the total population. The same general movement as between the two censuses is observable in both the urban and rural districts, though the distribution of the four classes is quite different in the two kinds of area. Agriculture employed about 30 per cent, of the males over 10 years of age in the rural districts, but only 2 per cent, in the urban districts. It is interesting to note, however, that manufactures and mining together employed an even greater proportion of the population in rural districts than did agriculture, the proportion amounting to over 31 per cent, in these districts, as against 45 per cent, in the urban districts. The proportion of the male population in the rural districts engaged in commercial occupations was less than half that similarly employed in the urban districts (12 per cent., against 28 per cent.), while the miscellaneous class of occupations, comprising persons engaged in professional, domestic, government, etc. services, employed a rather greater proportion in the rural than in the urban districts (9.6 per cent., against 8.8 per cent.).

Proportions of Females occupied. —For reasons already stated (see page 151) the numbers of females returned at the last two censuses as "occupied" are not strictly comparable. The headings chiefly affected by the change referred to are those relating to (a) female relatives of farmers, (b) boarding-house and lodging-house keepers, and (c) shopkeeping and other dealing businesses in which relatives, especially wives, may assist. The following table shows the numbers in these three sections and the numbers in all other occupations:—


It will be seen that in "all other occupations" (which includes domestic and other allied services, professional occupations, commercial clerks, and all manufacturing industries) the total females increased from 3,817,453 to 4,258,405, or by 11.6 per cent.—the proportion to the female population aged 10 and upwards declining from 289 to 286 per 1,000; the unmarried increased from 3,036,850 to 3,392,441, or by 11.7 per cent.—the proportion to the unmarried population rising from 488 to 494 per 1,000; while the married or widowed increased from 780,603 to 865,964, or by 10.9 per cent.—the proportion to the married or widowed population failing from 112 to 108 per 1,000. On the other hand, in the occupations shown above as being chiefly affected by the change in the method of return, the total proportion of occupied females increased from 27 to 39 per 1,000; the proportion of unmarried rose from 35 to 51 per 1,000 unmarried, and of married or widowed from 20 to 28 per 1,000 married or widowed. Probably a large part of the recorded increase for the unmarried represents a real extension of female employment, but the same cannot be said of the recorded increase for the married and widowed.

The proportions of females occupied per 1,000 living at all ages over 10 and at various age-groups in 1901 and 1911 are shown below. The proportion occupied at all ages has increased appreciably from 316 to 325 per 1,000, as against the slight increase from 837 to 838 per 1,000 for males (page 151).


In view of what has been stated above, comparison of the numbers engaged in occupations at the two censuses is best made for the unmarried as being less affected by change in the method of return. It will be seen that, as in the case of the males, there has been a decline in the proportion occupied at the age-group 10-15, and again at the two age-groups 65-75 and 75 and upwards. Unlike "the males,, however, whose proportion of occupied showed no appreciable variation at the two age-groups 15-20 and 20-25, the proportion of single women occupied increased at both these age-groups; further, in each succeeding decade of age up to 55-65 the increase in the proportion occupied was much greater for single women than for males. The following table, by the separation of occupations into two groups— (a) those seriously affected by change in method of return (viz., the occupations specified in Table LIII.) and (b) those not seriously affected by change in the method of return—enables the comparison of the numbers occupied at the several ages to be made with some degree of accuracy both for the unmarried and for the married or widowed under the group (b).


It will be seen that, generally speaking, a greater proportion of young women and a smaller proportion of old women were occupied in 1911 than was the case ten years previously—i.e. , where the comparison can properly be made. The turning point, however, is reached earlier in life by the married and widowed than by the single women.

The proportion of females occupied was on the whole greater in the urban than in the rural districts, the excess being more marked among the married than among either the unmarried or the widowed. At the several age-groups the proportion was greater in the urban districts among unmarried females at all ages except 75 and upwards, and among married women at all age-groups without exception; among widows, however, the rural rates were higher than the urban at the three age-groups 55-, 65-, and 75 and upwards. At age 10-15 the proportion occupied was considerably higher in the urban than in the rural districts, the rates for females differing in this respect from those for males, which, at this age-group, were almost identical in the two classes of area. It will be seen also that the excess in the urban proportions persists to a later age among females (see Table I,VI.) than among males (see page 152). The rates for females are shown in the following table:—


The proportion of "occupied" females, distinguishing the unmarried, married, and widowed, is shown for the administrative counties, and for the county boroughs and other urban districts of which the population exceeded 50,000 [persons, in Diagrams XXXI. and XXXII.

DIAGRAM XXXI.—Proportion of Females "Occupied" per 10,000 living in each Administrative County, distinguishing the Unmarried, Married and Widowed.

proportions of women in employment in different counties

The lowest proportions in these Diagrams are easily explained, for they are associated with coal mining and other industries affording little employment to women, but in the case of some of the high proportions the causes appear to be more complicated. Reference to Table 61 of the Summary Volume will show that, with the exception of Lancashire and Leicestershire, the counties with high proportions of occupied females all have more than the average proportion of domestic servants, which in nearly all cases is the principal cause of their position in the list; the extent to which other occupations are contributory causes is indicated in the table. Textile manufactures account for all the highest proportions in the large towns quoted, and domestic service for those in the metropolitan boroughs, except in Shoreditch.

DIAGRAM XXXII.—Proportion of Females "Occupied" per 10,000 living in each County Borough and other Urban District of which the population exceeded 50,000 persons in 1911, distinguishing the Unmarried, Married and Widowed.

proportions of women in employment in large towns

Table 59 of the Summary Volume shows that whereas among unmarried females over 10 years of age the proportion occupied averaged 45.5 per cent, (see Table LIV.), it varied in the large towns from 28.8 per cent, in Rhondda, 31.0 in Aberdare, and 34.4 in Merthyr Tydfil, to 74.5 in Preston, 76.6 in Burnley, and 78.0 in Blackburn. The proportion of married females engaged in occupations average 10.3 per cent., the extreme examples being, as in the case of the unmarried, Rhondda, Aberdare, and Merthyr Tydfil, with not more than 4 per cent., and Preston, Burnley, and Blackburn, with 35.3, 414, and 44.5 per cent, respectively. For both unmarried and married the general range of towns is very similar, the low rates of female employment being chiefly in the mining, engineering, and seaport towns, and the high rates in the cotton towns, and to a minor degree in the other textile towns. In some of the metropolitan boroughs very high rates for both unmarried and married were recorded. Among widows the proportion occupied averaged 30-1 per cent., and varied less, on the whole, than did those for the unmarried and married females.

Summary of Female Occupations. —The following table shows in summary form the proportions per 10,000 living at the two censuses of females in certain groups of occupations:—


From this table it is easy to see the varying degrees in which the several kinds of occupations have attracted female labour. The three principal headings in the table, Domestic Indoor Service, Workers in Textile Fabrics, and Workers in Dress, which together employed 57 per cent, of all occupied females, all showed decline since 1901, in relation to the total female population over 10 years of age; there was also a considerable falling-off in the proportional number engaged in Laundry and Washing Service, and a smaller decline in the proportion of female teachers; though comparison in the latter case is invalidated for the reason stated on page 104. Female clerks were proportionally nearly twice as numerous in 1911 as in 1901, and there was also a marked increase in the proportion of women engaged in various professional occupations other than teaching, and in industrial occupations generally, with the two important exceptions mentioned above. The foregoing table also shows that though, apart from the occupations specified in Table LIII as being specially affected by change in the method of return, there has been a decline in the proportion of occupied married or widowed women, yet there have been increases under several of the occupational groups. The professional occupations (except nursing) and textile manufactures are conspicuous examples of such increases.

The following table enables comparison to be made between the proportions of females in groups of occupations in urban and rural districts respectively:—


The preponderance of commercial and industrial occupations in the urban districts is clearly shown by the table, as is also the fact that domestic service employed a much larger proportion of women in the rural than in the urban districts. The total proportion of females over 10 years of age returned as occupied was 34-31 per cent, in the urban, against 25.79 per cent, in the rural districts, and among married women the proportion was nearly twice as high in the former as in the latter (11.48 per cent., against 5.87 per cent.).

Females at several Ages in groups of Occupations. —In order to supplement the information given in Table LVII. the following table has been prepared to show the proportions of women employed in the more important occupations at various ages. It is of interest, from its bearing on the question of possible replacement of male by female labour in times of emergency, in that it shows the proportion of single women, amongst whom new recruits for industry must in the main be sought not already employed at the ages suitable for taking up new occupations The highest proportion occupied is at age 20-25, when 777 out of every 1000 single women are employed as against 974 males at the corresponding age, and 986 at 25-35 (page 152). The possibilities of recruitment of the ranks of labour from this source are, therefore, considerable, though not so great as is, perhaps, sometimes assumed. They may, no doubt, also be increased in times of stress by diversion of some of the existing labour from its normal employment, such as domestic service and the making of clothing.

It will be seen that, although the proportion has been decreasing considerably, roughly one out of every three occupied single women is still a domestic indoor servant (Table LVII.). This proportion is remarkably constant at each age period, though rather lower at both extremes of age. The comparative youthfulness of textile workers is noticeable, while charwomen afford an instance of the opposite extreme.


Of the married or widowed women following occupations 37.7 per cent, were widowed, and these were occupied to a very considerable extent. The proportions per cent, of single, married, and widowed women following occupations at the various ages compare as follows:—

  15- 20- 25- 35- 45- 55- 65- 75-
Single 69 78 74 66 59 46 26 9
Married 13 13 11 11 11 9 6 2
Widowed 39 59 66 62 47 32 17 6

When it is borne in mind to what an extent widows, like married women, are occupied with the care of their young children, it is, perhaps, remarkable that the proportions gainfully occupied approximate so closely to those of single women. The figures are eloquent of the bitter necessity compelling the shouldering of such a double burden, and may be taken to imply that the reserves of labour to be found in this section of the community are small. The widowed, moreover, begin to form a considerable proportion of the total married and widowed only at an age before which adaptability to new requirements has largely been lost.

There remain the married women, the great bulk of whom are fortunately in this country free at all ages to devote their attention to the care of their households. How far it would be desirable or possible to alter this state of affairs under the stress of emergency is a question on which the census returns can throw but little light.

Proportions of Females in certain Occupations, 1861-1911. —The proportions of females in certain occupations, and their variations at successive censuses from. 1861, may be seen from the following table, and for the four censuses from. 1881 onwards may be calculated for any occupational heading from the figures given in Table 64 of the Summary Volume. These tables relate to the whole country, but it may be pointed out that the numbers of the two sexes in certain occupations vary considerably in different localities.

Occupations. Proportions of Females per 1,000 Persons
1861. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911.
Agriculture 70 59 47 40 33 29
Schoolmasters, Teachers, Professors, Lecturers 725 741 727 740 745 727
Photographers 66 147 197 234 257 297
Laundry and Washing Service 990 987 981 964 957 931
Commercial or Business Clerks 5 16 33 72 153 245
Telegraph, Telephone—Service (including Government) 82 76 236 291 406 522
Earthenware, China, Porcelain—Manufacture 311 354 384 385 392 421
India Rubber Workers, Waterproof Goods Makers 206 200 275 391 398 370
Brush, Broom—Makers ; Hair, Bristle—Workets 321 346 382 389 431 440
Paper Manufacture 417 395 444 401 366 312
Stationery, Paper Box, etc.—Makers and Dealers 345 380 531 600 643 653
Cotton Manufacture 567 598 620 609 628 614
Wool and Worsted Manufacture. 461 513 561 557 582 571
Silk Manufacture 642 676 691 667 702 693
Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre, Rope, Mat, Canvas, Sail-
   cloth, etc.—Manufacture
265 304 374 393 492 530
Hosiery Manufacture 468 468 533 629 713 735
Lace Manufacture 829 826 743 625 653 630
Carpet, Rug, Felt—Manufacture. 183 312 362 440 517 544
Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers 208 257 349 433 504 560
Straw—Plait, Hat, Bonnet Manufacture 921 926 903 814 737 666
Glove Makers 864 882 854 769 761 731
Boot, Shoe, Slipper, Patten, Clog—Makers and Dealers. 154 115 160 185 210 226
Tobacco Manufacturers : Tobacconists.. 221 296 435 548 601 596

Occupational Classes .—For the purpose of comparing the occupational characteristics of the several counties, occupations have been grouped into six classes in Table 92 of the volume of Summary Tables, which gives the proportion in each class, without distinction of sex. In Diagram XXXIII. the proportions are given for the two sexes separately. The Industrial class includes persons engaged in production (other than agricultural), and comprises the whole of Orders VIII.-XXII., except the "Dealers"; the Commercial class includes persons engaged in distribution and transport, and comprises the whole of Orders V. and VI., together with the "Dealers" classified under Orders IX.-XXII.; the Agricultural class comprises Order VII., and the Domestic class, Order IV.; the "Others" comprise the miscellaneous occupations in Orders I.-III. The proportion of the population of both sexes following industrial and commercial occupations is shown for the several counties in the accompanying map (No. 5), and the agricultural class is shown in the map facing page 116.

MAP 5.
Distribution, by Counties, of Industrial and Commercial Population.

map of distribution of industrial and commercial population

DIAGRAM XXXIII.—Administrative Counties (together with associated County Boroughs). Proportions per 1,000 of Males and of Females aged 10 years and upwards in Occupational Classes.

proportions in different occupational classes, by county

Employment of Children and Young Persons .—The proportions of children between the ages of 10 and 15 years returned at successive censuses from 1851 as following an occupation are as follows:—

CENSUS. Proportion per cent.
"occupied" in each sex
at ages 10-15.
CENSUS. Proportion per cent.
"occupied" in each sex
at ages 10-15.
Males. Females. Males. Females.
1851 36.6 19.9 1891 26.0 16.3
1861 36.9 20.2 1901 21.9 12.0
1871 32.1 20.4 1911 18.3 10.4
1881* 22.9 15.1      

*The figures for l881 include the occupied children under 10 years of age, but the numbers are so small that their elusion may be disregarded.

The figures for all the single years of life in this age-period are not available for censuses before 1911, but comparison can be made with 1901 for the total under 13, 13-14, and 14-15, as follows:—

Males. Females.
10—13. 13—14. Total
14—15. 10—13. 13—14. Total
1901 2.3 34.7 10.3 67.5 1.3 17.2 5.2 39.5
1911 2.0 21.9 6.9 65.0 1.0 11.3 3.5 38.7

At age 10 only 841, or 0.2 per cent., of the boys were returned as occupied in 1911, and only 3,040, or 0.9 per cent., at age 11; the number of girls returned as occupied at these ages was negligible, amounting to only 217 in all. At age 12 the number of boys so returned was 17,699, or 5.1 per cent, of the total, and the number of girls, 10,026, or 2.9 per cent.

As illustrating the local distribution of juvenile employment, the following comparison may be made for the large towns in which upwards of 10 per cent, of either sex at ages 10-14 were returned as employed in 1911. It will be seen that in many of these towns the proportions in 1911 are actually greater than in 1901.

1901. 1911. 1901. 1911.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females.
Blackburn 29.3 29.4 30.1 29.6 Wigan 12.9 7.7 15.4 11.8
Halifax 30.9 28.9 30.7 27.4 Leeds 13.8 8.3 15.1 11.3
Burnley 30.4 29.2 30.6 28.0 Stoke on Trent 13.9 8.2 14.3 9.7
Rochdale 25.7 21.6 27.5 26.3 West Bromwich 12.9 4.3 15.0 6.6
Bradford 26.6 23.1 26.4 24.5 Stockport 19.6 15.1 11.1 10.4
Bolton 27.3 20.8 26.3 23.6 Wakefield 14.3 5.0 12.4 7.6
Oldham 25.1 17.5 26.2 22.8 Barnsley 15.4 4.0 14.9 4.3
Preston 21.5 24.5 20.3 23.3 Sheffield 12.8 5.2 12.8 4.7
Bury 23.1 22.1 20.8 17.8 Burton on Trent 12.5 4.1 11.0 3.4
Huddersfield 17.1 12.5 18.4 16.7 Merthyr Tydfil 14.6 2.4 13.0 0.9
Northampton 14.0 10.1 18.3 12.4 Aberdare 17.3 3.0 12.9 0.7
Dewsbury 12.0 6.1 15.5 12.2 Ipswich 8.5 2.8 10.8 3.0

It will be noticed that the large textile towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire (West Riding) figure prominently in the above list, and some of the smaller towns in these counties show even higher proportions ; thus in Lancashire there were no fewer than 37 towns and in Yorkshire (West Riding) 18 towns with populations from 5,000 to 50,000 in which upwards of 25 per cent, of the boys or girls between 10 and 14 were employed. The local comparison is extended by Diagram XXXIV. to all the large towns in which the proportion was 25 per 1,000 or more for either sex, and Table 24 of Volume X. shows the proportions in all towns of over 5,000 population, with additional details for ages 12 and 13 in the towns where the proportions occupied at those ages were highest.

DIAGRAM XXXIV.—Proportions of Boys and of Girls aged 10-14 returned as occupied per 1000 living in County Boroughs and other Urban Districts of which the population exceeded 50,000 persons in 1911, and in which the occupied proportion of either sex was 25 per 1000 or more.

proportions of boys and girls aged 10 to 14 in work, for large towns

Employment and School Attendance. —The question of employment at these ages is associated to some extent with that of exemption or partial exemption from attendance at school. With very few exceptions the limits of age for compulsory attendance are from 5 to 14 years, but most authorities provide for total or partial exemption for purposes of employment only under certain conditions. With a view to ascertaining how far attendance at school, either for full time or part tune, was combined with other occupation, instructions were given for filling up the schedule in such a way as to provide full information in these cases. The children concerned were to be returned either as "scholar, full time," or as "scholar, part time," the other occupation followed being added in each case. The returns, however, were obviously incomplete in this respect; and to some extent the question was misunderstood, for there were cases of children returned as "part time" scholars at 10 and 11 years of age, though there is no partial exemption under 12 years of age, except to a very limited extent for children employed in agriculture.

Occupations of Children aged 10-14,—Of the 2,812,433 children between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 146,417, or 5.2 per cent.,, were returned as occupied. The boys numbered 97,141, or 6.9 per cent, of the total boys, and the girls 49,276, or 3.5 per cent, of the total girls. The occupations in which they are principally employed are, for the most part, well known ; thus, of the boys, 24,870 were messengers, etc.; 23,399 were employed in textile manufactures, of whom 14,387 were in cotton and 6,391 in wool and worsted manufactures; 8,252 were newsboys; 8,121 were engaged in coal-mining (including 5,371 returned as working below ground) ; and 7,803 were agricultural labourers. These few occupations account for nearly three-fourths of the total, the only other occupations employing more than 1,000 boys being domestic service, boot and shoe making, and hair dressing, while 1,267 boy relatives of farmers and graziers were returned as assisting in the work of the farm. Of the 3,881 boys under 12 years returned as occupied, 1,756 were newsboys and 1,667 messengers ; and these occupations, together with the textile manufactures, found employment for the majority of those occupied between 12 and 13.

The only occupation in which there was a serious increase in the numbers employed under 14 years of age was that of newsboys, already referred to on page 145.

More than half the total number of girls under 14 engaged in occupations were employed in textile manufactures, and over a third of the remainder in domestic service. As with boys of the same age, there has been little reduction of employment in textile manufacture, but there has been a large decline in the number employed in domestic service.

Occupations of Young Persons. —The foregoing paragraphs relating to the occupations of children of school age may be. taken as indicating roughly the extent to which industrial employment interferes with the normal course of elementary education. Above 14 and under 21 years of age the principal point of interest is the relation of juvenile to adult workers in the various occupations. A study of Table 54 of the Summary Volume will show how many were employed in what have been termed "blind alley" occupations, i.e. , occupations which attract youths in large numbers, but afford no prospect of permanent employment; in addition to these there are many others in which the proportion under 20 was much above the average.

It will be seen that in addition to "Van—Guards, Boys," who were nearly all under 20, there were four other occupations in which the numbers under 20 exceeded those over 20, the proportions among newsboys being 4,529 under 20 to 1,000 over 20; among post office messengers, 3,125; and among other messengers, 2,732.

The total number of males between 10 and 21 years of age was 3,710,854, and of these 2,135,360, or 57.5 per cent., were occupied, though the proportions occupied at the several years of age in this period naturally differ widely. An approximation to the numbers entering occupations can be obtained for the earlier years by deducting the numbers employed at any given age from those employed at the next year of age. This method makes no allowance for the numbers withdrawn, either by death, migration, or other causes, but the results serve to indicate that by far the largest number begin work between 14 and 15, the excess of boys employed at age 14-15 over those at age 13-14 being more than two and a half times as great as the excess for the preceding as well as for the succeeding year of age; for girls the difference is not so striking. The actual figures are as follows:—

Males. Females.
Age. Number
Age. Number
12 17,699 14,659 12 10,026 9,880
13 75,561 57,862 13 39,033 29,007
14 222,854 147,293 14 133,217 94,184
15 278,275 55,421 15 193,285 60,068
16 303,152 24,877 16 225,287 32,002

Above 16 the numbers entering occupations diminish rapidly, and by the time 19 is reached the additions to the ranks of the occupied are so few that they are outnumbered by the withdrawals.

Among the males the proportion occupied rises continuously from 0.2 per cent, at age 10 to 96.5 per cent, at age 20, but among females the maximum proportion occupied is found at age 18, the numbers married beginning to affect the proportions at 19 and 20.

The following table shows the age-distribution of the males under 21 in some of the principal occupations:—


In the majority of these occupations the proportion between 18 and 21 does not differ very materially from the average for all occupations, namely, 434 per 1,000 aged 10-21. The occupations in which the numbers between 10 and 18 most exceeded those between 18 and 21 are post office messengers, of whom 966 per 1,000 of the total between 10 and 21 years of age were under 18; newsboys, for whom the proportion was 931 per 1,000; messengers, porters, etc. (not railway or government), with 919 per 1,000; van, etc. guards, boys, with 870 per 1,000; and those in wool and worsted spinning processes, with 853 per 1,000. Less marked, but still much above the average, were the proportions for those employed in cotton spinning and weaving processes and for those working above ground at coal mines. The few cases in which the majority of workers between 10 and 21 years of age were over 18 included railway officials and clerks; blacksmiths, strikers; erectors, fitters, turners; motor car chassis makers, motor car mechanics; and soldiers.

Apprentices. —The numbers of apprentices in the various trades, which might be considered in relation to the numbers of young persons employed in them, cannot be fully ascertained from the census returns. Apart from the difficulty generally experienced in obtaining reliable information as to occupational status, there is the further fact that no direct instruction was given on the schedule for apprentices to be returned as such, and the numbers which were returned were doubtless below the actual numbers. For this reason they have not been shown in the principal tables ; but as they were recorded during the process of tabulation, and as it may be assumed that deficiencies would not be much more pronounced in one occupation than in another, some of the occupations under which the largest numbers of apprentices we're returned are given below as possessing some interest, although they must not be regarded as being an accurate statement of facts.


Summary of Industries or Services .—The following table affords a general view of the relative numerical importance' of some of the principal industries or services. The table is limited to those cases in which the net total number of workers, as shown in Table 66 of the Summary Volume, exceeded 200,000 persons, and the numbers classified to the corresponding headings in the occupation tables are also shown in order to indicate the extent to which the occupational and industrial classifications differ in these cases.


From this table it appears that, apart from domestic service, agriculture affords employment to more persons than does any other single industry or service. Coal mining comes next in numerical importance, and is followed by the building trades and cotton manufacture. The same sequence is shown in these cases both by the industry and the occupation tables, the differences between the additional workers following other occupations in connexion with these industries and the deductions on account of persons, following these occupations in connexion with other industries being small in relation to the totals.

In "Local Government Service" and "Railway Companies' Service," however, the occupation figures are very much augmented by the industry tabulation, and the totals shown, as a result of that tabulation, include all persons in the various branches of those services, some of which are included also under other headings in the tables; thus, for example, teachers employed by Local Authorities are shown under the heading "Teaching" as well as under "Local Government," and persons employed in Railway Companies' Hotels are shown under the heading "Inn, Hotel, Service," as well as under "Railway Companies' Service" The only other case in which the "nature of the employer's business" has been regarded from two points of view is "National Government," and in these three cases the numbers of persons employed in the services which may be considered either in relation to National Government, Local Government, and Railway Companies' Service, or in relation to the several industries with which those services are directly concerned, are summarised on pages 312 to 315 of the Summary Volume. Generally speaking, however, in tabulating the information given in column 11 of the schedule the statement as to the nature of the employer's business was sufficient to establish the connexion of the worker with a single industry or service. The inter-dependence of many of the several industries makes it impossible to claim that the numbers as tabulated represent all the persons who, in the widest sense, might be said to be connected with any industry. Thus, for example, persons engaged in making various kinds of machinery are to some extent connected with all the industries in which such machinery is used, but it would obviously have been impracticable to deal with them except as connected with the industry of machine making.

With these limitations, it is believed that this new inquiry as to industry has enabled us to present statistics which usefully supplement those tabulated with respect to personal occupation. This double tabulation has necessarily involved much additional labour, and has been attended by difficulties and complexities which could not have been foreseen at the outset. The value of the results is to some extent depreciated by the fact that there are no earlier records with which to compare them, but if it is deemed desirable to repeat on a future occasion the collection of similar data, the industry figures now submitted will, in spite of the imperfections inseparable from a first attempt, furnish a comparative basis; and both for this reason and on account of the present interest of the figures, we are of opinion that the experiment of attempting to show the relation of personal occupation to industry or service has been justified.

* See Vol. X., Table 28, page 590.

1 In a paper read before the Royal Statistical Society in June, 1907, by Lord Eversley, on "The Decline in Number of Agricultural Labourers in Great Britain," the understatement from this cause is estimated at 20,000. This estimate, which the author characterises as a very low one, is based upon the average proportion of men who, on enlistment, described as agricultural labourers.

2 Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom (Cd; 0309);

3 See Report of Board of Trade Enquiry into Earnings and Hours of Labour, Volume II.—Clothing Trades, page xxxvi.

4 Statistical Abstract of the United Kingdom (Cd, 6399).

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